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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sean Fobbe; Natia Navrouzov; Kristen Hopper; Ahmed Khudida Burjus; Graham Philip; Maher G Nawaf; Dan Lawrence; Helen Walasek; Sara Birjandian; Majid Hassan Ali; +4 more
    Publisher: Brill | Nijhoff
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract Discussions of the 2014 genocide committed by the Islamic State against the Êzidîs (also known as ‘Yazidis’ or ‘Yezidis’) have generally focused on murder, slavery and sexual exploitation. In this paper we analyze the destruction of Êzidî tangible and intangible cultural heritage as a significant facet of the Islamic State’s policy of ethnic cleansing and genocide. Evidence of destruction is collected and presented in context with other criminal acts. In international discourse the destruction of cultural heritage sites is most often placed under the heading of war crime. Several convictions by the ICTY and the conviction of Malian Islamist Al-Mahdi by the ICC are well-known. However, heritage destruction may also be prosecuted as the crime of persecution, a crime against humanity. Numerous indictments and convictions before international courts attest to the viability of this approach. Finally, as per explicit caselaw of the ICJ and ICTY, destruction of tangible heritage also serves as evidence of the special intent to destroy a protected group under the crime of genocide. The Êzidî are an endogamous community at home in northern Iraq for whom faith and ethnic belonging are inextricably linked. Belief in God and TawûsÊ Malek (the highest angel), and reverence for Lalish as the holiest place on earth are the defining features of the Êzidî faith. Historic and sacred places are an essential part of the Êzidî identity and are considered vital to life by the local population. The Islamic State made no secret of its intention to eradicate the Êzidî community and commenced a policy of ethnic cleansing and genocide on 3 August 2014. All victims were abused and tortured. Male Êzidîs above the age of 12 were killed. Female Êzidîs were enslaved and traded in a complex and public network of sexual slavery. Boys were trained in ISIS camps and militarized. Those who fled to Mount Sinjar were besieged in order to ensure death from starvation, thirst and the blazing sun. Bases of economic support, such as olive groves and irrigation wells, were systematically destroyed and many areas of the Êzidî homeland were sown with landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to prevent the population from returning. We provide original research, evidence and context on the destruction of Êzidî tangible cultural heritage in the Bahzani/Bashiqa and Sinjar areas of northern Iraq. We present satellite imagery analysis conducted by the EAMENA project, drawing on data provided by Êzidî representatives. According to the Department of Yazidi Affairs in the Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs in the Kurdistan Regional Government 68 Êzidî sites were destroyed by the Islamic State. We consider 16 sites in the Bahzani/Bashiqa area and 8 in the Sinjar area to which access was possible and which could be documented. We conclude that the destruction of the cultural heritage of the Êzidî people constituted a war crime, a crime against humanity (persecution) and compelling evidence of genocidal intent. We recommend the consideration of cultural heritage destruction in any prosecution of atrocity crimes, especially the crime of genocide. Context This article was published in the peer-reviewed Asian Yearbook of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (AYHR), Volume 5, pp 111-144, DOI: 10.1163/9789004466180_006. The AYHR is edited by Professor Javaid Rehman, the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The version provided here is the author manuscript, i.e. the text after peer-review, but before typesetting. The article is based on the 2019 report 'Destroying the Soul of the Yazidis: Cultural Heritage Destruction during the Islamic State's Genocide against the Yazidis', published by RASHID International, EAMENA and Yazda. About RASHID International RASHID International is a worldwide network of archaeologists and cultural heritage experts dedicated to safeguarding and promoting the cultural heritage of Iraq, ancient Mesopotamia. To assist our Iraqi colleagues, we collect and share information, research and expert knowledge, work to raise public awareness, and both develop and execute strategies to protect heritage sites and other cultural property through international cooperation, advocacy and technical assistance. RASHID International is registered as a non-profit organisation in Germany and enjoys charitable tax-exempt status under German law. We are an organisation in special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council since 2019. Learn more about our work at www.rashid-international.org About Yazda Yazda is a global community-led institution that protects and champions all religious and ethnic minority communities, including Assyrians, Chaldeans, Kakais, Shabak, Turkmen, and Yazidis in Iraq, Kurdistan Region, and Syria. Founded in 2014 at the onset of the genocide perpetuated by Da’esh, also known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Levant (ISIL), against the Yazidis, as well as war crimes and crimes against humanity against other minorities, Yazda leads advocacy and strategic projects in Dohuk, Sinjar, and the Nineveh Plains, as well as global diaspora hubs. We work hand-in-hand with our partners, including United Nations agencies, key donor governments, the Iraqi and Kurdistan Regional Governments, and instrumental community organizations to ensure justice, accountability, and a sustainable future for all is swiftly reached. We are fervently determined to ensure Never Again, so that no community and people ever face genocide. Learn more about our work at www.yazda.org. About EAMENA The EAMENA Project rapidly records and evaluates the status of the archaeological landscape of the MENA region in order to create an accessible body of data which can be used by national and international heritage professionals to target those sites most in danger and better plan and implement the preservation and protection of this heritage. The EAMENA project is a collaboration between the Universities of Oxford, Leicester and Durham in the United Kingdom and is supported by the Arcadia Fund and the British Council's Cultural Protection Fund. You can find out more about our work at our website www.eamena.org.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    G. Tataris; Nikolaos Soulakellis; K. Chaidas;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications

    Abstract. The recovery phase of an earthquake-affected settlement is a time-consuming and complex process that requires monitoring, which is now possible using UAS. The purpose of this paper is to present the methodology followed and the results obtained by the exploitation of UAS for rapid multitemporal 3D mapping during the recovery phase of Vrisa traditional settlement, Lesvos island, Greece, which was highly damaged by the earthquake (Mw=6.3) on 12th June 2017. More analytically, three (3) flight campaigns covering the period July 2017 – May 2020 took place by means of an UAS for collecting high-resolution images on: i) 19th May 2019, ii) 29th September 2019, iii) 17th May 2020. Structure from Motion (SfM) and Multi Stereo View (MSV) methods have been applied and produced: i) Digital Surface Models – DSMs, ii) 3D Point Clouds – 3DPC and iii) Orthophoto-maps, of Vrisa. In parallel, GIS capabilities has been exploit to calculate building volumes based on: a) DSM produced by UAS image processing, b) DEM produced by 233 RTK measurements and c) building footprints derived by the digitization of the orthophoto-map of 25th July 2017. The methodology developed and implemented achieves extremely reliable results in a relatively easy, fast and economically feasible way, which is confirmed with great precision by field work. By applying the above-described methodology, it was possible to monitoring the recovery phase during July 2017 and May 2020 which 302/340 buildings that had been severely damaged by the earthquake have been demolished. A small number of new buildings have also been rebuilded and small number of buildings that have just begun excavations for their construction. An important parameter for obtaining reliable data and comparable results is the correct selection of flight parameters and their maintenance at all times when it is decided to take data, without affecting the accuracy of the results from taking photos or videos. Automation in the future of the proposed methodology can significantly accelerate the achievement of reliable results without the intermediate interpretation of orthophoto-maps.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Sivignon, Michel;
    Publisher: Presses universitaires de Lyon

    La Grèce contemporaine figure en Europe parmi les producteurs de vin de second ordre. Sa production oscille entre 3,5 et cinq millions d’hectolitres. Elle compte pour la moitié ou le tiers de la production du Portugal ; quant à l’Espagne et à l’Italie, elles figurent parmi les grands producteurs à l’échelle mondiale. La production de la Grèce est du même ordre que celle de la Hongrie et assez voisine de celles de la Roumanie et de la Bulgarie. La superficie du vignoble grec (130 000 hectares ...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Carole Gillespie;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Abstract Carole Gillespie, founder of business relationships consultancy, People Buy from People, and author of Flying Start: How to make your own luck at work, explains why relationships still matter, even in our digital age.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    M Minerbi; B Battisti;
    Publisher: Italian Society of Sivilculture and Forest Ecology (SISEF)

    Abstract: Dr. Klausjorg Hellrigl (1935-2021) passed away few weeks ago. For decades Dr. Hellrigl was a reference for Italian and foreign entomologists. Among his many articles and investigations, Dr. Hellrigl was probably best known for his studies on xylophagous beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae and Cerambycidae). Here, two former pupils of Dr. Hellrigl remember his life and scientific works.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Miriam Cabrelles; José Luis Lerma; Valentín Villaverde;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Spain

    [EN] In this article, we propose a methodology for the archaeological documentation of limestone plaquettes decorated with faint paintings and fine engravings. The plaquette number 16330 is presented, belonging to the portable art collection in Cova del Parpalló (Gandía, Spain), one of the most important Paleolithic sites in the UNESCO¿s Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula. Macro photogrammetry is used to generate a 3D model and basic treatments on raster images. The resulting 3D model has a spatial resolution of tens of microns and was used to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) and orthorectified macro photographs for documenting the engravings and paintings. All stages of the workflow are detailed in-depth, specifying the data collection parameters and the configuration used in the subsequent processing with HyperCube and DStretch software. The resulting documentation is accurate, reproducible, and objective and allows the reinterpretation of the available graphic documentation started in the 1990s. This research was funded by Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEO/2017/060) and Ministerio de la Ciencia e Innovación (HAR2017-85153-P).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giovanna Bucci;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    In the southern area of the Ferrara District, Italy, remote sensing investigations associated with geo-archaeological drilling in underwater archaeological studies, have helped to broad our understanding of the historical evolution and cultural heritage of inland waterways. In working on prototype sites, we have taken a multidisciplinary approach of surveillance and preventive archaeology, and have collaborated with archaeologists, geologists, hydro-biologists, and engineers. In this area of research, often lakes, lagoons, and rivers are characterized by low visibility. Some Quaternary events have deeply modified Ferrara’s landscape. Analysis of preserved samples from micro-drillings, underwater direct and indirect surveys, and the cataloguing of historical artefacts, are giving to the researchers a remarkable ancient chronology line. Recent studies confirmed anthropization sequences from the 1st Century B.C. to the 6th Century A.D. Waterscape archaeology, a multidisciplinary science devoted to the study of the human use of wetlands and anthropological connection with the water environment, testifies the ways in which people, in the past, constructed and used the water environment. In this article, we describe underwater cultural heritage research using 3D side scan sonar surveys and artifacts analysis, comparing data from direct diving investigations and stratigraphic data from micro-geological drillings on sites of Lago Tramonto, Gambulaga, Portomaggiore (Ferrara).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TIMBER (677152), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia’s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, Lübeck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and Lübeck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fischer, Björn; Östlund, Britt; Peine, Alexander; Innovation and Sustainability; Innovation Studies;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Country: Netherlands

    In this study, we explore the constitution of user representations of robots in design practice. Using the results of ethnographic research in two robot laboratories, we show how user representations emerge in and are entangled with design activities. Our study speaks to the growing popularity of and investment in robotics, robots and other forms of artificial intelligence. Scholars in Science and Technology Studies (STS) have shown that it is often difficult for designers and engineers to develop accurate ideas about potential users of such technologies. However, the social context of robots and design settings themselves have received significantly less attention. Based on our laboratory ethnographies, we argue that the practices in which engineers are engaged are important as they can shape the kind of user images designers create. To capture these dynamics, we propose two new concepts: ‘image-evoking activities’ as well as ‘user image landscape’. Our findings provide pertinent input for researchers, designers and policy-makers, as they raise questions with regards to contemporary fears of robots replacing humans, for the effectiveness of user involvement and participatory design, and for user studies in STS. If design activities co-constitute the user images that engineers develop, a greater awareness is needed specifically of the locales in which the design of robots and other types of technologies takes place.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kai Li;
    Publisher: IOS Press
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Include:
5,822 Research products, page 1 of 583
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sean Fobbe; Natia Navrouzov; Kristen Hopper; Ahmed Khudida Burjus; Graham Philip; Maher G Nawaf; Dan Lawrence; Helen Walasek; Sara Birjandian; Majid Hassan Ali; +4 more
    Publisher: Brill | Nijhoff
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract Discussions of the 2014 genocide committed by the Islamic State against the Êzidîs (also known as ‘Yazidis’ or ‘Yezidis’) have generally focused on murder, slavery and sexual exploitation. In this paper we analyze the destruction of Êzidî tangible and intangible cultural heritage as a significant facet of the Islamic State’s policy of ethnic cleansing and genocide. Evidence of destruction is collected and presented in context with other criminal acts. In international discourse the destruction of cultural heritage sites is most often placed under the heading of war crime. Several convictions by the ICTY and the conviction of Malian Islamist Al-Mahdi by the ICC are well-known. However, heritage destruction may also be prosecuted as the crime of persecution, a crime against humanity. Numerous indictments and convictions before international courts attest to the viability of this approach. Finally, as per explicit caselaw of the ICJ and ICTY, destruction of tangible heritage also serves as evidence of the special intent to destroy a protected group under the crime of genocide. The Êzidî are an endogamous community at home in northern Iraq for whom faith and ethnic belonging are inextricably linked. Belief in God and TawûsÊ Malek (the highest angel), and reverence for Lalish as the holiest place on earth are the defining features of the Êzidî faith. Historic and sacred places are an essential part of the Êzidî identity and are considered vital to life by the local population. The Islamic State made no secret of its intention to eradicate the Êzidî community and commenced a policy of ethnic cleansing and genocide on 3 August 2014. All victims were abused and tortured. Male Êzidîs above the age of 12 were killed. Female Êzidîs were enslaved and traded in a complex and public network of sexual slavery. Boys were trained in ISIS camps and militarized. Those who fled to Mount Sinjar were besieged in order to ensure death from starvation, thirst and the blazing sun. Bases of economic support, such as olive groves and irrigation wells, were systematically destroyed and many areas of the Êzidî homeland were sown with landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to prevent the population from returning. We provide original research, evidence and context on the destruction of Êzidî tangible cultural heritage in the Bahzani/Bashiqa and Sinjar areas of northern Iraq. We present satellite imagery analysis conducted by the EAMENA project, drawing on data provided by Êzidî representatives. According to the Department of Yazidi Affairs in the Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs in the Kurdistan Regional Government 68 Êzidî sites were destroyed by the Islamic State. We consider 16 sites in the Bahzani/Bashiqa area and 8 in the Sinjar area to which access was possible and which could be documented. We conclude that the destruction of the cultural heritage of the Êzidî people constituted a war crime, a crime against humanity (persecution) and compelling evidence of genocidal intent. We recommend the consideration of cultural heritage destruction in any prosecution of atrocity crimes, especially the crime of genocide. Context This article was published in the peer-reviewed Asian Yearbook of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (AYHR), Volume 5, pp 111-144, DOI: 10.1163/9789004466180_006. The AYHR is edited by Professor Javaid Rehman, the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The version provided here is the author manuscript, i.e. the text after peer-review, but before typesetting. The article is based on the 2019 report 'Destroying the Soul of the Yazidis: Cultural Heritage Destruction during the Islamic State's Genocide against the Yazidis', published by RASHID International, EAMENA and Yazda. About RASHID International RASHID International is a worldwide network of archaeologists and cultural heritage experts dedicated to safeguarding and promoting the cultural heritage of Iraq, ancient Mesopotamia. To assist our Iraqi colleagues, we collect and share information, research and expert knowledge, work to raise public awareness, and both develop and execute strategies to protect heritage sites and other cultural property through international cooperation, advocacy and technical assistance. RASHID International is registered as a non-profit organisation in Germany and enjoys charitable tax-exempt status under German law. We are an organisation in special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council since 2019. Learn more about our work at www.rashid-international.org About Yazda Yazda is a global community-led institution that protects and champions all religious and ethnic minority communities, including Assyrians, Chaldeans, Kakais, Shabak, Turkmen, and Yazidis in Iraq, Kurdistan Region, and Syria. Founded in 2014 at the onset of the genocide perpetuated by Da’esh, also known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Levant (ISIL), against the Yazidis, as well as war crimes and crimes against humanity against other minorities, Yazda leads advocacy and strategic projects in Dohuk, Sinjar, and the Nineveh Plains, as well as global diaspora hubs. We work hand-in-hand with our partners, including United Nations agencies, key donor governments, the Iraqi and Kurdistan Regional Governments, and instrumental community organizations to ensure justice, accountability, and a sustainable future for all is swiftly reached. We are fervently determined to ensure Never Again, so that no community and people ever face genocide. Learn more about our work at www.yazda.org. About EAMENA The EAMENA Project rapidly records and evaluates the status of the archaeological landscape of the MENA region in order to create an accessible body of data which can be used by national and international heritage professionals to target those sites most in danger and better plan and implement the preservation and protection of this heritage. The EAMENA project is a collaboration between the Universities of Oxford, Leicester and Durham in the United Kingdom and is supported by the Arcadia Fund and the British Council's Cultural Protection Fund. You can find out more about our work at our website www.eamena.org.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    G. Tataris; Nikolaos Soulakellis; K. Chaidas;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications

    Abstract. The recovery phase of an earthquake-affected settlement is a time-consuming and complex process that requires monitoring, which is now possible using UAS. The purpose of this paper is to present the methodology followed and the results obtained by the exploitation of UAS for rapid multitemporal 3D mapping during the recovery phase of Vrisa traditional settlement, Lesvos island, Greece, which was highly damaged by the earthquake (Mw=6.3) on 12th June 2017. More analytically, three (3) flight campaigns covering the period July 2017 – May 2020 took place by means of an UAS for collecting high-resolution images on: i) 19th May 2019, ii) 29th September 2019, iii) 17th May 2020. Structure from Motion (SfM) and Multi Stereo View (MSV) methods have been applied and produced: i) Digital Surface Models – DSMs, ii) 3D Point Clouds – 3DPC and iii) Orthophoto-maps, of Vrisa. In parallel, GIS capabilities has been exploit to calculate building volumes based on: a) DSM produced by UAS image processing, b) DEM produced by 233 RTK measurements and c) building footprints derived by the digitization of the orthophoto-map of 25th July 2017. The methodology developed and implemented achieves extremely reliable results in a relatively easy, fast and economically feasible way, which is confirmed with great precision by field work. By applying the above-described methodology, it was possible to monitoring the recovery phase during July 2017 and May 2020 which 302/340 buildings that had been severely damaged by the earthquake have been demolished. A small number of new buildings have also been rebuilded and small number of buildings that have just begun excavations for their construction. An important parameter for obtaining reliable data and comparable results is the correct selection of flight parameters and their maintenance at all times when it is decided to take data, without affecting the accuracy of the results from taking photos or videos. Automation in the future of the proposed methodology can significantly accelerate the achievement of reliable results without the intermediate interpretation of orthophoto-maps.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Sivignon, Michel;
    Publisher: Presses universitaires de Lyon

    La Grèce contemporaine figure en Europe parmi les producteurs de vin de second ordre. Sa production oscille entre 3,5 et cinq millions d’hectolitres. Elle compte pour la moitié ou le tiers de la production du Portugal ; quant à l’Espagne et à l’Italie, elles figurent parmi les grands producteurs à l’échelle mondiale. La production de la Grèce est du même ordre que celle de la Hongrie et assez voisine de celles de la Roumanie et de la Bulgarie. La superficie du vignoble grec (130 000 hectares ...

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Carole Gillespie;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Abstract Carole Gillespie, founder of business relationships consultancy, People Buy from People, and author of Flying Start: How to make your own luck at work, explains why relationships still matter, even in our digital age.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    M Minerbi; B Battisti;
    Publisher: Italian Society of Sivilculture and Forest Ecology (SISEF)

    Abstract: Dr. Klausjorg Hellrigl (1935-2021) passed away few weeks ago. For decades Dr. Hellrigl was a reference for Italian and foreign entomologists. Among his many articles and investigations, Dr. Hellrigl was probably best known for his studies on xylophagous beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae and Cerambycidae). Here, two former pupils of Dr. Hellrigl remember his life and scientific works.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Miriam Cabrelles; José Luis Lerma; Valentín Villaverde;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Spain

    [EN] In this article, we propose a methodology for the archaeological documentation of limestone plaquettes decorated with faint paintings and fine engravings. The plaquette number 16330 is presented, belonging to the portable art collection in Cova del Parpalló (Gandía, Spain), one of the most important Paleolithic sites in the UNESCO¿s Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula. Macro photogrammetry is used to generate a 3D model and basic treatments on raster images. The resulting 3D model has a spatial resolution of tens of microns and was used to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) and orthorectified macro photographs for documenting the engravings and paintings. All stages of the workflow are detailed in-depth, specifying the data collection parameters and the configuration used in the subsequent processing with HyperCube and DStretch software. The resulting documentation is accurate, reproducible, and objective and allows the reinterpretation of the available graphic documentation started in the 1990s. This research was funded by Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEO/2017/060) and Ministerio de la Ciencia e Innovación (HAR2017-85153-P).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giovanna Bucci;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    In the southern area of the Ferrara District, Italy, remote sensing investigations associated with geo-archaeological drilling in underwater archaeological studies, have helped to broad our understanding of the historical evolution and cultural heritage of inland waterways. In working on prototype sites, we have taken a multidisciplinary approach of surveillance and preventive archaeology, and have collaborated with archaeologists, geologists, hydro-biologists, and engineers. In this area of research, often lakes, lagoons, and rivers are characterized by low visibility. Some Quaternary events have deeply modified Ferrara’s landscape. Analysis of preserved samples from micro-drillings, underwater direct and indirect surveys, and the cataloguing of historical artefacts, are giving to the researchers a remarkable ancient chronology line. Recent studies confirmed anthropization sequences from the 1st Century B.C. to the 6th Century A.D. Waterscape archaeology, a multidisciplinary science devoted to the study of the human use of wetlands and anthropological connection with the water environment, testifies the ways in which people, in the past, constructed and used the water environment. In this article, we describe underwater cultural heritage research using 3D side scan sonar surveys and artifacts analysis, comparing data from direct diving investigations and stratigraphic data from micro-geological drillings on sites of Lago Tramonto, Gambulaga, Portomaggiore (Ferrara).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TIMBER (677152), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia’s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, Lübeck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and Lübeck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fischer, Björn; Östlund, Britt; Peine, Alexander; Innovation and Sustainability; Innovation Studies;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Country: Netherlands

    In this study, we explore the constitution of user representations of robots in design practice. Using the results of ethnographic research in two robot laboratories, we show how user representations emerge in and are entangled with design activities. Our study speaks to the growing popularity of and investment in robotics, robots and other forms of artificial intelligence. Scholars in Science and Technology Studies (STS) have shown that it is often difficult for designers and engineers to develop accurate ideas about potential users of such technologies. However, the social context of robots and design settings themselves have received significantly less attention. Based on our laboratory ethnographies, we argue that the practices in which engineers are engaged are important as they can shape the kind of user images designers create. To capture these dynamics, we propose two new concepts: ‘image-evoking activities’ as well as ‘user image landscape’. Our findings provide pertinent input for researchers, designers and policy-makers, as they raise questions with regards to contemporary fears of robots replacing humans, for the effectiveness of user involvement and participatory design, and for user studies in STS. If design activities co-constitute the user images that engineers develop, a greater awareness is needed specifically of the locales in which the design of robots and other types of technologies takes place.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kai Li;
    Publisher: IOS Press
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