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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jia Wei; Carlota Costa; Yitao Ding; Zhengyun Zou; +11 Authors

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) has a central role in chemotherapy-induced DNA damage response. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family of proteins, PIAS1 and PIAS4, are also necessary for adequate DNA damage repair. To further understand the role of BRCA1 in DNA repair, we examined the mRNA expression of these genes in 133 advanced (stage III-IV) gastric cancer patients using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. All P values were two-sided. The median overall survival was 12.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.8 to 13.4 months). Among 59 patients receiving second-line docetaxel, the median overall survival was 25.8 months (95% CI = 9.2 to 42.4 months) for patients with high BRCA1 expression, 19.1 months (95% CI = 3.4 to 34.8 months) for those with intermediate expression, and 9.5 months (95% CI = 8.7 to 10.2 months) for those with low expression (P = .0062). The risk of mortality was higher in patients with low BRCA1 levels compared with high BRCA1 levels (hazard ratio of death = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.03 to 5.97, P = .037). Survival in patients receiving second-line docetaxel-based chemotherapy showed a similar trend with PIAS1 and PIAS4 mRNA expression levels, although the associations for PIAS4 were not statistically significant.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ JNCI Journal of the ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ JNCI Journal of the ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zachary A. Caddick; Scott H. Fraundorf; Benjamin M. Rottman; Timothy J. Nokes-Malach;

    AbstractOver the course of training, physicians develop significant knowledge and expertise. We review dual-process theory, the dominant theory in explaining medical decision making: physicians use both heuristics from accumulated experience (System 1) and logical deduction (System 2). We then discuss how the accumulation of System 1 clinical experience can have both positive effects (e.g., quick and accurate pattern recognition) and negative ones (e.g., gaps and biases in knowledge from physicians’ idiosyncratic clinical experience). These idiosyncrasies, biases, and knowledge gaps indicate a need for individuals to engage in appropriate training and study to keep these cognitive skills current lest they decline over time. Indeed, we review converging evidence that physicians further out from training tend to perform worse on tests of medical knowledge and provide poorer patient care. This may reflect a variety of factors, such as specialization of a physician’s practice, but is likely to stem at least in part from cognitive factors. Acquired knowledge or skills gained may not always be readily accessible to physicians for a number of reasons, including an absence of study, cognitive changes with age, and the presence of other similar knowledge or skills that compete in what is brought to mind. Lastly, we discuss the cognitive challenges of keeping up with standards of care that continuously evolve over time.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cognitive Researcharrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cognitive Researcharrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sharon Y. Irving; Stephanie Seiple; Monica L. Nagle; Shiela Falk; +2 Authors

    BACKGROUND Anthropometric measurements are vital for safe care in pediatric intensive care units. OBJECTIVE To identify barriers to anthropometric measurements and determine if perceptions of barriers differ between ordering providers and nurses. METHODS A 21-item survey to elicit perceptions of barriers to obtaining anthropometric measurements was distributed via e-mail to societies with members who provide care in pediatric intensive care units. RESULTS Most of the 258 eligible respondents (46% ordering providers) were from North America (90%). Although 84% agreed that anthropometric measurements are important, only 3% knew if these measurements were obtained upon admission to their unit. Estimates of patients' measurements by parents or caregivers were commonly used (72%) when actual measurements were not obtained. Leading barriers were presence of medical devices (57%), use of extracorporeal life support (54%), and unstable hemodynamic status (52%). More ordering providers than nurses considered osteopenia/fragile bones as a barrier to weight measurement (46% vs 29%; P = .007) and traumatic brain injury a barrier to measurement of head circumference (42% vs 24%; P = .002). More nurses than ordering providers perceived dialysis (21% vs 9%; P = .01) and obesity (26% vs 15%; P = .04) as barriers to measurement of stature. Ordering providers more than nurses perceived nurses' workload (51% vs 33%; P < .001) and lack of importance (43% vs 20%; P < .001) as barriers. CONCLUSIONS Barriers to obtaining anthropometric measurements exist in pediatric intensive care units; ordering providers and nurses have different perceptions of what constitutes a barrier.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ American Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ American Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Francis Orvain; Margot De Crignis; Katell Guizien; Sébastien Lefebvre; +3 Authors

    Relationships between bacteria, microphytobenthos and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that make up microbial biofilms over bare mudflats were investigated at an hourly frequency during two 14-day spring– neap cycles in winter and summer 2008. Bacterial abundance and total chl a concentration were lower in summer (0.78 × 108 ± SD 0.39 × 108 cell.m−2 and 59.0 ± SD 10.42 mgchla.m−2) than in winter (3.7 × 108 ± SD 1.9 × 108 cell.m−2 and 106.64 ± SD 11.29 mgchla.m−2), coinciding with a high abundance of the gastropod Peringia ulvae in summer, which subsequently impacted 1st-cm chl a concentration by intense grazing. Bound and colloidal EPS carbohydrate temporal patterns were similar in winter (5.71 ± SD 3.95 and 4.67 ± SD 3.45 μg.g−1, respectively) butwere different in summer (14.9±SD 4.05 and 5.60±SD 4.50 μg.g−1, respectively). Carbohydrate colloidal EPS appeared to be related to light and salinity, while 1st-mm chl a concentration was negatively affected by strong salinities and predation pressure by P. ulvae. The fluctuations of colloidal carbohydrates were remarkably similar in the two seasons with peaks just after spring tideswhen the highest irradiance was received by microphytobenthic cells. Apparently, colloidal EPS carbohydrates can protect cells against the high salinity values ranging from 32.3 to 50.4 PSU. The presence of bound EPS carbohydrates may be linked to sediment colonization and resistance of biofilm activity. Proteins in EPS were absent in winter and represented a small proportion in summer (10%), but they appeared to be a good indicator of potential synergistic effects between MPB and bacteria in summer. Conversely, bound EPS carbohydrates reached high levels in winter, while the number of bacteria decreased simultaneously, suggesting a negative effect on bacterial growth in the absence of proteins in EPS. There was a lower proportion (31%) of low molecular weight EPS in summer than in winter (83%), possibly in relation to desiccation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Sea Resea...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Sea Resea...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Bernard Host; Bryna Kra; Alejandro Maass;

    International audience; Recurrence properties of systems and associated sets of integers that suffice for recurrence are classical objects in topological dynamics. We describe relations between recurrence in different sorts of systems, study ways to formulate finite versions of recurrence, and describe connections to combinatorial problems. In particular, we show that sets of Bohr recurrence (meaning sets of recurrence for rotations) suffice for recurrence in nilsystems. Additionally, we prove an extension of this property for multiple recurrence in affine systems.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    HAL - UPEC / UPEM
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: HAL - UPEC / UPEM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Whitney Sutton; Joseph K. Canner; Lisa M. Rooper; Jason D. Prescott; +2 Authors

    BACKGROUND: Current data regarding the risk of malignancy in a large thyroid nodule with benign fine-needle aspiration biopsy(FNAB) is conflicting. We investigated the impact of patient age on the risk of malignancy in nodules≥4cm with benign cytology. METHODS: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery from 07/2008-08/2019 for a cytologically benign thyroid nodule ≥4cm. The relationship between malignant histopathology and patient and ultrasound features was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 474 nodules identified, 25(5.3%) were malignant on final pathology. In patients 4cm and high-risk ultrasound features were not associated with risk of malignancy(OR:1.0,95%CI:0.7-1.4,p=0.980, and OR:9.6,95%CI:0.9-107.8,p=0.066, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients <55 years old are 3.7-fold more likely to have a falsely benign FNA biopsy in a nodule≥4cm.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The American Journal...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The American Journal...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2020
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Julien Letheulle; Mallorie Kerjouan; François Bénézit; B. De Latour; +6 Authors

    Les epanchements pleuraux parapneumoniques representent la principale etiologie des pleuresies infectieuses. Leur incidence est en constante augmentation. Bien qu’ils soient qualifies de « parapneumoniques », l’epidemiologie microbienne est differente de celle des pneumonies avec notamment une plus grande frequence des germes anaerobies. La ponction pleurale exploratrice represente l’etape diagnostique centrale qui permet de distinguer les epanchements parapneumoniques compliques et non compliques. Seuls les epanchements parapneumoniques compliques doivent faire l’objet d’un traitement evacuateur reposant sur la mise en œuvre de ponctions pleurales repetees (PPR), d’un drainage thoracique ou d’une prise en charge chirurgicale. Le choix de la technique evacuatrice premiere reste debattu car il existe peu d’etudes prospectives comparatives. L’utilisation d’agents fibrinolytiques n’a pas fait la preuve de son efficacite sauf lorsqu’ils sont utilises en association a la DNAse. L’antibiotherapie doit etre systematique, precoce et couvrir les germes anaerobies, sauf en cas d’infection a pneumocoque. Il existe peu de donnees sur la place de la kinesitherapie qui reste largement utilisee. La mortalite est elevee et directement influencee par les comorbidites sous-jacentes.

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    Authors: Preeti Agarwal; Renu Soni; Pritam Kaur; Akanksha Madan; +4 Authors

    With the aim to alleviate the increasing plastic burden and carbon footprint on Earth, the role of certain microbes that are capable of capturing and sequestering excess carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by various anthropogenic means was studied. Cyanobacteria, which are photosynthetic prokaryotes, are promising alternative for carbon sequestration as well as biofuel and bioplastic production because of their minimal growth requirements, higher efficiency of photosynthesis and growth rates, presence of considerable amounts of lipids in thylakoid membranes, and cosmopolitan nature. These microbes could prove beneficial to future generations in achieving sustainable environmental goals. Their role in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as a source of intracellular energy and carbon sink is being utilized for bioplastic production. PHAs have emerged as well-suited alternatives for conventional plastics and are a parallel competitor to petrochemical-based plastics. Although a lot of studies have been conducted where plants and crops are used as sources of energy and bioplastics, cyanobacteria have been reported to have a more efficient photosynthetic process strongly responsible for increased production with limited land input along with an acceptable cost. The biodiesel production from cyanobacteria is an unconventional choice for a sustainable future as it curtails toxic sulfur release and checks the addition of aromatic hydrocarbons having efficient oxygen content, with promising combustion potential, thus making them a better choice. Here, we aim at reporting the application of cyanobacteria for biofuel production and their competent biotechnological potential, along with achievements and constraints in its pathway toward commercial benefits. This review article also highlights the role of various cyanobacterial species that are a source of green and clean energy along with their high potential in the production of biodegradable plastics.

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    Authors: Haoues Alout; Brian D. Foy;

    Introduction: Ivermectin has transformed the treatment of parasitic diseases and led to incommensurable benefits to humans and animals. Ivermectin is effective in treating several neglected infectious diseases and recently it has been shown to reduce malaria parasite transmission.Areas covered: Malaria control strategies could benefit from the addition of ivermectin to interrupt the transmission cycle if it is a long lasting formulation or repeatedly administered. In turn, this will help also to control neglected infectious diseases where the elimination goal has been slower to achieve. Despite the relevance of using ivermectin for integrated and sustained disease control, there are still essential questions that remain to be addressed about safety and practicality. The efficacy in various malaria ecologies and the interaction between control tools, either drugs or insecticides, are also important to assess.Expert commentary: Overlapping distribution of several infectious diseases reveals the benefit of integrating control programs against several infectious diseases into one strategy for cost effectiveness and to reach the elimination goals. The use of ivermectin to control malaria transmission will necessitate development and testing of long-lasting formulations or repeated treatments, and implementation of these treatments with other disease control tools may increase the chance of successful and sustained control.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Authors: Hilary F. Byrnes; Brenda A. Miller; Joel W. Grube; Beth Bourdeau; +3 Authors

    This study examines effects of a randomized controlled trial for an online, family-based prevention program for older teens, Smart Choices 4 Teens, on alcohol use and related outcomes. Families (N = 411; teen age M = 16.4, SD = 0.5) were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition in 2014-2015. Both intent to treat (ITT) and dosage models were conducted. ITT models: At the 6-month follow-up, teens in the experimental condition reported fewer friends who had been drunk, and parents in the experimental group reported more communication about social host laws. At the 12-month follow-up, parents in the experimental condition reported consuming fewer drinks than parents in the control group. Dosage models: At the 6-month follow-up, dosage was inversely related to teen drinking in the past 6 months or 30 days, frequency of teen drinking during the past 6 months and 30 days, drinks consumed by teens over the past 6 months, teen drunkenness and binge-drinking during the past 30 days, teen reported communication about safe drinking and positively related to parent and teen reported communication about social host laws. At 12 months, dosage was inversely related to teen alcohol use, frequency of teen drinking over the past 30 days, drinks consumed by teens over the past 6 months and 30 days, and teen drunkenness over the past 6 months. Results suggest that Smart Choices 4 Teens is beneficial for families. Dissemination and implementation strategies that motivate completion of program content will improve outcomes related to older teens' alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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    Authors: Jia Wei; Carlota Costa; Yitao Ding; Zhengyun Zou; +11 Authors

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) has a central role in chemotherapy-induced DNA damage response. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family of proteins, PIAS1 and PIAS4, are also necessary for adequate DNA damage repair. To further understand the role of BRCA1 in DNA repair, we examined the mRNA expression of these genes in 133 advanced (stage III-IV) gastric cancer patients using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. All P values were two-sided. The median overall survival was 12.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.8 to 13.4 months). Among 59 patients receiving second-line docetaxel, the median overall survival was 25.8 months (95% CI = 9.2 to 42.4 months) for patients with high BRCA1 expression, 19.1 months (95% CI = 3.4 to 34.8 months) for those with intermediate expression, and 9.5 months (95% CI = 8.7 to 10.2 months) for those with low expression (P = .0062). The risk of mortality was higher in patients with low BRCA1 levels compared with high BRCA1 levels (hazard ratio of death = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.03 to 5.97, P = .037). Survival in patients receiving second-line docetaxel-based chemotherapy showed a similar trend with PIAS1 and PIAS4 mRNA expression levels, although the associations for PIAS4 were not statistically significant.

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    Authors: Zachary A. Caddick; Scott H. Fraundorf; Benjamin M. Rottman; Timothy J. Nokes-Malach;

    AbstractOver the course of training, physicians develop significant knowledge and expertise. We review dual-process theory, the dominant theory in explaining medical decision making: physicians use both heuristics from accumulated experience (System 1) and logical deduction (System 2). We then discuss how the accumulation of System 1 clinical experience can have both positive effects (e.g., quick and accurate pattern recognition) and negative ones (e.g., gaps and biases in knowledge from physicians’ idiosyncratic clinical experience). These idiosyncrasies, biases, and knowledge gaps indicate a need for individuals to engage in appropriate training and study to keep these cognitive skills current lest they decline over time. Indeed, we review converging evidence that physicians further out from training tend to perform worse on tests of medical knowledge and provide poorer patient care. This may reflect a variety of factors, such as specialization of a physician’s practice, but is likely to stem at least in part from cognitive factors. Acquired knowledge or skills gained may not always be readily accessible to physicians for a number of reasons, including an absence of study, cognitive changes with age, and the presence of other similar knowledge or skills that compete in what is brought to mind. Lastly, we discuss the cognitive challenges of keeping up with standards of care that continuously evolve over time.

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    Authors: Sharon Y. Irving; Stephanie Seiple; Monica L. Nagle; Shiela Falk; +2 Authors

    BACKGROUND Anthropometric measurements are vital for safe care in pediatric intensive care units. OBJECTIVE To identify barriers to anthropometric measurements and determine if perceptions of barriers differ between ordering providers and nurses. METHODS A 21-item survey to elicit perceptions of barriers to obtaining anthropometric measurements was distributed via e-mail to societies with members who provide care in pediatric intensive care units. RESULTS Most of the 258 eligible respondents (46% ordering providers) were from North America (90%). Although 84% agreed that anthropometric measurements are important, only 3% knew if these measurements were obtained upon admission to their unit. Estimates of patients' measurements by parents or caregivers were commonly used (72%) when actual measurements were not obtained. Leading barriers were presence of medical devices (57%), use of extracorporeal life support (54%), and unstable hemodynamic status (52%). More ordering providers than nurses considered osteopenia/fragile bones as a barrier to weight measurement (46% vs 29%; P = .007) and traumatic brain injury a barrier to measurement of head circumference (42% vs 24%; P = .002). More nurses than ordering providers perceived dialysis (21% vs 9%; P = .01) and obesity (26% vs 15%; P = .04) as barriers to measurement of stature. Ordering providers more than nurses perceived nurses' workload (51% vs 33%; P < .001) and lack of importance (43% vs 20%; P < .001) as barriers. CONCLUSIONS Barriers to obtaining anthropometric measurements exist in pediatric intensive care units; ordering providers and nurses have different perceptions of what constitutes a barrier.

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