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215 Research products, page 1 of 22

  • 2018-2022
  • Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
  • Hyper Article en Ligne
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Philippe De Donder; Marie-Louise Leroux;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Belgium, France
    Project: SSHRC

    We study the demand for Long Term Care (LTC hereafter) insurance in a setting where agents have state-dependent preferences over both a daily life consumption good and LTC expenditures. We assume that dependency creates a demand for LTC expenditures while decreasing the marginal utility of daily life consumption, for any given consumption level. Agents optimize over their consumption of both goods as well as over the amount of LTC insurance (LTCI). We first show that some agents optimally choose not to insure themselves, while no agent wishes to buy complete insurance, in accordance with the so-called LTCI puzzle. At equilibrium, the transfer received from the insurer covers only a fraction of the LTC expenditures. The demand for LTCI need not increase with income when preferences are non state-dependent or insurance is actuarially unfair. Also, preferences have to be state-dependent with no insurance bought to rationalize the empirical observation of a higher marginal utility at equilibrium when autonomous. Finally, focusing on iso-elastic preferences, we recover the empirical observation that health/LTC expenditures are not very sensitive to income, and we show that LTCI as a fraction of income should decrease with income and then become nil above a threshold.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lyall, Andrea; Nelson, Harry; Rosenblum, Daisy; Turin, Mark;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; This paper describes the process and outcomes of a project focused on community centred reclamation of plant-based knowledge in the Kwak̓wala language from previously published materials as well as new documentation with Kwak̓wala speaking Elders. The paper describes our research process resulting in the documentation of 300 plant word names and phrases, starting with 135 plants with names and words in Kwak̓wala that had been documented between the late 19th and early 20th century by Franz Boas and George Hunt, subsequently added to and enriched by community members and academics. An audio-visual dictionary of these plant names and associated phrases is now available through the FirstVoices web portal (http://bit.ly/LDC_FirstVoices). The corresponding author initiated the work and then further developed the research in collaboration with Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw fluent speakers, linguists, biologists, and the U’mista Cultural Society. The project has stimulated interest among community members who provided valuable feedback on the different ways in which this research can be further accessed and then delivered. The paper concludes with some structured reflections on how to proceed in community-led research projects such as this. The authors see further opportunity for continued cross-disciplinary and community-based research.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gordon Pennycook; Jonathon McPhetres; Bence Bago; David G. Rand;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France
    Project: SSHRC , CIHR

    What are the psychological consequences of the increasingly politicized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States relative to similar Western countries? In a two-wave study completed early (March) and later (December) in the pandemic, we found that polarization was greater in the United States ( N = 1,339) than in Canada ( N = 644) and the United Kingdom. ( N = 1,283). Political conservatism in the United States was strongly associated with engaging in weaker mitigation behaviors, lower COVID-19 risk perceptions, greater misperceptions, and stronger vaccination hesitancy. Although there was some evidence that cognitive sophistication was associated with increased polarization in the United States in December (but not March), cognitive sophistication was nonetheless consistently negatively correlated with misperceptions and vaccination hesitancy across time, countries, and party lines. Furthermore, COVID-19 skepticism in the United States was strongly correlated with distrust in liberal-leaning mainstream news outlets and trust in conservative-leaning news outlets, suggesting that polarization may be driven by differences in information environments.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ghislaine Gueudet; Chantal Buteau; Eric Muller; Joyce Mgombelo; Ana Isabel Sacristán; Marisol Santacruz Rodriguez;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; We are interested in understanding how university students learn to use programming as a tool for “authentic” mathematical investigations (i.e., similar to how some mathematicians use programming in their research work). The theoretical perspective of the instrumental approach offers a way of interpreting this learning in terms of development of schemes by students; these development processes are called instrumental geneses. Nevertheless, how these schemes evolve has not been fully explained. In this paper, we propose to enrich the theoretical frame of the instrumental approach by a model of scheme evolution and to use this new approach to investigate learning to use programming for pure and applied mathematics investigation projects at the university level. We examine the case of one student completing four investigation projects as part of a course workload. We analyze the productive and constructive aspects of the student’s activity and the dynamic aspect of the instrumental geneses by identifying the mobilization and evolution of schemes. We arguethat our approach constitutes a new theoretical and methodological contribution deepening the understanding of students’ instrumented learning processes. Identifying instrumented schemes illuminates in particular how mathematical knowledge and programming knowledge are combined. The analysis in terms of scheme evolutions reveals which characteristics of the situations lead to such evolutions and can thus inform the design of teaching.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Madore, Frédérick;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    At first glance, the recent terrorist attacks in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso have encouraged the belief that Islamic radicalization is taking place in both countries. However, much media attention on these fears and the growing number of analyzes on the risks of a surge in extremism, while important, eclipse earlier and more recent dynamics that define Islam in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. The goal is to present a more nuanced portrait of the long-lasting realities characterizing these Muslim communities, which are less covered, but more pregnant, such as the participation of Muslims from marginalized social categories, mainly youth and women, in the mutations of Islam through their activism in religious associations.Through a comparative study of the Ivorian and Burkinabe cases, this thesis intends to take an avenue that has not yet been exploited by proposing research on social cadets belonging to different cultural models (French/Arabic speakers, fundamentalist/reformist, etc.). We will see in what ways these actors, since the 1970s, have managed to renegotiate power relations and hierarchical modalities to claim a more important place in the religious field and the public sphere to the point of reconfiguring progressively national Islamic associations. Three main hypotheses are defended.First, until the end of the 1980s, the cadets remained in a distant position regarding the main Islamic associations, which were dominated by social elders in both Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. This situation was not generating genuine open tensions or intergenerational conflicts. During this period, the preponderance of rivalries on the basis of the "politics of the belly" between leaders of Islamic organizations of the two countries consolidated the position of the elders, who mastered the administrative procedures of the State while being able to employ extraversion strategies. In this context, the emergence of a new cohort of young Ivorian and Burkinabe Arabic speakers did not allow a renewal of the associative leaders despite their important religious capital.A second hypothesis defends the idea that youth and women played a more significant role in Islamic associations in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso from the years 1990 and 2000, thanks to negotiations, compromises and cooperation between elders and cadets as part of a winding process marked by advances - much more significant in Côte d'Ivoire - and retreats depending on the association. In both countries, the cadets of French-speaking Muslim organizations benefited from a particularly favourable framework to express their agency. From the 2000s, changes in the Salafist movements of both countries and the high place given to youth and women in Islamic radios, especially in Côte d'Ivoire, illustrated the fact that seniors reviewed the responsibilities assigned to cadets in the da'wa. However, relations between elders and cadets within the organizations recognized as the principal interlocutors of Muslims with the State were particularly evocative of the still mostly gerontocratic nature of Islam in Burkina Faso, unlike Côte d'Ivoire.Finally, the last hypothesis postulates that mastery of the language of the state, and religious knowledge are no longer sufficient in the increasingly competitive field of Islamic associations for those claiming the legitimacy of being able to speak in the name of the "Muslim community." While religious knowledge remains important, the legitimacy and authority of those in charge of Islamic organizations derived increasingly from the capacity to convey a "civil Islam" and to engage in socio-economic development. This phenomenon, which had the effect of favouring, among other things, the rise of young people educated in the French-language education system, manifested itself much more rapidly in Côte d'Ivoire than in Burkina Faso.; À première vue, les récentes actions terroristes en Côte d’Ivoire et au Burkina Faso ont laissé croire à une radicalisation de l’islam dans ces deux pays. Cependant, la grande attention médiatique portée sur ces craintes et les nombreuses analyses qui ont été publiées sur les risques d’une montée de l’extrémisme, bien qu’elles soient importantes, éclipsent d’autres dynamiques récentes et plus anciennes caractérisant l’islam ivoirien et burkinabè. Il s’agit de présenter un portrait plus nuancé et dans la longue durée des réalités caractérisant ces communautés musulmanes, qui sont moins couvertes, mais plus prégnantes telles que la participation des musulmans issus de catégories sociales d’ordinaire marginalisées, principalement les jeunes et les femmes, dans les mutations de l’islam à travers leur engagement militant.À travers une étude comparative des cas ivoirien et burkinabè, cette thèse entend donc emprunter une avenue encore peu exploitée en proposant une recherche sur des cadets sociaux, appartenant à des modèles culturels différentiés (francophone/arabophone, islam fondamentaliste/réformiste, etc.). Nous verrons de quelles manières ces acteurs, depuis les années 1970, sont parvenus à renégocier les rapports de pouvoir et les modalités hiérarchiques, voire à les bousculer, pour revendiquer une place plus importante dans le champ religieux et la sphère publique au point de reconfigurer progressivement des associations islamiques nationales. Trois grandes hypothèses sont défendues.D’abord, la première hypothèse pose que jusqu’à la fin des années 1980, les cadets restèrent grandement en retrait des principales associations islamiques, qui étaient dominées par des ainés sociaux tant en Côte d’Ivoire qu’au Burkina Faso, sans que cela soit à l’origine de véritables tensions ouvertes ou de conflits intergénérationnels. Au cours de cette période, la prépondérance des rivalités sur la base de la « politique du ventre » entre dirigeants d’organisations islamiques des deux pays consolida la position des ainés, qui maitrisaient les procédures administratives de l’État tout en pouvant mettre de l’avant des stratégies d’extraversion. Dans ce contexte, l’émergence d’une nouvelle cohorte de jeunes arabisants ivoirien et burkinabè ne permit pas un renouvèlement des leaders associatifs malgré l’important capital religieux dont ils disposaient.Une deuxième hypothèse défend l’idée que des jeunes et des femmes jouèrent un rôle plus significatif au sein de l’islam associatif ivoirien et burkinabè à partir des années 1990 et 2000, à la faveur de négociations, de compromis et de coopération entre ainés et cadets dans le cadre d’un processus sinueux marqué par des avancées – beaucoup plus importantes en Côte d’Ivoire – et des reculs selon les structures associatives. Dans les deux pays, les cadets des organisations de musulmans francophones bénéficièrent d’un cadre particulièrement favorable pour exprimer leur agencéité. À partir des années 2000, les changements survenus dans les mouvements salafistes des deux pays et la grande place faite aux jeunes et aux femmes dans des radios islamiques, surtout en Côte d’Ivoire, illustrèrent bien le fait que les ainés furent aussi amenés à revoir les responsabilités dévolues aux cadets dans la da‘wa. Cependant, les relations entre les ainés et les cadets au sein des structures reconnues comme étant les principales interlocutrices des musulmans auprès de l’État furent particulièrement évocatrices du caractère encore grandement gérontocratique de l’islam au Burkina Faso contrairement à la Côte d’Ivoire.Enfin, la dernière hypothèse postule que la maitrise du langage de l’État et le savoir religieux ne sont plus suffisants pour s’affirmer dans le champ de plus en plus concurrentiel des associations musulmanes et revendiquer la légitimité de pouvoir s’exprimer au nom de la « communauté ». Si le savoir religieux demeure important, la légitimité et l’autorité des responsables d’organisations islamiques découlent de plus en plus de la capacité à véhiculer un « islam civil » et à s’engager sur le plan du développement socioéconomique. Ce phénomène, qui eut pour conséquence de favoriser entre autres la montée de jeunes scolarisés dans le système éducatif francophone, se manifesta beaucoup plus rapidement en Côte d’Ivoire qu’au Burkina Faso.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Esling, Philippe; Bazin, Theis; Bitton, Adrien; Carsault, Tristan; Devis, Ninon;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    Current state-of-the-art results in Music Information Retrieval are largely dominated by deep learning approaches. These provide unprecedented accuracy across all tasks. However, the consistently overlooked downside of these models is their stunningly massive complexity, which seems concomitantly crucial to their success. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing a model pruning method based on the lottery ticket hypothesis. We modify the original approach to allow for explicitly removing parameters, through structured trimming of entire units, instead of simply masking individual weights. This leads to models which are effectively lighter in terms of size, memory and number of operations. We show that our proposal can remove up to 90% of the model parameters without loss of accuracy, leading to ultra-light deep MIR models. We confirm the surprising result that, at smaller compression ratios (removing up to 85% of a network), lighter models consistently outperform their heavier counterparts. We exhibit these results on a large array of MIR tasks including audio classification, pitch recognition, chord extraction, drum transcription and onset estimation. The resulting ultra-light deep learning models for MIR can run on CPU, and can even fit on embedded devices with minimal degradation of accuracy. 8 pages, 2 figures. 21st International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference 11-15 October 2020, Montreal, Canada

  • English
    Authors: 
    MOHAMMADIRAD, Masoud; Anonby, Erik; Jaffer, Sheyholislami;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | INSPIRE (665850), SSHRC

    International audience

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Douglas J. Cumming; Alexander Peter Groh;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; We overview the papers of this special issue of the Journal of Corporate Finance and explain how they fit within the different segments of the entrepreneurial finance literature, including equity crowdfunding, angel investors, debt, venture capital, and private equity. We point to the growing importance of different sources of capital for entrepreneurs and emerging research trends pertinent to academics, practitioners, and policymakers. We explain common questions and suggest scope in future work for combining segments.

  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michèle Breton; Ilyass Dahmouni; Georges Zaccour;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    In this paper, we consider a two-species fishery model where the species can have different biological interactions, namely, competitive, symbiotic or prey-predator relationships. Each species is harvested by a group of fisherpersons. We characterize and compare equilibrium harvesting strategies, steady-state stocks and total discounted utilities under different modes of play, that is, noncooperation in both groups, cooperation in each of the groups and cooperation in only one group of fisherpersons. Our main results are as follows: (i) In all scenarios, the equilibrium strategy of an agent fishing either species consists of harvesting, in each period, a proportion of the available stock. (ii) The dividend of cooperation in a given group is increasing with the number of members in that group. (iii) Coordination between agents fishing a given species may be detrimental (biologically and economically) to the other species.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morgan Mouton; A Boulton; O Solomon; Melanie Rock;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; Despite calls for the adoption of 'One-Health' approaches, dog-bite injuries remain neglected in healthcare and public health, and our study may help to understand why. Media coverage can influence policy directions, including policies that address dogs. We collected articles (n = 65) published in two local newspapers, 2012-2017, then carried out an ethnographically-informed discourse analysis of the dog-bite reports. The newspapers portrayed dog-bites mainly as matters of public disorder, as opposed to priorities for healthcare and public health. Even as our study took place in a city that has shown dog-bite reductions without recourse to 'breed bans' or restrictions (i.e., breed-specific legislation), journalists still tended to emphasize dog breed as a narrative element in explaining dog-bite incidents. Nonetheless, the news coverage did not reproduce a 'nature versus nurture' dichotomy. Rather, the journalists presented dog breed, and presumably associated aggressive behaviour, as entanglements with social, economic, and cultural contexts. Meanwhile, the news stories reduced contextual complexity to geographic locations, as codes for community reputation, in attributing causality and morality.

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Include:
215 Research products, page 1 of 22
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Philippe De Donder; Marie-Louise Leroux;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Belgium, France
    Project: SSHRC

    We study the demand for Long Term Care (LTC hereafter) insurance in a setting where agents have state-dependent preferences over both a daily life consumption good and LTC expenditures. We assume that dependency creates a demand for LTC expenditures while decreasing the marginal utility of daily life consumption, for any given consumption level. Agents optimize over their consumption of both goods as well as over the amount of LTC insurance (LTCI). We first show that some agents optimally choose not to insure themselves, while no agent wishes to buy complete insurance, in accordance with the so-called LTCI puzzle. At equilibrium, the transfer received from the insurer covers only a fraction of the LTC expenditures. The demand for LTCI need not increase with income when preferences are non state-dependent or insurance is actuarially unfair. Also, preferences have to be state-dependent with no insurance bought to rationalize the empirical observation of a higher marginal utility at equilibrium when autonomous. Finally, focusing on iso-elastic preferences, we recover the empirical observation that health/LTC expenditures are not very sensitive to income, and we show that LTCI as a fraction of income should decrease with income and then become nil above a threshold.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lyall, Andrea; Nelson, Harry; Rosenblum, Daisy; Turin, Mark;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; This paper describes the process and outcomes of a project focused on community centred reclamation of plant-based knowledge in the Kwak̓wala language from previously published materials as well as new documentation with Kwak̓wala speaking Elders. The paper describes our research process resulting in the documentation of 300 plant word names and phrases, starting with 135 plants with names and words in Kwak̓wala that had been documented between the late 19th and early 20th century by Franz Boas and George Hunt, subsequently added to and enriched by community members and academics. An audio-visual dictionary of these plant names and associated phrases is now available through the FirstVoices web portal (http://bit.ly/LDC_FirstVoices). The corresponding author initiated the work and then further developed the research in collaboration with Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw fluent speakers, linguists, biologists, and the U’mista Cultural Society. The project has stimulated interest among community members who provided valuable feedback on the different ways in which this research can be further accessed and then delivered. The paper concludes with some structured reflections on how to proceed in community-led research projects such as this. The authors see further opportunity for continued cross-disciplinary and community-based research.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gordon Pennycook; Jonathon McPhetres; Bence Bago; David G. Rand;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France
    Project: SSHRC , CIHR

    What are the psychological consequences of the increasingly politicized nature of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States relative to similar Western countries? In a two-wave study completed early (March) and later (December) in the pandemic, we found that polarization was greater in the United States ( N = 1,339) than in Canada ( N = 644) and the United Kingdom. ( N = 1,283). Political conservatism in the United States was strongly associated with engaging in weaker mitigation behaviors, lower COVID-19 risk perceptions, greater misperceptions, and stronger vaccination hesitancy. Although there was some evidence that cognitive sophistication was associated with increased polarization in the United States in December (but not March), cognitive sophistication was nonetheless consistently negatively correlated with misperceptions and vaccination hesitancy across time, countries, and party lines. Furthermore, COVID-19 skepticism in the United States was strongly correlated with distrust in liberal-leaning mainstream news outlets and trust in conservative-leaning news outlets, suggesting that polarization may be driven by differences in information environments.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ghislaine Gueudet; Chantal Buteau; Eric Muller; Joyce Mgombelo; Ana Isabel Sacristán; Marisol Santacruz Rodriguez;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; We are interested in understanding how university students learn to use programming as a tool for “authentic” mathematical investigations (i.e., similar to how some mathematicians use programming in their research work). The theoretical perspective of the instrumental approach offers a way of interpreting this learning in terms of development of schemes by students; these development processes are called instrumental geneses. Nevertheless, how these schemes evolve has not been fully explained. In this paper, we propose to enrich the theoretical frame of the instrumental approach by a model of scheme evolution and to use this new approach to investigate learning to use programming for pure and applied mathematics investigation projects at the university level. We examine the case of one student completing four investigation projects as part of a course workload. We analyze the productive and constructive aspects of the student’s activity and the dynamic aspect of the instrumental geneses by identifying the mobilization and evolution of schemes. We arguethat our approach constitutes a new theoretical and methodological contribution deepening the understanding of students’ instrumented learning processes. Identifying instrumented schemes illuminates in particular how mathematical knowledge and programming knowledge are combined. The analysis in terms of scheme evolutions reveals which characteristics of the situations lead to such evolutions and can thus inform the design of teaching.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Madore, Frédérick;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    At first glance, the recent terrorist attacks in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso have encouraged the belief that Islamic radicalization is taking place in both countries. However, much media attention on these fears and the growing number of analyzes on the risks of a surge in extremism, while important, eclipse earlier and more recent dynamics that define Islam in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. The goal is to present a more nuanced portrait of the long-lasting realities characterizing these Muslim communities, which are less covered, but more pregnant, such as the participation of Muslims from marginalized social categories, mainly youth and women, in the mutations of Islam through their activism in religious associations.Through a comparative study of the Ivorian and Burkinabe cases, this thesis intends to take an avenue that has not yet been exploited by proposing research on social cadets belonging to different cultural models (French/Arabic speakers, fundamentalist/reformist, etc.). We will see in what ways these actors, since the 1970s, have managed to renegotiate power relations and hierarchical modalities to claim a more important place in the religious field and the public sphere to the point of reconfiguring progressively national Islamic associations. Three main hypotheses are defended.First, until the end of the 1980s, the cadets remained in a distant position regarding the main Islamic associations, which were dominated by social elders in both Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. This situation was not generating genuine open tensions or intergenerational conflicts. During this period, the preponderance of rivalries on the basis of the "politics of the belly" between leaders of Islamic organizations of the two countries consolidated the position of the elders, who mastered the administrative procedures of the State while being able to employ extraversion strategies. In this context, the emergence of a new cohort of young Ivorian and Burkinabe Arabic speakers did not allow a renewal of the associative leaders despite their important religious capital.A second hypothesis defends the idea that youth and women played a more significant role in Islamic associations in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso from the years 1990 and 2000, thanks to negotiations, compromises and cooperation between elders and cadets as part of a winding process marked by advances - much more significant in Côte d'Ivoire - and retreats depending on the association. In both countries, the cadets of French-speaking Muslim organizations benefited from a particularly favourable framework to express their agency. From the 2000s, changes in the Salafist movements of both countries and the high place given to youth and women in Islamic radios, especially in Côte d'Ivoire, illustrated the fact that seniors reviewed the responsibilities assigned to cadets in the da'wa. However, relations between elders and cadets within the organizations recognized as the principal interlocutors of Muslims with the State were particularly evocative of the still mostly gerontocratic nature of Islam in Burkina Faso, unlike Côte d'Ivoire.Finally, the last hypothesis postulates that mastery of the language of the state, and religious knowledge are no longer sufficient in the increasingly competitive field of Islamic associations for those claiming the legitimacy of being able to speak in the name of the "Muslim community." While religious knowledge remains important, the legitimacy and authority of those in charge of Islamic organizations derived increasingly from the capacity to convey a "civil Islam" and to engage in socio-economic development. This phenomenon, which had the effect of favouring, among other things, the rise of young people educated in the French-language education system, manifested itself much more rapidly in Côte d'Ivoire than in Burkina Faso.; À première vue, les récentes actions terroristes en Côte d’Ivoire et au Burkina Faso ont laissé croire à une radicalisation de l’islam dans ces deux pays. Cependant, la grande attention médiatique portée sur ces craintes et les nombreuses analyses qui ont été publiées sur les risques d’une montée de l’extrémisme, bien qu’elles soient importantes, éclipsent d’autres dynamiques récentes et plus anciennes caractérisant l’islam ivoirien et burkinabè. Il s’agit de présenter un portrait plus nuancé et dans la longue durée des réalités caractérisant ces communautés musulmanes, qui sont moins couvertes, mais plus prégnantes telles que la participation des musulmans issus de catégories sociales d’ordinaire marginalisées, principalement les jeunes et les femmes, dans les mutations de l’islam à travers leur engagement militant.À travers une étude comparative des cas ivoirien et burkinabè, cette thèse entend donc emprunter une avenue encore peu exploitée en proposant une recherche sur des cadets sociaux, appartenant à des modèles culturels différentiés (francophone/arabophone, islam fondamentaliste/réformiste, etc.). Nous verrons de quelles manières ces acteurs, depuis les années 1970, sont parvenus à renégocier les rapports de pouvoir et les modalités hiérarchiques, voire à les bousculer, pour revendiquer une place plus importante dans le champ religieux et la sphère publique au point de reconfigurer progressivement des associations islamiques nationales. Trois grandes hypothèses sont défendues.D’abord, la première hypothèse pose que jusqu’à la fin des années 1980, les cadets restèrent grandement en retrait des principales associations islamiques, qui étaient dominées par des ainés sociaux tant en Côte d’Ivoire qu’au Burkina Faso, sans que cela soit à l’origine de véritables tensions ouvertes ou de conflits intergénérationnels. Au cours de cette période, la prépondérance des rivalités sur la base de la « politique du ventre » entre dirigeants d’organisations islamiques des deux pays consolida la position des ainés, qui maitrisaient les procédures administratives de l’État tout en pouvant mettre de l’avant des stratégies d’extraversion. Dans ce contexte, l’émergence d’une nouvelle cohorte de jeunes arabisants ivoirien et burkinabè ne permit pas un renouvèlement des leaders associatifs malgré l’important capital religieux dont ils disposaient.Une deuxième hypothèse défend l’idée que des jeunes et des femmes jouèrent un rôle plus significatif au sein de l’islam associatif ivoirien et burkinabè à partir des années 1990 et 2000, à la faveur de négociations, de compromis et de coopération entre ainés et cadets dans le cadre d’un processus sinueux marqué par des avancées – beaucoup plus importantes en Côte d’Ivoire – et des reculs selon les structures associatives. Dans les deux pays, les cadets des organisations de musulmans francophones bénéficièrent d’un cadre particulièrement favorable pour exprimer leur agencéité. À partir des années 2000, les changements survenus dans les mouvements salafistes des deux pays et la grande place faite aux jeunes et aux femmes dans des radios islamiques, surtout en Côte d’Ivoire, illustrèrent bien le fait que les ainés furent aussi amenés à revoir les responsabilités dévolues aux cadets dans la da‘wa. Cependant, les relations entre les ainés et les cadets au sein des structures reconnues comme étant les principales interlocutrices des musulmans auprès de l’État furent particulièrement évocatrices du caractère encore grandement gérontocratique de l’islam au Burkina Faso contrairement à la Côte d’Ivoire.Enfin, la dernière hypothèse postule que la maitrise du langage de l’État et le savoir religieux ne sont plus suffisants pour s’affirmer dans le champ de plus en plus concurrentiel des associations musulmanes et revendiquer la légitimité de pouvoir s’exprimer au nom de la « communauté ». Si le savoir religieux demeure important, la légitimité et l’autorité des responsables d’organisations islamiques découlent de plus en plus de la capacité à véhiculer un « islam civil » et à s’engager sur le plan du développement socioéconomique. Ce phénomène, qui eut pour conséquence de favoriser entre autres la montée de jeunes scolarisés dans le système éducatif francophone, se manifesta beaucoup plus rapidement en Côte d’Ivoire qu’au Burkina Faso.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Esling, Philippe; Bazin, Theis; Bitton, Adrien; Carsault, Tristan; Devis, Ninon;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    Current state-of-the-art results in Music Information Retrieval are largely dominated by deep learning approaches. These provide unprecedented accuracy across all tasks. However, the consistently overlooked downside of these models is their stunningly massive complexity, which seems concomitantly crucial to their success. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing a model pruning method based on the lottery ticket hypothesis. We modify the original approach to allow for explicitly removing parameters, through structured trimming of entire units, instead of simply masking individual weights. This leads to models which are effectively lighter in terms of size, memory and number of operations. We show that our proposal can remove up to 90% of the model parameters without loss of accuracy, leading to ultra-light deep MIR models. We confirm the surprising result that, at smaller compression ratios (removing up to 85% of a network), lighter models consistently outperform their heavier counterparts. We exhibit these results on a large array of MIR tasks including audio classification, pitch recognition, chord extraction, drum transcription and onset estimation. The resulting ultra-light deep learning models for MIR can run on CPU, and can even fit on embedded devices with minimal degradation of accuracy. 8 pages, 2 figures. 21st International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference 11-15 October 2020, Montreal, Canada

  • English
    Authors: 
    MOHAMMADIRAD, Masoud; Anonby, Erik; Jaffer, Sheyholislami;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | INSPIRE (665850), SSHRC

    International audience

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Douglas J. Cumming; Alexander Peter Groh;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; We overview the papers of this special issue of the Journal of Corporate Finance and explain how they fit within the different segments of the entrepreneurial finance literature, including equity crowdfunding, angel investors, debt, venture capital, and private equity. We point to the growing importance of different sources of capital for entrepreneurs and emerging research trends pertinent to academics, practitioners, and policymakers. We explain common questions and suggest scope in future work for combining segments.

  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michèle Breton; Ilyass Dahmouni; Georges Zaccour;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    In this paper, we consider a two-species fishery model where the species can have different biological interactions, namely, competitive, symbiotic or prey-predator relationships. Each species is harvested by a group of fisherpersons. We characterize and compare equilibrium harvesting strategies, steady-state stocks and total discounted utilities under different modes of play, that is, noncooperation in both groups, cooperation in each of the groups and cooperation in only one group of fisherpersons. Our main results are as follows: (i) In all scenarios, the equilibrium strategy of an agent fishing either species consists of harvesting, in each period, a proportion of the available stock. (ii) The dividend of cooperation in a given group is increasing with the number of members in that group. (iii) Coordination between agents fishing a given species may be detrimental (biologically and economically) to the other species.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morgan Mouton; A Boulton; O Solomon; Melanie Rock;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: SSHRC

    International audience; Despite calls for the adoption of 'One-Health' approaches, dog-bite injuries remain neglected in healthcare and public health, and our study may help to understand why. Media coverage can influence policy directions, including policies that address dogs. We collected articles (n = 65) published in two local newspapers, 2012-2017, then carried out an ethnographically-informed discourse analysis of the dog-bite reports. The newspapers portrayed dog-bites mainly as matters of public disorder, as opposed to priorities for healthcare and public health. Even as our study took place in a city that has shown dog-bite reductions without recourse to 'breed bans' or restrictions (i.e., breed-specific legislation), journalists still tended to emphasize dog breed as a narrative element in explaining dog-bite incidents. Nonetheless, the news coverage did not reproduce a 'nature versus nurture' dichotomy. Rather, the journalists presented dog breed, and presumably associated aggressive behaviour, as entanglements with social, economic, and cultural contexts. Meanwhile, the news stories reduced contextual complexity to geographic locations, as codes for community reputation, in attributing causality and morality.

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