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68 Research products, page 1 of 7

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  • Archive ouverte UNIGE
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  • Publication . Conference object . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Guilhem Saurel; Michel Taix; Jean-Paul Laumond;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | ACTANTHROPE (340050)

    International audience; transHumUs is an artistic work recently exhibited at the 56th Venice Biennale. The work aims at freeing trees from their roots. How to translate this poetic ambition into technological terms? This paper reports on the setup and the implementation of the project. It shows how state of the art mobile robotics technology can contribute to contemporary art development. The challenge has been to design original mobile platforms carrying charges of three tones, while moving noiseless according to tree metabolism, in operational spaces populated by visitors.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bugnon, Pascale; Matvienko, Alina;
    Country: Switzerland

    In the wake of the dissolution of the USSR, not all statues and other monuments dedicated to Lenin have suffered the same fate in the former Soviet republics. In Ukraine, for example, the “decommunisation” of the country meant that almost all the Soviet emblems were lost as collateral victims of the struggle to free themselves from the influence of the imposing Russian neighbour. In Central Asia, too, statues of Lenin have often been replaced by monuments to the new leaders, establishing their own cult of personality. In Kyrgyzstan, however, the memory of Lenin and his most famous statuary representation - the Lenin statue on Ala-Too Square in the centre of the city of Bishkek - has had a special destiny: untouched for over a decade after the collapse of communism, the monument was protected by a decree as a national heritage in 2000. And finally, when, in 2003, the government after all decided to remove the monument, it was then relocated only several meters from its original location. Far from signing its death, this relocation led to a re-reading of the monument and took on a plurality of uses in an unofficial register of representation. As symbols of a potentially controversial memory, the statues have regularly aroused strong “heritage emotions” (Fabre, 2013). In the wake of the claims expressed by the “Black Lives Matters” movement, this project proposes to examine the circumstances and forms of reappropriation of this particular statuary heritage. The importance of the monument as a referent in the rhetorical confrontations around power cannot be reduced to a clear-cut alternative between construction and destruction. From graffiti to decapitation and hijacking, citizens intervene in the public space to make claims, denounce, support or ignore. In the light of these repertoires of actions, we will analyse what the statues “say” or, rather, what they are made to say.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arena, Francesca;
    Publisher: Le Mans Université
    Country: Switzerland

    Almost entirely overlooked throughout the 20th century, neglected by contemporary medical manuals, the clitoris has gradually returned centre stage thanks to Western feminism.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Godefroid, Fabienne; Kindler, Pascal;
    Country: Switzerland

    The most salient geological features observed during a recent reconnaissance trip to Crooked Island, SE Bahamas, include: (1) altered bioclastic calcarenites of probable Early Pleistocene age; and (2) an elevated intertidal notch carved in last interglacial deposits, indicating that sea level peaked at a higher elevation than previously estimated during that time period. Four main lithostratigraphic units were identified on Crooked Island: (1) highly weathered bioclastic calcarenites that yielded unreliable alloisoleucine/isoleucine (A/I) ratios, and two valid 87Sr/86Sr ratios averaging 0.709147; (2) well-lithified bioclastic/peloidal eolianites, forming low sea cliffs, that gave one A/I ratio of 0.523; (3) a complex and extensive unit including scarce coral framestone, exposed up to +1.2 m above sea level, and oolitic-peloidal calcarenites deposited in subtidal, beach, and eolian environments that yielded A/I ratios averaging 0.411 (n=5); and (4) poorly lithified bioclastic beach ridges congruent with modern sea level. Moreover, a prominent ridge along the north coast of the island shows, at +11 m above sea level, an intertidal notch carved in Unit 3 eolianite and filled by Unit 3 beach facies. Units 4, 3 and 2 can be compared, respectively, to the Rice Bay (Holocene), the Grotto Beach (Late Pleistocene) and the Owl's Hole (Middle Pleistocene) formations, previously identified on many other Bahamian islands. Of probable Early Pleistocene age (between 0.6 and 1 Ma), Unit 1 could represent the lowermost part of the Owl's Hole Formation and the top of the underlying, mostly marine Misery Point Formation recently discovered on Mayaguana. The unequivocal occurrence of an intertidal notch carved in, and sealed by, last-interglacial deposits at +11 m shows that the peak elevation reached by sea level during that time interval was much higher than previously assessed. Finally, stratigraphic units decrease in age from N to S, suggesting that the island grew differently than other Bahamian islands or, alternatively, that the northern margin of the Crooked-Acklins bank collapsed in a recent past.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fischer, Gyongyver Jennifer; Godefroid, Fabienne; Kindler, Pascal; Baldessin, Erika;
    Country: Switzerland

    Preliminary biostratigraphic and geochronological results obtained from a 44 m-long core drilled on the northern coast of Mayaguana Island (SE Bahamas) show that the topmost layers of the core date from the Burdigalian (Early Miocene), whereas the deepest units are of Chattian (Late Oligocene) or Aquitanian (Earliest Miocene) age. Accordingly, the platform aggraded 44 m of sediments in a 10 to 3 my time span, from the Chattian/Aquitanian to the Burdigalian, whereas previous surface investigations of the island showed that only 11 m of carbonates were accumulated in a 17 my-long period, between the Burdigalian and the Early Pleistocene. This new record shows that the accumulation rate of the Mayaguana Bank was much higher during the Late Paleogene/Early Miocene than during the time interval from the Middle Miocene to the Pleistocene. This decrease is likely due to vertical tectonic motions related to the late phases of the Cuban orogeny which reduced accommodation on the platform top. These results designate the Mayaguana Bank as an accurate gauge to record the elevation of sea-level highstands during the Neogene

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yves Scherrer;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics and Dublin City University
    Country: Switzerland

    When developing NLP tools for low-resource languages, one is often confronted with the lack of annotated data. We propose to circumvent this bottleneck by training a supervised HMM tagger on a closely related language for which annotated data are available, and translating the words in the tagger parameter files into the low-resource language. The translation dictionaries are created with unsupervised lexicon induction techniques that rely only on raw textual data. We obtain a tagging accuracy of up to 89.08% using a Spanish tagger adapted to Catalan, which is 30.66% above the performance of an unadapted Spanish tagger, and 8.88% below the performance of a supervised tagger trained on annotated Catalan data. Furthermore, we evaluate our model on several Romance, Germanic and Slavic languages and obtain tagging accuracies of up to 92%.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Eric Haeberli;
    Publisher: De Gruyter
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Revisiting the Loss of Ve... (124619), SNSF | The History of English Au... (143302)

    This paper offers an overview of the history of medial NP-adjuncts from Old English to Present-Day English. In Present-Day English, adverbs are perfectly grammatical in a position between the subject and the main verb ('He recently left for London') whereas NP-adjuncts are at best stylistically marked in this position ('(*)He tomorrow leaves for London'). The paper shows that while medial placement of NP-adjuncts has been considerably less frequent as compared to adverbs ever since around 1500, the contrast was initially much stronger in clauses with finite main verbs than in clauses with finite auxiliaries. It is only in the 19th century that medial placement becomes equally marked in both contexts. These developments are accounted for in terms of processing constraints disfavouring the use of medial NP-adjuncts and a structural reanalysis of NP-medial adjuncts in Late Modern English.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Manny Rayner; Johanna Gerlach; Pierrette Bouillon; Nikos Tsourakis; Hervé Spechbach;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Switzerland

    We consider methods for handling incomplete (elliptical) utterances in spoken phraselators, and describe how they have been implemented inside BabelDr, a substantial spoken medical phraselator. The challenge is to extend the phrase matching process so that it is sensitive to preceding dialogue context. We contrast two methods, one using limited-vocabulary strict grammar-based speech and language processing and one using large-vocabulary speech recognition with fuzzy grammar-based processing, and present an initial evaluation on a spoken corpus of 821 context-sentence/elliptical-phrase pairs. The large-vocabulary/fuzzy method strongly outperforms the limited-vocabulary/strict method over the whole corpus, though it is slightly inferior for the subset that is within grammar coverage. We investigate possibilities for combining the two processing paths, using several machine learning frameworks, and demonstrate that hybrid methods strongly outperform the large-vocabulary/fuzzy method.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Mayor, Anne; Douze, Katja; Lorenzo Martinez, Maria; Truffa Giachet, Miriam; Aymeric Nsangou, Jacques De Limbepe; Bocoum, Hamady; Champion, Louis; Cervera, Céline; Davidoux, Sarah; Garnier, Aline; +13 more
    Publisher: Fondation Suisse-Liechtenstein pour les recherches archéologiques à l'étranger (Zürich)
    Country: Switzerland

    Cet article présente les résultats de la campagne de terrain menée au Sénégal oriental en 2017 dans le cadre du programme international « Peuplement humain et paléoenvironnement en Afrique ». Il intègre les résultats de deux projets complémentaires : le projet ANR-FNS CheRCHA, ainsi que le projet FNS Falémé. Le premier vise à reconstituer le cadre chronostratigraphique et les évolutions culturelles au Pléistocène et à l'Holocène ancien et moyen dans la vallée de la Falémé, tandis que le second est ciblé sur les dynamiques techniques des deux derniers millénaires au Sénégal oriental.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Part of book or chapter of book . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    A. Blondel; Ilias Efthymiopoulos;
    Publisher: ,
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Neutrino Oscillations: T2... (132872), SNSF | Neutrino Oscillations: T2... (143494)

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R&D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

search
Include:
68 Research products, page 1 of 7
  • Publication . Conference object . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Guilhem Saurel; Michel Taix; Jean-Paul Laumond;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | ACTANTHROPE (340050)

    International audience; transHumUs is an artistic work recently exhibited at the 56th Venice Biennale. The work aims at freeing trees from their roots. How to translate this poetic ambition into technological terms? This paper reports on the setup and the implementation of the project. It shows how state of the art mobile robotics technology can contribute to contemporary art development. The challenge has been to design original mobile platforms carrying charges of three tones, while moving noiseless according to tree metabolism, in operational spaces populated by visitors.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bugnon, Pascale; Matvienko, Alina;
    Country: Switzerland

    In the wake of the dissolution of the USSR, not all statues and other monuments dedicated to Lenin have suffered the same fate in the former Soviet republics. In Ukraine, for example, the “decommunisation” of the country meant that almost all the Soviet emblems were lost as collateral victims of the struggle to free themselves from the influence of the imposing Russian neighbour. In Central Asia, too, statues of Lenin have often been replaced by monuments to the new leaders, establishing their own cult of personality. In Kyrgyzstan, however, the memory of Lenin and his most famous statuary representation - the Lenin statue on Ala-Too Square in the centre of the city of Bishkek - has had a special destiny: untouched for over a decade after the collapse of communism, the monument was protected by a decree as a national heritage in 2000. And finally, when, in 2003, the government after all decided to remove the monument, it was then relocated only several meters from its original location. Far from signing its death, this relocation led to a re-reading of the monument and took on a plurality of uses in an unofficial register of representation. As symbols of a potentially controversial memory, the statues have regularly aroused strong “heritage emotions” (Fabre, 2013). In the wake of the claims expressed by the “Black Lives Matters” movement, this project proposes to examine the circumstances and forms of reappropriation of this particular statuary heritage. The importance of the monument as a referent in the rhetorical confrontations around power cannot be reduced to a clear-cut alternative between construction and destruction. From graffiti to decapitation and hijacking, citizens intervene in the public space to make claims, denounce, support or ignore. In the light of these repertoires of actions, we will analyse what the statues “say” or, rather, what they are made to say.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arena, Francesca;
    Publisher: Le Mans Université
    Country: Switzerland

    Almost entirely overlooked throughout the 20th century, neglected by contemporary medical manuals, the clitoris has gradually returned centre stage thanks to Western feminism.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Godefroid, Fabienne; Kindler, Pascal;
    Country: Switzerland

    The most salient geological features observed during a recent reconnaissance trip to Crooked Island, SE Bahamas, include: (1) altered bioclastic calcarenites of probable Early Pleistocene age; and (2) an elevated intertidal notch carved in last interglacial deposits, indicating that sea level peaked at a higher elevation than previously estimated during that time period. Four main lithostratigraphic units were identified on Crooked Island: (1) highly weathered bioclastic calcarenites that yielded unreliable alloisoleucine/isoleucine (A/I) ratios, and two valid 87Sr/86Sr ratios averaging 0.709147; (2) well-lithified bioclastic/peloidal eolianites, forming low sea cliffs, that gave one A/I ratio of 0.523; (3) a complex and extensive unit including scarce coral framestone, exposed up to +1.2 m above sea level, and oolitic-peloidal calcarenites deposited in subtidal, beach, and eolian environments that yielded A/I ratios averaging 0.411 (n=5); and (4) poorly lithified bioclastic beach ridges congruent with modern sea level. Moreover, a prominent ridge along the north coast of the island shows, at +11 m above sea level, an intertidal notch carved in Unit 3 eolianite and filled by Unit 3 beach facies. Units 4, 3 and 2 can be compared, respectively, to the Rice Bay (Holocene), the Grotto Beach (Late Pleistocene) and the Owl's Hole (Middle Pleistocene) formations, previously identified on many other Bahamian islands. Of probable Early Pleistocene age (between 0.6 and 1 Ma), Unit 1 could represent the lowermost part of the Owl's Hole Formation and the top of the underlying, mostly marine Misery Point Formation recently discovered on Mayaguana. The unequivocal occurrence of an intertidal notch carved in, and sealed by, last-interglacial deposits at +11 m shows that the peak elevation reached by sea level during that time interval was much higher than previously assessed. Finally, stratigraphic units decrease in age from N to S, suggesting that the island grew differently than other Bahamian islands or, alternatively, that the northern margin of the Crooked-Acklins bank collapsed in a recent past.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fischer, Gyongyver Jennifer; Godefroid, Fabienne; Kindler, Pascal; Baldessin, Erika;
    Country: Switzerland

    Preliminary biostratigraphic and geochronological results obtained from a 44 m-long core drilled on the northern coast of Mayaguana Island (SE Bahamas) show that the topmost layers of the core date from the Burdigalian (Early Miocene), whereas the deepest units are of Chattian (Late Oligocene) or Aquitanian (Earliest Miocene) age. Accordingly, the platform aggraded 44 m of sediments in a 10 to 3 my time span, from the Chattian/Aquitanian to the Burdigalian, whereas previous surface investigations of the island showed that only 11 m of carbonates were accumulated in a 17 my-long period, between the Burdigalian and the Early Pleistocene. This new record shows that the accumulation rate of the Mayaguana Bank was much higher during the Late Paleogene/Early Miocene than during the time interval from the Middle Miocene to the Pleistocene. This decrease is likely due to vertical tectonic motions related to the late phases of the Cuban orogeny which reduced accommodation on the platform top. These results designate the Mayaguana Bank as an accurate gauge to record the elevation of sea-level highstands during the Neogene

  • Publication . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yves Scherrer;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics and Dublin City University
    Country: Switzerland

    When developing NLP tools for low-resource languages, one is often confronted with the lack of annotated data. We propose to circumvent this bottleneck by training a supervised HMM tagger on a closely related language for which annotated data are available, and translating the words in the tagger parameter files into the low-resource language. The translation dictionaries are created with unsupervised lexicon induction techniques that rely only on raw textual data. We obtain a tagging accuracy of up to 89.08% using a Spanish tagger adapted to Catalan, which is 30.66% above the performance of an unadapted Spanish tagger, and 8.88% below the performance of a supervised tagger trained on annotated Catalan data. Furthermore, we evaluate our model on several Romance, Germanic and Slavic languages and obtain tagging accuracies of up to 92%.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Eric Haeberli;
    Publisher: De Gruyter
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Revisiting the Loss of Ve... (124619), SNSF | The History of English Au... (143302)

    This paper offers an overview of the history of medial NP-adjuncts from Old English to Present-Day English. In Present-Day English, adverbs are perfectly grammatical in a position between the subject and the main verb ('He recently left for London') whereas NP-adjuncts are at best stylistically marked in this position ('(*)He tomorrow leaves for London'). The paper shows that while medial placement of NP-adjuncts has been considerably less frequent as compared to adverbs ever since around 1500, the contrast was initially much stronger in clauses with finite main verbs than in clauses with finite auxiliaries. It is only in the 19th century that medial placement becomes equally marked in both contexts. These developments are accounted for in terms of processing constraints disfavouring the use of medial NP-adjuncts and a structural reanalysis of NP-medial adjuncts in Late Modern English.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Manny Rayner; Johanna Gerlach; Pierrette Bouillon; Nikos Tsourakis; Hervé Spechbach;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Switzerland

    We consider methods for handling incomplete (elliptical) utterances in spoken phraselators, and describe how they have been implemented inside BabelDr, a substantial spoken medical phraselator. The challenge is to extend the phrase matching process so that it is sensitive to preceding dialogue context. We contrast two methods, one using limited-vocabulary strict grammar-based speech and language processing and one using large-vocabulary speech recognition with fuzzy grammar-based processing, and present an initial evaluation on a spoken corpus of 821 context-sentence/elliptical-phrase pairs. The large-vocabulary/fuzzy method strongly outperforms the limited-vocabulary/strict method over the whole corpus, though it is slightly inferior for the subset that is within grammar coverage. We investigate possibilities for combining the two processing paths, using several machine learning frameworks, and demonstrate that hybrid methods strongly outperform the large-vocabulary/fuzzy method.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Mayor, Anne; Douze, Katja; Lorenzo Martinez, Maria; Truffa Giachet, Miriam; Aymeric Nsangou, Jacques De Limbepe; Bocoum, Hamady; Champion, Louis; Cervera, Céline; Davidoux, Sarah; Garnier, Aline; +13 more
    Publisher: Fondation Suisse-Liechtenstein pour les recherches archéologiques à l'étranger (Zürich)
    Country: Switzerland

    Cet article présente les résultats de la campagne de terrain menée au Sénégal oriental en 2017 dans le cadre du programme international « Peuplement humain et paléoenvironnement en Afrique ». Il intègre les résultats de deux projets complémentaires : le projet ANR-FNS CheRCHA, ainsi que le projet FNS Falémé. Le premier vise à reconstituer le cadre chronostratigraphique et les évolutions culturelles au Pléistocène et à l'Holocène ancien et moyen dans la vallée de la Falémé, tandis que le second est ciblé sur les dynamiques techniques des deux derniers millénaires au Sénégal oriental.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Part of book or chapter of book . 2013
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    A. Blondel; Ilias Efthymiopoulos;
    Publisher: ,
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Neutrino Oscillations: T2... (132872), SNSF | Neutrino Oscillations: T2... (143494)

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R&D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

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