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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: M. M. Mahbub Alam; M. D. S. T. de Croos; Snæbjörn Pálsson;

    Penaeus semisulcatus, the green tiger prawn, is an ecologically and economically important penaeid shrimp in the Indo-West Pacific region, especially in rice-shrimp farming and capture fisheries in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, respectively. Genetic variation and phylogeography of samples of this species from Bangladesh and Sri Lanka were studied utilizing different mitochondrial DNA markers, i.e. cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), control region (CR) and 16S rRNA genes. No evidence of population structure was observed in Bangladesh, but distinct variations were found among the Sri Lankan samples (ΦST = 0.04, p = .002; FST = 0.07, p = .001), with the western sample differing from the northwestern and southern samples. The Bangladesh population had lower genetic diversity than two of the three Sri Lanka populations. The phylogeography of P. semisulcatus revealed two distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, one in the Western Pacific Ocean and second in the Indian Ocean. The Bangladesh samples showed highest levels of similarity with samples from Sri Lanka, India and Malaysia, with the Bangladesh and Sri Lanka populations sharing the most common recent ancestry. Among the Indian Ocean samples, high levels of variation were observed in the samples from Iran, indicating admixture of two distinct mtDNA lineages, one shared by the populations from the Bay of Bengal and the other possibly originating from Eastern Africa. The genetic and phylogeographic information obtained in this study will be useful in appropriate planning for management and conservation of shrimp fisheries in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and in the Indo-West Pacific region.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine Ecologyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine Ecologyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Uttam C. Paul; Avinash P. Manian; Barbora Široká; Heinz Duelli; +1 Authors

    Multivalent ions take a significant role in the sorption of soluble polysaccharides on solid cellulose substrates and thus demonstrate an important principle in structural polysaccharide organisation. Sorption of Fe(III)–alginate complexes on lyocell fibres as model for the insoluble cellulose matrix has been studied between pH 3–13, at 30 and 60 °C. Sorption maximum of the Fe(III)–alginate complex was observed at pH 3 where the sorbed amounts of alginate and iron were 6,600 and 85 mg iron per kg cellulose respectively. Under the experimental conditions used, a concentration of 0.05 mM Fe(III) is sufficient to achieve surface sorption of Fe(III)–alginate complex. The alginate sorption exhibited minor dependence on molar ratio of Fe(III) to alginate. In environmental scanning electron microscopy no deposition of Fe-hydroxides on the fiber surface was detected. The thickness of the adsorbed Fe(III)–alginate layer on the fiber surface was estimated with 12–22 nm. Tensile strength and abrasion resistance of Fe(III)–alginate treated fibers were not reduced through the sorption treatment. Alginate modified cellulose is of interest as material for medical application, as sorbent and textile finish.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Cellulosearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Cellulose
    Article . 2013
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Cellulosearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Cellulose
      Article . 2013
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Maria Irakli; Aggeliki Mygdalia; Paschalina Chatzopoulou; Dimitrios Katsantonis;

    The effect of hop sourdough fermentation combined with rice bran (RB) addition was investigated for improving technological, bioactive and sensory properties of wheat bread by optimizing the quantities of RB, yeast, sourdough and hop extract contents based on response surface methodology. The bread produced according to the optimized formula was compared with control bread, sourdough or RB-enhanced bread with regard to quality attributes, bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant activity. Sourdough fermentation combined with RB flour increased volume of loaves and consumer acceptance with no significant variations in crumb moisture content and crumb firmness during storage. RB darkened crumb while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough bread. Sourdough technology allowed increasing phenolic content of RB bread with no significant differences in its antioxidant activity. The bioaccessible ferulic and sinapic acids, the main phenolics released in vitro digestion of optimized bread were lower compared to those of control bread.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Food Chemistryarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Food Chemistryarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • Authors: Roktim Gogoi; Rikraj Loying; Neelav Sarma; Twahira Begum; +2 Authors

    Background:The essential oil of methyl eugenol rich Cymbopogon khasianus Hack. was evaluated and its bioactivities were compared with pure methyl eugenol. So far, methyl eugenol rich essential oil of lemongrass was not studied for any biological activities; hence, the present study was conducted.Objective:This study examined the chemical composition of essential oil of methyl eugenol rich Cymbopogon khasianus Hack., and evaluated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and herbicidal properties and genotoxicity, which were compared with pure compound, methyl eugenol.Material and Methods:Methyl eugenol rich variety of Cymbopogon khasianus Hack., with registration no. INGR18037 (c.v. Jor Lab L-9) was collected from experimental farm CSIR-NEIST, Jorhat, Assam (26.7378°N, 94.1570°E). The essential oil wasobtained by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated using GC/MS analysis and its antioxidant (DPPH assay, reducing power assay), anti-inflammatory (Egg albumin denaturation assay), and antimicrobial (Disc diffusion assay, MIC) properties, seed germination effect and genotoxicity (Allium cepa assay) were studied and compared with pure Methyl Eugenol compound (ME).Results:Major components detected in the Essential Oil (EO) through Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis were methyl eugenol (73.17%) and β-myrcene (8.58%). A total of 35components were detected with a total identified area percentage of 98.34%. DPPH assay revealed considerable antioxidant activity of methyl eugenol rich lemongrass essential oil (IC50= 2.263 μg/mL), which is lower than standard ascorbic acid (IC50 2.58 μg/mL), and higher than standard Methyl Eugenol (ME) (IC50 2.253 μg/mL). Methyl eugenol rich lemongrass EO showed IC50 38.00 μg/mL, ME 36.44 μg/mL, and sodium diclofenac 22.76 μg/mL, in in-vitro anti-inflammatory test. Moderate antimicrobial activity towards the 8 tested microbes was shown by methyl eugenol rich lemongrass essential oil whose effectiveness against the microbes was less as compared to pure ME standard. Seed germination assay further revealed the herbicidal properties of methyl eugenol rich essential oil. Moreover, Allium cepa assay revealed moderate genotoxicity of the essential oil.Conclusion:This paper compared the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, genotoxicity and herbicidal activities of methyl eugenol rich lemongrass with pure methyl eugenol. This methyl eugenol rich lemongrass variety can be used as an alternative of methyl eugenol pure compound. Hence, the essential oil of this variety has the potential of developing cost-effective, easily available antioxidative/ antimicrobial drugs but its use should be under the safety range of methyl eugenol and needs further clinical trials.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Huanli Sun; Yifan Zhang; Zhiyuan Zhong;

    The development of smart delivery systems that are robust in circulation and quickly release drugs following selective internalization into target cancer cells is a key to precision cancer therapy. Interestingly, reduction-sensitive polymeric nanomedicines showing high plasma stability and triggered cytoplasmic drug release behavior have recently emerged as one of the most exciting platforms for targeted delivery of various anticancer drugs including small chemical drugs, proteins, and nucleic acids. In vivo studies in varying tumor models reveal that these reduction-sensitive multifunctional nanomedicines outperform the currently used clinical formulations and reduction-insensitive counterparts, bringing about not only significantly enhanced tumor selectivity, accumulation and inhibition efficacy but also markedly reduced systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic index. In this review, we will highlight the cutting-edge advancement with a focus on in vivo performances as well as future perspectives on reduction-sensitive polymeric nanomedicines for targeted cancer therapy.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Advanced Drug Delive...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Advanced Drug Delive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • Authors: Quande Wang; Gavin Chit Tsui;

    A Cu(OTf)2-mediated synthesis of trifluoromethylated 4-isoxazolines is described. In one step from readily available propargylic N-hydroxylamines, a domino 5-endo-dig cyclization, followed by trifluoromethylation, takes place to construct the 4-isoxazoline core with concomitant installation of the CF3 group at the C-4 position. Such compounds could also be useful precursors for the preparation of α-trifluoromethyl β-amino ketones.

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  • Authors: Carolina Tavares; Jaqueline Gusmão;

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus subtilis , actually comprises two cryptic species confused under a single name. Despite morphological and molecular evidences accumulated since 1967, the new species confused with F. subtilis has never been formally described. In this paper, Farfantepenaeus isabelae sp. nov., is described and compared to its close relatives, F. brasiliensis , F. notialis, F. paulensis and F. subtilis s. str..

    Zootaxaarrow_drop_down
    Zootaxa
    Article . 2016
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    Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sergei A. Trushin; Wolfram E. Schmid; Werner Fuß;

    International audience; Oxygen was excited by 10-fs pulses in the Schumann-Runge continuum at 162 nm, which is by 0.57 eV above the dissociation limit. It was probed by high-intensity ionization at 810 nm with 10 14 W cm −2, measuring the ion yields. The O 2 + signal decays in 4.3 fs, which is much shorter than the expected time for dissociation. It is ascribed to a rapid decay of the ionization probability. In a similar time, the ion in the second excited state (with excess energy taken over from the neutral) reaches the dissociation limit, whereas this time would be much longer from the two lower ion states. In fact, the O + signal rises to a (first) maximum at 6 fs. The preference for the higher ion state is rationalized by an intermediate resonance in the neutral molecule, for which the polarization dependence also provides evidence. But the shape of the O + signal is very odd: it exhibits three maxima (at 6, 29 and 53 fs) of increasing intensity, before decaying rapidly (≤3.5 fs) to a pedestal. In contrast to the first maximum, the others appear at times when there is practically no interatomic force left in the excited state. We postulate a highly repulsive doubly excited state as a resonance for interpreting the second maximum, and for the third an ion-pair state lying further outside. Comparison is made with enhanced ionization, which has often been found at large interatomic distances on multiple ionization in strong laser fields. Consistent with this mechanism is the absence of similar observations at negative delay times, where five fundamental photons act as a pump and the fifth harmonic as a probe.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Physics B...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Karine Chenu; E.J. van Oosterom; Greg McLean; Kurt Deifel; +7 Authors

    Following advances in genetics, genomics, and phenotyping, trait selection in breeding is limited by our ability to understand interactions within the plant and with the environment, and to identify traits of most relevance to the target population of environments. We propose an integrated approach that combines insights from crop modelling, physiology, genetics, and breeding to characterize traits valuable for yield gain in the target population of environments, develop relevant high-throughput phenotyping platforms, and identify genetic controls and their value in production environments. This paper uses transpiration efficiency (biomass produced per unit of water used) as an example of a complex trait of interest to illustrate how the approach can guide modelling, phenotyping, and selection in a breeding programme. We believe that this approach, by integrating insights from diverse disciplines, can increase the resource use efficiency of breeding programmes for improving yield gains in target populations of environments.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Abu Taib Mohammed Shahjahan; Khandaker Shabbir Ahmed; Ismail Bin Said;

    Climate change and rapid urbanization are adversely affecting the urban environment by exacerbating the widely reported urban heat island effect in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Two wetland areas with variable riparian shadings in the warm-humid conditions of urban Dhaka were investigated through field campaigns on microclimatic parameters for their cooling potential on the surrounding urban fabric. It was observed that an inversion layer of fully saturated air develops over the water surface of wetland, suppressing evaporation from the wetland water surface layer, which was effectively reducing the heat exchange between the water surface and the air layer above it through its action as an insulating vapor blanket. Due to this effect, the wetland was unable to render as a source of coolth for the surrounding overheated urban area. This effect of the inversion layer was more pronounced in the urban wetland without riparian shading either by the urban form or tree canopy. A multiphysics simulation study conducted on the selected urban wetlands indicates the effect of differential shading pattern on the relation between fetch and inversion layer thickness. This research hypothesizes that the wetland can act as an urban adaption measure against the urban heat island effect by potentially transforming them into an urban cooling island (UCI) towards a favorable urban bioclimate.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Atmospherearrow_drop_down
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    Atmosphere
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    Atmosphere
    Article . 2020
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      Atmosphere
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      Atmosphere
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: M. M. Mahbub Alam; M. D. S. T. de Croos; Snæbjörn Pálsson;

    Penaeus semisulcatus, the green tiger prawn, is an ecologically and economically important penaeid shrimp in the Indo-West Pacific region, especially in rice-shrimp farming and capture fisheries in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, respectively. Genetic variation and phylogeography of samples of this species from Bangladesh and Sri Lanka were studied utilizing different mitochondrial DNA markers, i.e. cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), control region (CR) and 16S rRNA genes. No evidence of population structure was observed in Bangladesh, but distinct variations were found among the Sri Lankan samples (ΦST = 0.04, p = .002; FST = 0.07, p = .001), with the western sample differing from the northwestern and southern samples. The Bangladesh population had lower genetic diversity than two of the three Sri Lanka populations. The phylogeography of P. semisulcatus revealed two distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages, one in the Western Pacific Ocean and second in the Indian Ocean. The Bangladesh samples showed highest levels of similarity with samples from Sri Lanka, India and Malaysia, with the Bangladesh and Sri Lanka populations sharing the most common recent ancestry. Among the Indian Ocean samples, high levels of variation were observed in the samples from Iran, indicating admixture of two distinct mtDNA lineages, one shared by the populations from the Bay of Bengal and the other possibly originating from Eastern Africa. The genetic and phylogeographic information obtained in this study will be useful in appropriate planning for management and conservation of shrimp fisheries in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, and in the Indo-West Pacific region.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine Ecologyarrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine Ecologyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Uttam C. Paul; Avinash P. Manian; Barbora Široká; Heinz Duelli; +1 Authors

    Multivalent ions take a significant role in the sorption of soluble polysaccharides on solid cellulose substrates and thus demonstrate an important principle in structural polysaccharide organisation. Sorption of Fe(III)–alginate complexes on lyocell fibres as model for the insoluble cellulose matrix has been studied between pH 3–13, at 30 and 60 °C. Sorption maximum of the Fe(III)–alginate complex was observed at pH 3 where the sorbed amounts of alginate and iron were 6,600 and 85 mg iron per kg cellulose respectively. Under the experimental conditions used, a concentration of 0.05 mM Fe(III) is sufficient to achieve surface sorption of Fe(III)–alginate complex. The alginate sorption exhibited minor dependence on molar ratio of Fe(III) to alginate. In environmental scanning electron microscopy no deposition of Fe-hydroxides on the fiber surface was detected. The thickness of the adsorbed Fe(III)–alginate layer on the fiber surface was estimated with 12–22 nm. Tensile strength and abrasion resistance of Fe(III)–alginate treated fibers were not reduced through the sorption treatment. Alginate modified cellulose is of interest as material for medical application, as sorbent and textile finish.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Cellulosearrow_drop_down
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    Cellulose
    Article . 2013
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Cellulose
      Article . 2013
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Maria Irakli; Aggeliki Mygdalia; Paschalina Chatzopoulou; Dimitrios Katsantonis;

    The effect of hop sourdough fermentation combined with rice bran (RB) addition was investigated for improving technological, bioactive and sensory properties of wheat bread by optimizing the quantities of RB, yeast, sourdough and hop extract contents based on response surface methodology. The bread produced according to the optimized formula was compared with control bread, sourdough or RB-enhanced bread with regard to quality attributes, bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant activity. Sourdough fermentation combined with RB flour increased volume of loaves and consumer acceptance with no significant variations in crumb moisture content and crumb firmness during storage. RB darkened crumb while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough bread. Sourdough technology allowed increasing phenolic content of RB bread with no significant differences in its antioxidant activity. The bioaccessible ferulic and sinapic acids, the main phenolics released in vitro digestion of optimized bread were lower compared to those of control bread.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Food Chemistryarrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Roktim Gogoi; Rikraj Loying; Neelav Sarma; Twahira Begum; +2 Authors

    Background:The essential oil of methyl eugenol rich Cymbopogon khasianus Hack. was evaluated and its bioactivities were compared with pure methyl eugenol. So far, methyl eugenol rich essential oil of lemongrass was not studied for any biological activities; hence, the present study was conducted.Objective:This study examined the chemical composition of essential oil of methyl eugenol rich Cymbopogon khasianus Hack., and evaluated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and herbicidal properties and genotoxicity, which were compared with pure compound, methyl eugenol.Material and Methods:Methyl eugenol rich variety of Cymbopogon khasianus Hack., with registration no. INGR18037 (c.v. Jor Lab L-9) was collected from experimental farm CSIR-NEIST, Jorhat, Assam (26.7378°N, 94.1570°E). The essential oil wasobtained by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated using GC/MS analysis and its antioxidant (DPPH assay, reducing power assay), anti-inflammatory (Egg albumin denaturation assay), and antimicrobial (Disc diffusion assay, MIC) properties, seed germination effect and genotoxicity (Allium cepa assay) were studied and compared with pure Methyl Eugenol compound (ME).Results:Major components detected in the Essential Oil (EO) through Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis were methyl eugenol (73.17%) and β-myrcene (8.58%). A total of 35components were detected with a total identified area percentage of 98.34%. DPPH assay revealed considerable antioxidant activity of methyl eugenol rich lemongrass essential oil (IC50= 2.263 μg/mL), which is lower than standard ascorbic acid (IC50 2.58 μg/mL), and higher than standard Methyl Eugenol (ME) (IC50 2.253 μg/mL). Methyl eugenol rich lemongrass EO showed IC50 38.00 μg/mL, ME 36.44 μg/mL, and sodium diclofenac 22.76 μg/mL, in in-vitro anti-inflammatory test. Moderate antimicrobial activity towards the 8 tested microbes was shown by methyl eugenol rich lemongrass essential oil whose effectiveness against the microbes was less as compared to pure ME standard. Seed germination assay further revealed the herbicidal properties of methyl eugenol rich essential oil. Moreover, Allium cepa assay revealed moderate genotoxicity of the essential oil.Conclusion:This paper compared the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, genotoxicity and herbicidal activities of methyl eugenol rich lemongrass with pure methyl eugenol. This methyl eugenol rich lemongrass variety can be used as an alternative of methyl eugenol pure compound. Hence, the essential oil of this variety has the potential of developing cost-effective, easily available antioxidative/ antimicrobial drugs but its use should be under the safety range of methyl eugenol and needs further clinical trials.

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    Authors: Huanli Sun; Yifan Zhang; Zhiyuan Zhong;

    The development of smart delivery systems that are robust in circulation and quickly release drugs following selective internalization into target cancer cells is a key to precision cancer therapy. Interestingly, reduction-sensitive polymeric nanomedicines showing high plasma stability and triggered cytoplasmic drug release behavior have recently emerged as one of the most exciting platforms for targeted delivery of various anticancer drugs including small chemical drugs, proteins, and nucleic acids. In vivo studies in varying tumor models reveal that these reduction-sensitive multifunctional nanomedicines outperform the currently used clinical formulations and reduction-insensitive counterparts, bringing about not only significantly enhanced tumor selectivity, accumulation and inhibition efficacy but also markedly reduced systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic index. In this review, we will highlight the cutting-edge advancement with a focus on in vivo performances as well as future perspectives on reduction-sensitive polymeric nanomedicines for targeted cancer therapy.

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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Advanced Drug Delive...arrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Quande Wang; Gavin Chit Tsui;

    A Cu(OTf)2-mediated synthesis of trifluoromethylated 4-isoxazolines is described. In one step from readily available propargylic N-hydroxylamines, a domino 5-endo-dig cyclization, followed by trifluoromethylation, takes place to construct the 4-isoxazoline core with concomitant installation of the CF3 group at the C-4 position. Such compounds could also be useful precurso