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  • 0501 psychology and cognitive sciences

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Miroslav Dado; Marián Schwarz; Alena Očkajová; Richard Hnilica; Daniela Borošová;
    Publisher: Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem

    In order to ensure acceptable level of risk associated with exposure to airborne dust they should have been mainly technical and organisation measures at workplaces with enhanced occurance of dust. Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) belongs to principal engineering control for prevention of airborne spreading. The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of LEV system used at mechanical workshop for controlling respirable fraction of dust during stainless steel grinding activities. Dust control effectiveness was assessed by determining personal exposure levels with and without the use of LEV system. Personal dust samples were collected using a photometer-type dust monitor. On the basis of results it can be concluded that LEV system significantly improved quality of workplace atmosphere at given workplace.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Carl Erick Hagmann; Neil Cohn;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Recent research has shown that comprehension of visual narrative relies on the ordering and timing of sequential images. Here we tested if rapidly presented 6-image long visual sequences could be understood as coherent narratives. Half of the sequences were correctly ordered and half had two of the four internal panels switched. Participants reported whether the sequence was correctly ordered and rated its coherence. Accuracy in detecting a switch increased when panels were presented for 1 s rather than 0.5 s. Doubling the duration of the first panel did not affect results. When two switched panels were further apart, order was discriminated more accurately and coherence ratings were low, revealing that a strong local adjacency effect influenced order and coherence judgments. Switched panels at constituent boundaries or within constituents were most disruptive to order discrimination, indicating that the preservation of constituent structure is critical to visual narrative grammar.

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jeff A. Jones; Niels G. Waller;
    Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ronald Poppe; Rutger Rienks; Dirk Heylen;
    Country: Netherlands

    Research has revealed high accuracy in the perception of gaze in dyadic (sender–receiver) situations. Triadic situations differ from these in that an observer has to report where a sender is looking, not relative to himself. This is more difficult owing to the less favourable position of the observer. The effect of the position of the observer on the accuracy of the identification of the sender's looking direction is relatively unexplored. Here, we investigate this, focusing exclusively on head orientation. We used a virtual environment to ensure good stimulus control. We found a mean angular error close to 5°. A higher observer viewpoint results in more accurate identification. Similarly, a viewpoint with a smaller angle to the sender's midsagittal plane leads to an improvement in identification performance. Also, we found an effect of underestimation of the error in horizontal direction, similar to findings for dyadic situations.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Rosemary L. Hopcroft;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Evolutionary theory predicts that social status and fertility will be positively related. It also predicts that the relationship between status and fertility will differ for men and women. This is particularly likely in modern societies given evidence that females face greater trade-offs between status and resource acquisition and fertility than males. This paper tests these hypotheses using newly released data from the 2014 wave of the Survey of Income and Program Participation by the US Census, which has the first complete measures of fertility and number of childbearing partners for a large, representative, national probability sample of men and women and also contains comprehensive measures of economic status as measured by personal and family resources, including income from all sources and all assets. Multivariate analyses show that personal income is positively associated with total fertility and number of childbearing unions for men only. For men, personal net worth is positively associated with number of childbearing unions; it is also positively associated with fertility for married men with a spouse present. These findings support evolutionary predictions of a positive relationship between status, access to mates, and reproductive success for males. Whereas personal income and personal net worth are negatively associated with total fertility and number of childbearing unions for women, family income (net of personal income) is positively associated with total fertility for women. For married men living with a spouse, family income (net of personal income) is negatively associated with total fertility. These findings are consistent with evolutionary theory given the existence of greater trade-offs between production and reproduction for women in an advanced industrial society. For women and men, family net worth (net of personal net worth) is negatively associated with number of childbearing unions and fertility. Implications are discussed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Eirini Theochari; Eleftheria Tsaltas; Dimitrios Kontis;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    IntroductionSchizophrenia leads to functional deficits. A third of schizophrenia patients have obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCSs). The existing studies, which have investigated the effect of OCSs on social functioning (SF) of schizophrenia patients have produced contradictory findings and, interestingly, they have not adjusted for the role of executive functioning.ObjectivesTo investigate the predictive role of OCSs on SF in schizophrenia controlling for the effects of executive functioning.MethodsIn a cross-sectional study of 110 chronic schizophrenia patients we assessed OCSs (Yale-Brown Scale), SF (Strauss Carpenter Scale) and composite executive function (cognitive flexibility: Intra–extra dimensional set shifting task and planning: Stockings of Cambridge task) using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). We also measured total symptoms (PANSS total scores) and illness duration. Regression analysis tested the predicting role of OCSs (YBOCS total score) on functioning taking into account executive function (composite score) duration of illness and schizophrenia symptoms.ResultsOCSs were associated with better SF (B = 0.099; 95% CI = 0.019, 0.180; t = 2.449; df = 88; P = 0.016). This result was driven by the association of OCSs with job functioning (B = 0.043; 95% CI = 0.006, 0.081; t = 2.289; df = 88; P = 0.024). Executive functions were not significantly associated with social functioning.ConclusionsOCSs and not executive functions are associated with social functioning in schizophrenia. Future studies should examine whether OCSs represent a compensatory mechanism aiming at preserving social functioning in the disorder.Disclosure of interestThe authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nina Cingerová; Irina Dulebova;
    Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH

    Abstract This paper focuses on the case analysis of the memorial to the victims of state terror – the Wall of Grief (Stena skorbi) – which was unveiled on the eve of the 100th anniversary of the November 7, 1917, coup d’état. Using this example, we have attempted to elaborate a structure for a more complex analysis of the memory of past regimes’ manifestation and to create a methodological base for their comparison. We have based our research on the discourse theory by the so-called Essex School, the social semiotics by Kress, and the procedures of the critical discourse analysis. The procedure that we have considered relevant consists of the following: (a) description of the social context in which the memorial was manifested as a piece of evidence; (b) semiotic analysis of the memorial artifact; (c) analysis of verbal practices, as well as written and spoken texts that “explained” the memorial; and (d) analysis of nonverbal practices, namely, rituals. On the basis of our case study, we have come to the conclusion that when carrying out a semiotic analysis and the analysis of verbal and nonverbal practices in the case of the Russian public discourse, it is especially relevant to pay attention not only to widening vs. narrowing of the chronological framework, generalization vs. concretization, and specification of the traumatic experience but also to the question of framing of the memorial. In regard to the semiotic analysis, the extent of indexicality is considered to be very important in the sense of the bodily connection with an element of the commemorated event that bestows “truthfulness” and authenticity on the memorial. We assume that particularly present-day Russia, where explicit attempts to reinterpret the history of the authoritarian communist state and attempts to instrumentalize the totalitarian period according to the vector of the current political direction may be seen, is a relevant object of this kind of research.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Jean Decety; Claire Holvoet;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Empathy is a complex social-cognitive ability that is best understood by distinguishing its emotional, cognitive and motivational dimensions, which from early childhood interact between the child and her/his social environment. To date, among the many factors that are acknowledged to influence the development of empathy, children's temperament and parenting behaviors have been identified as interacting in predicting the extent to which children demonstrate empathic responses. Recent studies in developmental social neuroscience cast light on the neural networks engaged in the development of each of the dimensions that constitute empathy, which are needed to navigate social interaction and establishing positive social relationships. Indeed, early deficits in empathic processes can lead to difficulties in socialization, particularly associated with reduced attention to others' emotions, especially when they are suffering, a lesser degree of remorse and guilt, and a greater tendency to ignore social norms or break the rules. Difficulties in socialization are particularly visible in two well-known developmental disorders: children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with conduct disorder and callous unemotional traits (CU). This paper provides a critical and selective review of recent empirical studies in psychopathology and developmental neuroscience by addressing the dimensions underlying empathy, specifically emotional sharing and caring for others. For children with ASD, some studies report that they pay less attention to another person in distress. However, functional neuroimaging studies conducted with ASD adolescents indicate that the emotional dimension appears to be preserved, but a lack of emotional self-regulation may impair them from experiencing empathic concern. Children with conduct disorder and CU traits clearly manifest a reduced autonomic nervous system response to others' distress or suffering. This may account for their disregard or contempt for others' well-being and social norms. Functional neuroimaging studies show that atypical patterns of brain activity at 15 months of age can predict later severe conduct disorder. Neural regions engaged in emotional processing such as the anterior cingulate cortex, insula and amygdala shown reduced activation to empathy-eliciting stimuli in children with CU. Finally, the genetic nature of CU traits is highlighted in several studies. We conclude by proposing several avenues for developmental research to identify biomarkers from an early age and by inviting to focus on psychological interventions with those populations accordingly.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Joachim Hoffmann; Albrecht Sebald;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    When an observer looks at a hollow mask of a face, a normal convex face is often perceived [the hollow-face illusion—Gregory 1973, in Illusion in Nature and Art (London: Duckworth) pp 49–96]. We show that in exploring an illusory face, the eyes converge at the illusory and not at the real distances of fixated targets like the tip of the nose. The ‘vergence error’ appears even though the resulting disparities of the two retinal images of the target provide feedback that would allow an immediate correction. It is presumably the success of recognising a familiar object (a face) which overrides the correction of convergence. This suggests that the brain strives for a congruency of eye vergence and distance perception.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mathilde François; Philippe Crave; François Osiurak; Alexandra Fort; Jordan Navarro;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | Avenir L.S.E. (ANR-11-IDEX-0007), ANR | CORTEX (ANR-11-LABX-0042)

    Existing literature does not draw conclusions as to which speedometer type is better for truck driving. A digital speedometer would be more beneficial when obtaining absolute and relative readings, while an analogue speedometer would be more efficient and less distracting when detecting dynamic speed changes. Redundant speedometers, which simultaneously present digital and analogue speedometers, appear increasingly in vehicles, but no information is available on their ergonomic qualities. This study compared three speedometers: digital speedometers, analogue speedometers, and redundant speedometers. This study compared the efficiency, usability and visual distraction measures for all three types of speedometers in a simulated truck driving setting. The task-dependant results were confirmed for the digital and analogue speedometer. The redundant speedometer combined the benefits of each type presented separately, which highlights interesting theoretical and applied implications.

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