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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vanesa Muñoz-Perales; Maxime van der Heijden; Victor de Haas; Jacky Olinga; +2 Authors

    The electrode thickness is a critical design parameter determining the overall flow cell performance through the available surface area for reactions, current and potential distributions, and required pumping power. To date, current redox flow cell assemblies employ repurposed off-the-shelf fibrous electrodes, yet a broad range of thicknesses have been reported, showing that the influence of the electrode thickness on the reactor performance is not well understood. Here, we investigate the effect of the electrode thickness in the range of 200 - 1100 µm on the cell performance by stacking electrode layers in four different flow cell configurations – paper and cloth electrodes combined with flow-through and interdigitated flow fields. We employ a suite of electrochemical and fluid dynamic diagnostics together with pore network modeling simulations to correlate the electrode thickness with the pressure drop and electrochemical performance. We find that for each electrode-flow field combination, there is a unique dependency to electrode thickness. Thicker electrodes are beneficial in combination with flow-through flow fields, whereas when using interdigitated flow fields, thinner electrodes are better suited for the electrochemical performance and pressure losses trade-off. We hope our findings will aid researchers and technology practicioners design their electrochemical flow cells under convective operation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.2...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.26434/chemr...
    Preprint . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.2...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.26434/chemr...
      Preprint . 2023
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matuszewski, Hubert; MacRae, Daniel; Jain, Advay; Mohseni, Erfan; +2 Authors

    Over the last few years, Groningen has emerged as an international city. The universities and the Gemeente have undertaken an initiative to become known not merely as a student city, but as an “international” city. To achieve this, they have planned to increase the international student population within the city (Gemeente Groningen, 2018). While trying to attain this vision, however, problems seem to have surfaced. In order to properly evaluate the complex situation Groningen finds itself in, we had to begin by defining our terms, creating a toolbox with which to analyse the city. In our investigations, we found that the idea of sustainability proposed by our sources was not clearly defined or was too narrow. Based on the existing literature, we found that sustainability could be divided into three pillars; economic, social, and, of course, environmental (Purvis, Mao & Robinson 2018). Once we had defined our terms and established what we were looking for, we began assembling relevant data regarding the city of Groningen. Utilising both qualitative and quantitative methods, we conducted interviews, collected statistics, created maps and examined existing legislation and literature pertaining to the subjects of sustainability and student cities. Finally, we evaluated the current condition of Groningen as a sustainable student city, pinpointing shortcomings, the reasons behind them, and the areas where we don’t know enough. It seems that the universities and the Gemeente hadn’t fully evaluated the capacities of Groningen to accommodate this increase of international students before their internationalisation campaign. Perhaps the largest issue that arose is the unexpected lack of integration between the international students and the local residents. This is seen as extremely unfavourable by students, making it very difficult for them to assimilate into the city and become active agents within their respective communities. Instead, a sort of bubble emerges; where internationals live together and mingle amongst themselves, only really acting as consumers within the city, departing the city after they complete their degrees, without having integrated into the city. The demands of the two separate groups which have a completely different way of being, are almost irreconcilable, with limited communication between one another augmenting their disparities. Unfortunately, the lack of social integration and insufficient planning have been the demise of each other, particularly in regards to how Groningen can sustain the influx of internationals. Some issues that have arisen as a result of this are; the shortage of student housing, the difficulty of access to the labour market for international students, a lack of student representation within the city, and the rise of dodgy practices against internationals. If these problems aren’t promptly addressed, then it seems likely that the situation will worsen. If Groningen starts building a negative reputation as a result of these issues, it could face major difficulties in continuing its ambition of becoming a truly international student city. An evaluation regarding the capacity of Groningen to accommodate international students is needed in order to determine whether or not it is sustainable. If we actively collaborate with the various stakeholders, on the basis of a concrete analysis of Groningen (in terms of the city and the University), we can set a realistic path to achieve a sustainable and well-integrated student city, where both the internationals and the long-term residents have adequate say and input within their communities, and the city as a whole.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Noordzij, G.A.;

    In the late middle ages, the inhabitants of the duchy of Guelders had to deal with a number of negative stereotypes. They were reputed to be lumpish, barbaric, belligerent, and rebellious. These stereotypes had come into existence during the many wars with the Burgundian and Habsburg princes, who wanted to conquer the duchy. Some Guelders historians, however, used these negative stereotypes in order to create a positive image of their compatriots: they described the people of Guelders as natural, brave, and as lovers of freedom. According to them, these labels were the essence of the Guelders identity. In Gelre. Dynastie, land en identiteit Aart Noordzij describes the development of a political identity in Guelders between 1100 and 1600. He does this by analyzing the interaction between political processes, state-formation and the shaping of identities. Successively, the formation of the dynasty, the structure of the territory, and the imagination of the dynasty, the territory, and its inhabitants pass in review. By reconstructing the interaction between political processes, imagination, and the shaping of identities, we can understand how a political community like Guelders, notwithstanding its complexity and lack of unity, could exist, function, and get coherence.

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    NARCIS
    Doctoral thesis . 2008
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Doctoral thesis . 2008
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Doctoral thesis . 2008
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Doctoral thesis . 2008
      Data sources: NARCIS
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vossen, P.T.J.M.; Bloksma, L.; Boersma, P.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Vrije Univer...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
    Research . 1998
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      Research . 1998
      Data sources: NARCIS
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    Authors: de Jong, R.M.;
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Péter Bai; Carles Cantó; Hugues Oudart; Attila Brunyanszki; +11 Authors

    International audience; SIRT1 regulates energy homeostasis by controlling the acetylation status and activity of a number of enzymes and transcriptional regulators. The fact that NAD(+) levels control SIRT1 activity confers a hypothetical basis for the design of new strategies to activate SIRT1 by increasing NAD(+) availability. Here we show that the deletion of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) gene, encoding a major NAD(+)-consuming enzyme, increases NAD(+) content and SIRT1 activity in brown adipose tissue and muscle. PARP-1(-)(/-) mice phenocopied many aspects of SIRT1 activation, such as a higher mitochondrial content, increased energy expenditure, and protection against metabolic disease. Also, the pharmacologic inhibition of PARP in vitro and in vivo increased NAD(+) content and SIRT1 activity and enhanced oxidative metabolism. These data show how PARP-1 inhibition has strong metabolic implications through the modulation of SIRT1 activity, a property that could be useful in the management not only of metabolic diseases, but also of cancer.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cell Metabolismarrow_drop_down
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    Cell Metabolism
    Article
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2011
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2011
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    univOAK
    Article . 2011
    Data sources: univOAK
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2011
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2011
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cell Metabolismarrow_drop_down
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      Cell Metabolism
      Article
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2011
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2011
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      univOAK
      Article . 2011
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2011
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan;
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    Anesthesiology
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Anesthesiology
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2007
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      Anesthesiology
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Yoram Krozer;

    A global shift to low-carbon economies needs five times larger annual investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency compared to the present USD2005 200 billion. The question about how to finance those large investments is discussed with particular attention to the citizens’ savings because they are hardly used so far, except a few countries. If good conditions are created, activation of these savings is sufficiently large and it is rewarding regarding the cost-reducing technological change and many civil initiatives. High international prices of fossil fuels create favorable conditions but they are unpredictable whilst the present policy support for energy business and CO2 taxes do not compensate for the low prices. High CO2 taxes could do but meet opposition. Innovations in the USA and EU add value to the energy businesses by USD2005 9.2 billion a year based on average during 2005–2015, which exceeds their R&D on renewable energy and energy efficiency. Innovations in energy business also generate spin-off that exceeds 1% of the global GDP though the spin-off strongly varies across countries. The value addition motivates the supply-oriented and demand-oriented policy support for those energy innovations, in particular subsidies and price guarantees, respectively. Experiences with the subsidies in the USA compared to the price guarantees in the EU show that the latter involved larger expenditures but generated many more new firms and jobs per USD2005. A price guarantee per CO2 would invoke distributed energy systems entailing higher more energy-efficiency and energy security. Innovations generate adaptations when applied on larger scale. Their cost-reduction is function of scale; the projectable cost-reduction reduces the financial risks. Estimates show that the global investments in wind and solar power are efficiently allocated and operations are cost-effective. In addition to the power generation, those renewable energy with storage technologies deliver co-benefits to the energy producers and consumers and business models emerge tuned to the local conditions. The citizens’ participations in energy-efficiency and renewable energy would be enhanced if policies guarantee the annual value of the participants’ savings. Such guarantee would generate tax returns due to more companies and higher value of assets. The citizens participation with policy support enables the global shift to sustainable energy.

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    Green Finance
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2019
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    Green Finance
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Green Finance
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2019
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      Green Finance
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Postoyan, Romain; Biemond, Benjamin; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; van de Wouw, Nathan;

    International audience; The analysis of incremental stability properties typically involves measuring the distance between any pair of solutions of a given dynamical system, corresponding to different initial conditions, at the same time instant. This approach is not directly applicable for hybrid systems in general. Indeed, hybrid systems generate solutions that are defined with respect to hybrid times, which consist of both the continuous time elapsed and the discrete time, that is the number of jumps the solution has experienced. Two solutions of a hybrid system do not a priori have the same time domain, and we may therefore not be able to compare them at the same hybrid time instant. To overcome this issue, we invoke graphical closeness concepts. We present definitions for incremental stability depending on whether incremental asymptotic stability properties hold with respect to the hybrid time, the continuous time, or the discrete time, respectively. Examples are provided throughout the paper to illustrate these definitions, and the relations between these three incremental stability notions are investigated. The definitions are shown to be consistent with those available in the literature for continuous-time and discrete-time systems.

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    Other literature type . 2015
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    NARCIS
    Conference object . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Conference object . 2015
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      Other literature type . 2015
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      Conference object . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Gesa Czwikla; Filip Boen; Derek G Cook; Johan de Jong; +14 Authors

    BACKGROUND: Reducing inequalities in physical activity (PA) and PA-associated health outcomes is a priority for public health. Interventions to promote PA may reduce inequalities, but may also unintentionally increase them. Thus, there is a need to analyze equity-specific intervention effects. However, the potential for analyzing equity-specific effects of PA interventions has not yet been sufficiently exploited. The aim of this study was to set out a novel equity-specific re-analysis strategy tried out in an international interdisciplinary collaboration. METHODS: The re-analysis strategy comprised harmonizing choice and definition of outcomes, exposures, socio-demographic indicators, and statistical analysis strategies across studies, as well as synthesizing results. It was applied in a collaboration of a convenience sample of eight European PA intervention studies in adults aged ≥45 years. Weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA was harmonized as outcome. Any versus no intervention was harmonized as exposure. Gender, education, income, area deprivation, and marital status were harmonized as socio-demographic indicators. Interactions between the intervention and socio-demographic indicators on moderate-to-vigorous PA were analyzed using multivariable linear regression and random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: The collaborative experience shows that the novel re-analysis strategy can be applied to investigate equity-specific effects of existing PA interventions. Across our convenience sample of studies, no consistent pattern of equity-specific intervention effects was found. Pooled estimates suggested that intervention effects did not differ by gender, education, income, area deprivation, and marital status. CONCLUSIONS: To exploit the potential for equity-specific effect analysis, we encourage future studies to apply the strategy to representative samples of existing study data. Ensuring sufficient representation of 'hard to reach' groups such as the most disadvantaged in study samples is of particular importance. This will help to extend the limited evidence required for the design and prioritization of future interventions that are most likely to reduce health inequalities. ispartof: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY vol:18 issue:1 ispartof: location:England status: published

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vanesa Muñoz-Perales; Maxime van der Heijden; Victor de Haas; Jacky Olinga; +2 Authors

    The electrode thickness is a critical design parameter determining the overall flow cell performance through the available surface area for reactions, current and potential distributions, and required pumping power. To date, current redox flow cell assemblies employ repurposed off-the-shelf fibrous electrodes, yet a broad range of thicknesses have been reported, showing that the influence of the electrode thickness on the reactor performance is not well understood. Here, we investigate the effect of the electrode thickness in the range of 200 - 1100 µm on the cell performance by stacking electrode layers in four different flow cell configurations – paper and cloth electrodes combined with flow-through and interdigitated flow fields. We employ a suite of electrochemical and fluid dynamic diagnostics together with pore network modeling simulations to correlate the electrode thickness with the pressure drop and electrochemical performance. We find that for each electrode-flow field combination, there is a unique dependency to electrode thickness. Thicker electrodes are beneficial in combination with flow-through flow fields, whereas when using interdigitated flow fields, thinner electrodes are better suited for the electrochemical performance and pressure losses trade-off. We hope our findings will aid researchers and technology practicioners design their electrochemical flow cells under convective operation.

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    https://doi.org/10.26434/chemr...
    Preprint . 2023
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://doi.org/10.2...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.26434/chemr...
      Preprint . 2023
      License: CC BY NC ND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matuszewski, Hubert; MacRae, Daniel; Jain, Advay; Mohseni, Erfan; +2 Authors

    Over the last few years, Groningen has emerged as an international city. The universities and the Gemeente have undertaken an initiative to become known not merely as a student city, but as an “international” city. To achieve this, they have planned to increase the international student population within the city (Gemeente Groningen, 2018). While trying to attain this vision, however, problems seem to have surfaced. In order to properly evaluate the complex situation Groningen finds itself in, we had to begin by defining our terms, creating a toolbox with which to analyse the city. In our investigations, we found that the idea of sustainability proposed by our sources was not clearly defined or was too narrow. Based on the existing literature, we found that sustainability could be divided into three pillars; economic, social, and, of course, environmental (Purvis, Mao & Robinson 2018). Once we had defined our terms and established what we were looking for, we began assembling relevant data regarding the city of Groningen. Utilising both qualitative and quantitative methods, we conducted interviews, collected statistics, created maps and examined existing legislation and literature pertaining to the subjects of sustainability and student cities. Finally, we evaluated the current condition of Groningen as a sustainable student city, pinpointing shortcomings, the reasons behind them, and the areas where we don’t know enough. It seems that the universities and the Gemeente hadn’t fully evaluated the capacities of Groningen to accommodate this increase of international students before their internationalisation campaign. Perhaps the largest issue that arose is the unexpected lack of integration between the international students and the local residents. This is seen as extremely unfavourable by students, making it very difficult for them to assimilate into the city and become active agents within their respective communities. Instead, a sort of bubble emerges; where internationals live together and mingle amongst themselves, only really acting as consumers within the city, departing the city after they complete their degrees, without having integrated into the city. The demands of the two separate groups which have a completely different way of being, are almost irreconcilable, with limited communication between one another augmenting their disparities. Unfortunately, the lack of social integration and insufficient planning have been the demise of each other, particularly in regards to how Groningen can sustain the influx of internationals. Some issues that have arisen as a result of this are; the shortage of student housing, the difficulty of access to the labour market for international students, a lack of student representation within the city, and the rise of dodgy practices against internationals. If these problems aren’t promptly addressed, then it seems likely that the situation will worsen. If Groningen starts building a negative reputation as a result of these issues, it could face major difficulties in continuing its ambition of becoming a truly international student city. An evaluation regarding the capacity of Groningen to accommodate international students is needed in order to determine whether or not it is sustainable. If we actively collaborate with the various stakeholders, on the basis of a concrete analysis of Groningen (in terms of the city and the University), we can set a realistic path to achieve a sustainable and well-integrated student city, where both the internationals and the long-term residents have adequate say and input within their communities, and the city as a whole.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Noordzij, G.A.;