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  • Neuroinformatics

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bourkha, Bilal;

    Master

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Néel, Louis;

    École thématique

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Multon, Bernard;

    Il s'agit d'aborder, de façon transversale au sciences de l'ingénieur, la problématique de l'efficacité énergétique.Après avoir précisé le sens des termes employés, en particulier ceux d’efficacité énergétique (relatif au service) et de rendement énergétique (physique), différents exemples de conversion énergétique sont balayés. Puis, la notion de puissance est définie comme le débit d’une conversion énergétique et une caractéristique importante des convertisseurs. Le rendement d’une conversion fait alors l’objet de développement dans une large variété de cas (chaleur, énergies mécanique et électrique…) où les limites, notamment la limite thermodynamique de Carnot, sont explicitées. Ensuite, les notions de rendement instantané (ou en puissance) et rendement sur cycle (ou énergétique) sont formalisées, et celle de rendement sur cycle de vie est introduite en incluant des notions de soutenabilité. Enfin, l’importance de la qualité de la gestion des conversions, du dimensionnement des convertisseurs et des usages est analysée, en particulier, pour bien mettre en évidence que maximisation de l’efficacité énergétique d’un système permettant de satisfaire un service ne rime pas nécessairement avec minimisation de sa consommation énergétique. Des exemples, dans des domaines variés (éclairage, transports, production d’électricité…) viendront illustrer les propos Doctoral

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    The pathophysiology of stroke is complex. Adaptive and maladaptive signalling occurs between multiple cell types in the brain. There is crosstalk between central and systemic responses. And there are overlapping pathways during initial injury and subsequent repair. These numerous feed-forward and feed-back interactions have made it difficult to translate experimental discoveries into clinical applications. An emerging hypothesis in biomedical research now suggests that contrary to a traditional model, translation may not be efficiently obtained without a rigorous understanding of mechanisms. Hence, to optimize diagnostics and therapeutics for stroke patients, it is necessary to identify and define causal mechanisms. Mirroring the multi-compartment interactions in stroke pathophysiology, bench-to-bedside, and bedside-back-to-bench advances in stroke may be best achieved with inter-disciplinary collaborations between basic research, neuroimaging, and broadly based clinical science. Causation can then be two-fold, ie, dissecting mechanisms and targets, as well as developing future scientists who can blur the boundaries between basic, translational, and clinical research. In systems theory, a critical goal is to distinguish causation from correlation. In stroke research, causation may perhaps be found through a collaborative search for mechanisms.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2013
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    Stroke
    Article
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    Stroke
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . 2013
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      Stroke
      Article
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      Stroke
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: S, Lovestone;
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  • Authors: S A, Amiel;

    ‘To keep in equilibrium’, one of the Oxford English Dictionary’s many definitions of balance, is a desirable target for anylife, but has special meaning for the life of a person with diabetes. Achieving balance—between hypo- and hyperglycaemia; between energy intake and energy consumption; between insulin action and insulin secretion; between attention to diabetes and attention to everything else—remains challenging, but progress has been made over the last three decades, both in our understanding of how nature achieves balance and in the tools we have to try to reproduce the actions of nature in disease states. In particular, the role of the brain in controlling diabetes, from glucose sensing to decision making, has been investigated. Physiological and neuro-imaging studies are finally being translated into patient benefit, with the aim of improving, as Dr Banting put it, the provision of ‘energy for the economic burdens of life’.

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  • Authors: Hirokazu, Oguni;

    The correct diagnosis of epilepsy leads to an appropriate treatment.The first step is to distinguish epileptic seizures from nonepileptic attacks, and to make a precise seizure diagnosis and classification. The next step is to identify the etiology or basic disorders underlying the epilepsy by physical and neurologic examinations, laboratory tests, including EEGs and neuroradiologic examinations. Although the EEG is the most important laboratory examination for the diagnosis of epilepsy, limitations of EEG interpretations must be recognized.A syndromic classification of the patients, to determine whether they fit known syndromes, should be attempted. If patients do not match a described syndrome, a neurobiologic approach, utilizing genetic, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacologic knowledge, alternatively provides useful information to understand the neurobiologic background of epilepsy.Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages for diagnosing and treating epilepsy. Both approaches can be used interchangeably with patients with seizure disorders, depending upon their condition. The epilepsy diagnosis, etiology, and seizure-type diagnosis should be reevaluated when seizure control is insufficient with first- and second-line antiepileptic drugs.

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  • Authors: Francisco José, Rubia Vila;
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    Experience-dependent plasticity is closely linked with the development of sensory function. Beyond this sensitive period, developmental plasticity is actively limited; however, new studies provide growing evidence for plasticity in the adult visual system. The amblyopic visual system is an excellent model for examining the "brakes" that limit recovery of function beyond the critical period. While amblyopia can often be reversed when treated early, conventional treatment is generally not undertaken in older children and adults. However, new clinical and experimental studies in both animals and humans provide evidence for neural plasticity beyond the critical period. The results suggest that perceptual learning and video game play may be effective in improving a range of visual performance measures and importantly the improvements may transfer to better visual acuity and stereopsis. These findings, along with the results of new clinical trials, suggest that it might be time to reconsider our notions about neural plasticity in amblyopia.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2012
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    Optometry and Vision Science
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Optometry and Vision Science
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    Authors: Bourkha, Bilal;

    Master

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207 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bourkha, Bilal;

    Master

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Néel, Louis;

    École thématique

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    Authors: Multon, Bernard;

    Il s'agit d'aborder, de façon transversale au sciences de l'ingénieur, la problématique de l'efficacité énergétique.Après avoir précisé le sens des termes employés, en particulier ceux d’efficacité énergétique (relatif au service) et de rendement énergétique (physique), différents exemples de conversion énergétique sont balayés. Puis, la notion de puissance est définie comme le débit d’une conversion énergétique et une caractéristique importante des convertisseurs. Le rendement d’une conversion fait alors l’objet de développement dans une large variété de cas (chaleur, énergies mécanique et électrique…) où les limites, notamment la limite thermodynamique de Carnot, sont explicitées. Ensuite, les notions de rendement instantané (ou en puissance) et rendement sur cycle (ou énergétique) sont formalisées, et celle de rendement sur cycle de vie est introduite en incluant des notions de soutenabilité. Enfin, l’importance de la qualité de la gestion des conversions, du dimensionnement des convertisseurs et des usages est analysée, en particulier, pour bien mettre en évidence que maximisation de l’efficacité énergétique d’un système permettant de satisfaire un service ne rime pas nécessairement avec minimisation de sa consommation énergétique. Des exemples, dans des domaines variés (éclairage, transports, production d’électricité…) viendront illustrer les propos Doctoral

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    The pathophysiology of stroke is complex. Adaptive and maladaptive signalling occurs between multiple cell types in the brain. There is crosstalk between central and systemic responses. And there are overlapping pathways during initial injury and subsequent repair. These numerous feed-forward and feed-back interactions have made it difficult to translate experimental discoveries into clinical applications. An emerging hypothesis in biomedical research now suggests that contrary to a traditional model, translation may not be efficiently obtained without a rigorous understanding of mechanisms. Hence, to optimize diagnostics and therapeutics for stroke patients, it is necessary to identify and define causal mechanisms. Mirroring the multi-compartment interactions in stroke pathophysiology, bench-to-bedside, and bedside-back-to-bench advances in stroke may be best achieved with inter-disciplinary collaborations between basic research, neuroimaging, and broadly based clinical science. Causation can then be two-fold, ie, dissecting mechanisms and targets, as well as developing future scientists who can blur the boundaries between basic, translational, and clinical research. In systems theory, a critical goal is to distinguish causation from correlation. In stroke research, causation may perhaps be found through a collaborative search for mechanisms.

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    Stroke
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    Stroke
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  • Authors: S, Lovestone;
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  • Authors: S A, Amiel;

    ‘To keep in equilibrium’, one of the Oxford English Dictionary’s many definitions of balance, is a desirable target for anylife, but has special meaning for the life of a person with diabetes. Achieving balance—between hypo- and hyperglycaemia; between energy intake and energy consumption; between insulin action and insulin secretion; between attention to diabetes and attention to everything else—remains challenging, but progress has been made over the last three decades, both in our understanding of how nature achieves balance and in the tools we have to try to reproduce the actions of nature in disease states. In particular, the role of the brain in controlling diabetes, from glucose sensing to decision making, has been investigated. Physiological and neuro-imaging studies are finally being translated into patient benefit, with the aim of improving, as Dr Banting put it, the provision of ‘energy for the economic burdens of life’.

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  • Authors: Hirokazu, Oguni;

    The correct diagnosis of epilepsy leads to an appropriate treatment.The first step is to distinguish epileptic seizures from nonepileptic attacks, and to make a precise seizure diagnosis and classification. The next step is to identify the etiology or basic disorders underlying the epilepsy by physical and neurologic examinations, laboratory tests, including EEGs and neuroradiologic examinations. Although the EEG is the most important laboratory examination for the diagnosis of epilepsy, limitations of EEG interpretations must be recognized.A syndromic classification of the patients, to determine whether they fit known syndromes, should be attempted. If patients do not match a described syndrome, a neurobiologic approach, utilizing genetic, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacologic knowledge, alternatively provides useful information to understand the neurobiologic background of epilepsy.Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages for diagnosing and treating epilepsy. Both approaches can be used interchangeably with patients with seizure disorders, depending upon their condition. The epilepsy diagnosis, etiology, and seizure-type diagnosis should be reevaluated when seizure control is insufficient with first- and second-line antiepileptic drugs.

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