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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christopher Bryant; Muggleton, Sh; Kell, Db; Reiser, P.; King, Rd; Oliver, Sg;
    Publisher: Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
    Country: United Kingdom

    The paper is addressed to AI workers with an interest in biomolecular genetics and also to biomolecular geneticists interested in what AI tools may do for them. The authors are engaged in a collaborative enterprise aimed at partially automating some aspects of scientific work. These aspects include the processes of forming hypotheses, devising trials to discriminate between these competing hypotheses, physically performing these trials and then using the results of these trials to converge upon an accurate hypothesis. As a potential component of the reasoning carried out by an "artificial scientist" this paper describes ASE-Progol, an Active Learning system which uses Inductive Logic Programming to construct hypothesised first-order theories and uses a CART-like algorithm to select trials for eliminating ILP derived hypotheses. In simulated yeast growth tests ASE-Progol was used to rediscover how genes participate in the aromatic amino acid pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cost of the chemicals consumed in converging upon a hypothesis with an accuracy of around 88% was reduced by five orders of magnitude when trials were selected by ASE-Progol rather than being sampled at random. While the naive strategy of always choosing the cheapest trial from the set of candidate trials led to lower cumulative costs than ASE-Progol, both the naive strategy and the random strategy took significantly longer to converge upon a final hypothesis than ASE-Progol. For example to reach an accuracy of 80%, ASE-Progol required 4 days while random sampling required 6 days and the naive strategy required 10 days.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alice Correia;
    Publisher: Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper narrates the author’s research methodologies and findings relating to her ongoing project, Articulating British Asian Art Histories. With a specific focus on four exhibitions of South Asian women artists during the 1980s and early 1990s, it provides an overview of her primary and secondary research, and presents archival material, which cumulatively gives a richer understanding of the aesthetic and political aims of exhibitors, and the contexts in which they were working. Exhibitions of exclusively women artists of South Asian heritage were rare during this period, but close visual analysis of individual exhibitions and artworks reveals an active engagement with the specificities of the female, British-Asian experience. \ud This article is accompanied by two downloadable resources: a complete copy of the Numaish exhibition catalogue (Fig. 15) and a copy of the exhibition pamphlet for Jagrati (Fig. 22).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Murphy, N;
    Country: United Kingdom

    This was a small scale study that focussed on whether the level of experience affected\ud the way that Community Mental Health Nurses (CMHN) assessed the risk of violence\ud from their clients. Ethical approval was gained and 22 participants took part in the\ud study. A mixed method approach was adopted utilising a quantitative phase followed\ud by a qualitative phase of data collection. Each were separately analysed and the\ud results were, that regardless of level of experience, the CMHNs believed that they\ud were the best at assessing risks compared to all other Multidisciplinary Team\ud members. Further, the more experienced the staff member the more control they tried\ud to impart on the perceived risk situation, whereas the less experienced members of\ud staff tended to withdraw and allow other members of staff to deal with the situation.\ud Finally it was found that although training was found to be important in helping the\ud staff to identify and manage risks; observation of live situations that were well\ud managed was more influential in their interpretation of how they should react. The\ud more experienced staff utilising more ‘life skills’ experience than the less\ud experienced.\ud These finding will have an impact on training and on the future recruitment of staff to\ud community positions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Deborah Davys; Vivienne Jones;
    Publisher: Mark Allen Publishing
    Country: United Kingdom

    Peer observation has been advocated as a means of monitoring and improving the quality of teaching within Higher Education, whilst peer support and review have been used to provide feedback and monitoring within the clinical context. The process of peer observation of practice within educational, managerial and clinical settings could facilitate improvements in all aspects of practice, have relevance as a tool for continuing professional development (CPD) and help improve the quality of care for service users. This article presents the background and relevance of peer observation to health care professionals, suggests a process that can be implemented and considers relevant contextual issues. Finally it suggests that peer observation has potential benefits for all areas and levels of health care practice.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eades, D;
    Publisher: Harrassowitz Publishing House
    Country: United Kingdom

    A major classificatory division of the Arabic vernaculars spoken throughout much of the Arab world is that of the socially-based Sedentary (S) versus Bedouin (B) division. In studies of the Omani dialect area these terms are used to distinguish between the speech of the traditionally settled populace concentrated in and around the mountainous interior of the country (S type), and that of the nomadic and recently settled communities of the deserts (B type). However in some transitional regions the distinction between these dialects is blurred, as the spoken Arabic in these regions contains characteristics of both types. \ud \ud The present contribution examines important structural features of the spoken Arabic of al-Darīz and places the findings within the broader Omani typological context. It is shown that although the dialect exhibits some characteristics of accommodation to the speech of nearby Bedouin communities with respect to certain phonological features, the dialect of al-Darīz retains most of the distinctly S-type features which characterize the traditionally settled communities in and around the mountain region to the north of the country. This is in striking contrast with the situation in the town of al-Mintirib, which is located to the south of al-Darīz. The speech of the sedentary population of al-Mintirib has acquired most of the features which characterize the speech of the surrounding B populace. The differences in the speech of the population in the two towns can be explained by the contrasting socio historical circumstances in which the dialects of each town has developed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marine Cusa; L. Falcão; J. De Jesus; C. Biolatti; L. Blondeel; Fiona S. A. Bracken; L. Devriese; Sandra Garcés-Pastor; S. Minoudi; Chrysoula Gubili; +2 more
    Publisher: Springer
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | FOODINTEGRITY (613688)

    AbstractSeafood labels play an increasingly key role in assisting consumers in purchasing processed and featureless fish products, and in encouraging sustainable fishing and aquaculture practices. While informed purchasing choices are typically influenced by traceability and labelling awareness, they also depend on the consumers’ ability to identify and discriminate the fish species available on the market, which to date remains notably unexplored. We asked 720 people across six European countries to identify pictures of six fish species commonly sold in Europe. We reveal that European consumers have a poor understanding of the appearance of the fish they consume (overall ∼ 30% correct identification), with British consumers performing the poorest and Spanish ones doing best. We noted cultural association with some species, whereby the most regionally consumed fish are more easily recognized. We argue that despite recent improvements in technological solutions, stakeholder dialogue, and policy implementation, seafood market transparency will remain open to malpractice until consumers restore connection with their food.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Karunasena, GI; Amaratunga, RDG; Haigh, RP;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Disasters, both natural and man-made, have been occurring with increasing frequency and effect\ud in recent decades in many countries around the world. Among them, Sri Lanka is yet to recover\ud from the effects of December 2004 Tsunami. Among many other reasons it has been identified\ud that lack of awareness of the mechanisms and systems for post disaster waste management is a\ud critical issue of concern. None of the Sri Lankan academic institutions related to the field offer\ud courses designed for the management of disaster waste within the country. Furthermore, none of\ud these institutions conduct awareness programmes aimed at the public on new mechanisms and\ud systems of management of disaster waste. To address these issues, this research aims to enhance\ud capacities to develop new mechanisms and systems for sustainable post disaster waste\ud management focusing on construction and demolition waste. To achieve the identified aim, the\ud research will explore current status of disaster waste management in Sri Lanka and a framework\ud will be proposed for enhancing capacities for sustainable disaster waste management in\ud economical, social and technological aspects. The research methodology includes a\ud comprehensive literature review, semi structured interviews and case study with selected\ud personal views on management of disaster waste management. In this context, the objective of\ud this paper is to present the current scenario of disaster waste management based on the results of\ud a secondary survey.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Klara M. Wanelik; Michael Begon; Elena Arriero; Janette E. Bradley; Ida M. Friberg; Joseph A. Jackson; Christopher H. Taylor; Steve Paterson;
    Publisher: Nature Research
    Countries: United Kingdom, Spain

    AbstractIndividuals vary in their immune response and, as a result, some are more susceptible to infectious disease than others. Little is known about the nature of this individual variation in natural populations, or which components of immune pathways are most responsible, but defining this underlying landscape of variation is an essential first step to understanding the drivers of this variation and, ultimately, predicting the outcome of infection. We describe transcriptome-wide variation in response to a standardised immune challenge in wild field voles. We find that genes (hereafter 'markers') can be categorised into a limited number of types. For the majority of markers, the response of an individual is dependent on its baseline expression level, with significant enrichment in this category for conventional immune pathways. Another, moderately sized, category contains markers for which the responses of different individuals are also variable but independent of their baseline expression levels. This category lacks any enrichment for conventional immune pathways. We further identify markers which display particularly high individual variability in response, and could be used as markers of immune response in larger studies. Our work shows how a standardised challenge performed on a natural population can reveal the patterns of natural variation in immune response.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amaratunga, RDG; Baldry, D;
    Country: United Kingdom
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Various,;
    Country: United Kingdom

    A collection of poster abstracts from the Faculty of Science, Engineering & Environment 'Celebration of Research' event held on 30 June 2010 in the Lady Hale Building, University of Salford.

search
Include:
7,269 Research products, page 1 of 727
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christopher Bryant; Muggleton, Sh; Kell, Db; Reiser, P.; King, Rd; Oliver, Sg;
    Publisher: Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
    Country: United Kingdom

    The paper is addressed to AI workers with an interest in biomolecular genetics and also to biomolecular geneticists interested in what AI tools may do for them. The authors are engaged in a collaborative enterprise aimed at partially automating some aspects of scientific work. These aspects include the processes of forming hypotheses, devising trials to discriminate between these competing hypotheses, physically performing these trials and then using the results of these trials to converge upon an accurate hypothesis. As a potential component of the reasoning carried out by an "artificial scientist" this paper describes ASE-Progol, an Active Learning system which uses Inductive Logic Programming to construct hypothesised first-order theories and uses a CART-like algorithm to select trials for eliminating ILP derived hypotheses. In simulated yeast growth tests ASE-Progol was used to rediscover how genes participate in the aromatic amino acid pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cost of the chemicals consumed in converging upon a hypothesis with an accuracy of around 88% was reduced by five orders of magnitude when trials were selected by ASE-Progol rather than being sampled at random. While the naive strategy of always choosing the cheapest trial from the set of candidate trials led to lower cumulative costs than ASE-Progol, both the naive strategy and the random strategy took significantly longer to converge upon a final hypothesis than ASE-Progol. For example to reach an accuracy of 80%, ASE-Progol required 4 days while random sampling required 6 days and the naive strategy required 10 days.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alice Correia;
    Publisher: Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper narrates the author’s research methodologies and findings relating to her ongoing project, Articulating British Asian Art Histories. With a specific focus on four exhibitions of South Asian women artists during the 1980s and early 1990s, it provides an overview of her primary and secondary research, and presents archival material, which cumulatively gives a richer understanding of the aesthetic and political aims of exhibitors, and the contexts in which they were working. Exhibitions of exclusively women artists of South Asian heritage were rare during this period, but close visual analysis of individual exhibitions and artworks reveals an active engagement with the specificities of the female, British-Asian experience. \ud This article is accompanied by two downloadable resources: a complete copy of the Numaish exhibition catalogue (Fig. 15) and a copy of the exhibition pamphlet for Jagrati (Fig. 22).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Murphy, N;
    Country: United Kingdom

    This was a small scale study that focussed on whether the level of experience affected\ud the way that Community Mental Health Nurses (CMHN) assessed the risk of violence\ud from their clients. Ethical approval was gained and 22 participants took part in the\ud study. A mixed method approach was adopted utilising a quantitative phase followed\ud by a qualitative phase of data collection. Each were separately analysed and the\ud results were, that regardless of level of experience, the CMHNs believed that they\ud were the best at assessing risks compared to all other Multidisciplinary Team\ud members. Further, the more experienced the staff member the more control they tried\ud to impart on the perceived risk situation, whereas the less experienced members of\ud staff tended to withdraw and allow other members of staff to deal with the situation.\ud Finally it was found that although training was found to be important in helping the\ud staff to identify and manage risks; observation of live situations that were well\ud managed was more influential in their interpretation of how they should react. The\ud more experienced staff utilising more ‘life skills’ experience than the less\ud experienced.\ud These finding will have an impact on training and on the future recruitment of staff to\ud community positions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Deborah Davys; Vivienne Jones;
    Publisher: Mark Allen Publishing
    Country: United Kingdom

    Peer observation has been advocated as a means of monitoring and improving the quality of teaching within Higher Education, whilst peer support and review have been used to provide feedback and monitoring within the clinical context. The process of peer observation of practice within educational, managerial and clinical settings could facilitate improvements in all aspects of practice, have relevance as a tool for continuing professional development (CPD) and help improve the quality of care for service users. This article presents the background and relevance of peer observation to health care professionals, suggests a process that can be implemented and considers relevant contextual issues. Finally it suggests that peer observation has potential benefits for all areas and levels of health care practice.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eades, D;
    Publisher: Harrassowitz Publishing House
    Country: United Kingdom

    A major classificatory division of the Arabic vernaculars spoken throughout much of the Arab world is that of the socially-based Sedentary (S) versus Bedouin (B) division. In studies of the Omani dialect area these terms are used to distinguish between the speech of the traditionally settled populace concentrated in and around the mountainous interior of the country (S type), and that of the nomadic and recently settled communities of the deserts (B type). However in some transitional regions the distinction between these dialects is blurred, as the spoken Arabic in these regions contains characteristics of both types. \ud \ud The present contribution examines important structural features of the spoken Arabic of al-Darīz and places the findings within the broader Omani typological context. It is shown that although the dialect exhibits some characteristics of accommodation to the speech of nearby Bedouin communities with respect to certain phonological features, the dialect of al-Darīz retains most of the distinctly S-type features which characterize the traditionally settled communities in and around the mountain region to the north of the country. This is in striking contrast with the situation in the town of al-Mintirib, which is located to the south of al-Darīz. The speech of the sedentary population of al-Mintirib has acquired most of the features which characterize the speech of the surrounding B populace. The differences in the speech of the population in the two towns can be explained by the contrasting socio historical circumstances in which the dialects of each town has developed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marine Cusa; L. Falcão; J. De Jesus; C. Biolatti; L. Blondeel; Fiona S. A. Bracken; L. Devriese; Sandra Garcés-Pastor; S. Minoudi; Chrysoula Gubili; +2 more
    Publisher: Springer
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | FOODINTEGRITY (613688)

    AbstractSeafood labels play an increasingly key role in assisting consumers in purchasing processed and featureless fish products, and in encouraging sustainable fishing and aquaculture practices. While informed purchasing choices are typically influenced by traceability and labelling awareness, they also depend on the consumers’ ability to identify and discriminate the fish species available on the market, which to date remains notably unexplored. We asked 720 people across six European countries to identify pictures of six fish species commonly sold in Europe. We reveal that European consumers have a poor understanding of the appearance of the fish they consume (overall ∼ 30% correct identification), with British consumers performing the poorest and Spanish ones doing best. We noted cultural association with some species, whereby the most regionally consumed fish are more easily recognized. We argue that despite recent improvements in technological solutions, stakeholder dialogue, and policy implementation, seafood market transparency will remain open to malpractice until consumers restore connection with their food.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Karunasena, GI; Amaratunga, RDG; Haigh, RP;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Disasters, both natural and man-made, have been occurring with increasing frequency and effect\ud in recent decades in many countries around the world. Among them, Sri Lanka is yet to recover\ud from the effects of December 2004 Tsunami. Among many other reasons it has been identified\ud that lack of awareness of the mechanisms and systems for post disaster waste management is a\ud critical issue of concern. None of the Sri Lankan academic institutions related to the field offer\ud courses designed for the management of disaster waste within the country. Furthermore, none of\ud these institutions conduct awareness programmes aimed at the public on new mechanisms and\ud systems of management of disaster waste. To address these issues, this research aims to enhance\ud capacities to develop new mechanisms and systems for sustainable post disaster waste\ud management focusing on construction and demolition waste. To achieve the identified aim, the\ud research will explore current status of disaster waste management in Sri Lanka and a framework\ud will be proposed for enhancing capacities for sustainable disaster waste management in\ud economical, social and technological aspects. The research methodology includes a\ud comprehensive literature review, semi structured interviews and case study with selected\ud personal views on management of disaster waste management. In this context, the objective of\ud this paper is to present the current scenario of disaster waste management based on the results of\ud a secondary survey.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Klara M. Wanelik; Michael Begon; Elena Arriero; Janette E. Bradley; Ida M. Friberg; Joseph A. Jackson; Christopher H. Taylor; Steve Paterson;
    Publisher: Nature Research
    Countries: United Kingdom, Spain

    AbstractIndividuals vary in their immune response and, as a result, some are more susceptible to infectious disease than others. Little is known about the nature of this individual variation in natural populations, or which components of immune pathways are most responsible, but defining this underlying landscape of variation is an essential first step to understanding the drivers of this variation and, ultimately, predicting the outcome of infection. We describe transcriptome-wide variation in response to a standardised immune challenge in wild field voles. We find that genes (hereafter 'markers') can be categorised into a limited number of types. For the majority of markers, the response of an individual is dependent on its baseline expression level, with significant enrichment in this category for conventional immune pathways. Another, moderately sized, category contains markers for which the responses of different individuals are also variable but independent of their baseline expression levels. This category lacks any enrichment for conventional immune pathways. We further identify markers which display particularly high individual variability in response, and could be used as markers of immune response in larger studies. Our work shows how a standardised challenge performed on a natural population can reveal the patterns of natural variation in immune response.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amaratunga, RDG; Baldry, D;
    Country: United Kingdom
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Various,;
    Country: United Kingdom

    A collection of poster abstracts from the Faculty of Science, Engineering & Environment 'Celebration of Research' event held on 30 June 2010 in the Lady Hale Building, University of Salford.

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