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    Authors: Garcia Ferrer, Irene;

    La regulació de l'activitat proteolítica és crucial per al bon funcionament dels organismes, ja que afecta processos biològics com la nutrició, la defensa immunològica, la virulència de determinats microorganismes o la remodelació de teixits. Per això, en el genoma de pràcticament tots els éssers vius s'hi troben gens que codifiquen per inhibidors de peptidases que permeten el control dels enzims proteolítcs mitjançant la reducció de la seva activitat. Els inhibidors de peptidases són molt abundants en el genoma dels animals, on poden arribar a representar fins a un 1% dels gens, però la seva presència en bacteris és limitada. Malgrat això, alguns bacteris necessiten sobreviure en ambients rics en peptidases, com per exemple l'intestí humà, i per tant els inhibidors de peptidases son importants mecanismes de defensa en aquests microorganismes. Entre els inhibidors de peptidases codificats en els genomes bacterians, se n'han trobat que presenten homologia amb les a2 -macroglobulines (a2Ms) de metazoa, proteïnes altament abundants que participen, entre altres, en la immunitat innata dels animals. Tot i que s'ha postulat que les a2Ms bacterianes provenen de la transferència gènica horitzontal de gens de metazoa, la funció biològica, el mecanisme d'acció i l'estructura molecular d'aquestes proteïnes s'ha mantingut desconeguda. En aquesta tesi s'ha caracteritzat la a2M bacteriana de Escherichia coli, anomenada ECAM, per tal de definir la seva funció en la cèl•lula bacteriana. Els resultats obtinguts han permès descriure un nou mecanisme d'inhibició de peptidases, el qual s'ha anomenat mecanisme "snap-trap". En aquest, les peptidases que aconsegueixen accedir al periplasma de E. coli tallen la forma nativa d'ECAM en una regió anomenada esquer (bait region). Això causa un canvi conformacional i produeix la forma activada de la proteïna, la qual pot unir covalentment la peptidasa a través d'un enllaç tioèster molt reactiu. Aquest canvi conformacional i els elements estructurals implicats en el mecanisme d'acció d'ECAM s'han pogut descriure mitjançant l'obtenció de models atòmics de la proteïna en les dues conformacions, tant per cristal•lografia de raigs X com per criomicroscòpia electrònica. Un cop atrapades, les peptidases romanen inhibides i no poden tallar substrats d' alts pesos mol•leculars com podrien ser els components proteics de la paret bacteriana, explicant així la funció protectora que ECAM exerceix en la cèl•lula bacteriana i que ha sigut demostrada experimentalment per primer cop en aquesta tesi. En resum, a través de la combinació d'estudis estructurals, bioquímics i funcionals, s'ha obtingut un model del mecanisme d'acció d'ECAM a la cèl•lula bacteriana. Així, es contribueix a enriquir el coneixement sobre les a2Ms bacterianes i s'aporta informació sobre els mecanismes de defensa que presenten determinats bacteris. The balance between proteolytic and antiproteolytic activity is crucial in many biological processes such as nutrition, immune defence, virulence and tissue remodelling. Therefore, it is controlled by several mechanisms, among which by peptidic peptidase inhibitors that are encoded in the genomes of many organisms, representing up to 1% of genes in metazoa but being scarce and sketchy in bacteria. However, among bacterial peptidase inhibitors, some proteins with homology to the highly abundant metazoan a2-macroglobulins (a2Ms) have been described, which may have been acquired by bacteria from metazoa by horizontal gene transfer. Although a 2Ms have been extensively characterised in metazoa, where they play important roles in innate immunity, the biological role, mechanism of action and molecular structure of bacterial a2Ms (ba2Ms) remained largely unknown. In this thesis, the characterisation of the Escherichia coli a2M, ECAM, was undertaken in order to elucidate its role in the bacterial cell. The results unveiled a novel mechanism of peptidase inhibition, called the snap-trap mechanism, that is probably shared by other monomeric a2Ms, both from bacteria and metazoa. In this, attacking endopeptidases cleave the native inhibitor in an accessible bait region, thus causing a major conformational rearrangement and producing induced species that covalently traps peptidases through a highly reactive thioester bond. The rearrangement, involving most of the 13 domains of ECAM, but also key structural elements of the mechanism, were described by producing the first atomic models of ECAM in both conformations, by using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Through a covalent trap, ECAM prevents peptidases from cleaving large substrates, such as components of the bacterial cell wall, thus protecting E. coli cells against potentially damaging proteolytic activity. Therefore, it seems that ECAM participates in defence mechanisms in bacteria that thrive in the presence of peptidases, for which this thesis provides the first experimental evidence by in vivo functional assays. In summary, through a multifaceted approach that combined structural, biochemical and functional characterisation, this thesis yielded a mechanistic model for ECAM, significantly enriching our understanding of ba2Ms and providing new insights into bacterial defence mechanisms. Tesi realitzada a l'Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona (IBMB-CSIC)

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    Authors: Takeda, Masataka;

    学位論文

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    Authors: Noordzij, G.A.;

    In the late middle ages, the inhabitants of the duchy of Guelders had to deal with a number of negative stereotypes. They were reputed to be lumpish, barbaric, belligerent, and rebellious. These stereotypes had come into existence during the many wars with the Burgundian and Habsburg princes, who wanted to conquer the duchy. Some Guelders historians, however, used these negative stereotypes in order to create a positive image of their compatriots: they described the people of Guelders as natural, brave, and as lovers of freedom. According to them, these labels were the essence of the Guelders identity. In Gelre. Dynastie, land en identiteit Aart Noordzij describes the development of a political identity in Guelders between 1100 and 1600. He does this by analyzing the interaction between political processes, state-formation and the shaping of identities. Successively, the formation of the dynasty, the structure of the territory, and the imagination of the dynasty, the territory, and its inhabitants pass in review. By reconstructing the interaction between political processes, imagination, and the shaping of identities, we can understand how a political community like Guelders, notwithstanding its complexity and lack of unity, could exist, function, and get coherence.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2008
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    Doctoral thesis . 2008
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      Doctoral thesis . 2008
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      Doctoral thesis . 2008
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    Authors: Medrano Jiménez, Diego;

    We have presented for the rst time a detailed description of planar radiation zeros as a novel mathematical structure giving rise to new insights on the internal behavior of a theory, such as the biadjoint scalar theory, the Yang-Mills theory or the Einstein-Hilbert gravity. The concept \radiation zero" makes reference to all the con gurations in phase space for which the full scattering amplitude of a given process vanishes. In our case, we have studied \planar zeros", meaning that our characterization applies to those processes where all particle momenta lie in the same spatial plane. Although being a rather naive concept, the obtained results are far from incidental. On one side, we have found that the conditions of emergence of gauge planar zeros in the maximally helicity violating sector live inside the projective space spanned by the stereographic coordinates labelling the direction of ight of the outgoing momenta. The existence of such a projective characterization implies that planar zeros are always realized inside the soft limit of any of the emitted particles, which might be of relevance for the infrared structure or the asymptotic symmetries of the theory. On a di erent side, we have found that gravitational amplitudes always vanish inside this planar limit for non-helicity conserving con gurations without imposing any further kinematic conditions. String 0-corrections of these behaviors have also been obtained. All the computations have been done in the context of the color-kinematics du- ality, used as a procedure to compute gravitational amplitudes from their gauge analogues; and the Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, as a novel integral representation to write scattering amplitudes in contrast to the traditional Feynman diagram decomposition. In particular, the latter relies upon a rational map between the space of null D-dimensional momentum vectors and the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, given the name of scattering equations. Considered to be a challenging task, we have shown the advantages of using the Sudakov parametrization of particle momenta to simplify the computation of their exact solutions. In particular, we have shown that both punctures in the Riemann sphere and scattering amplitudes themselves adopt rather compact formulas when expressed in terms of Sudakov variables, suggesting the parametrization to be a natural candidate for an e cient description of scattering amplitudes inside the formalism. Tesis Doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Física Teórica. Fecha de Lectura: 06-09-2019

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    Biblos-e Archivo
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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      Doctoral thesis . 2019
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    Authors: Veigel, Thomas;

    Der Bandbreitenbedarf heutiger Kommunikationssysteme steigt immer weiter an, da Anwendungen wie z.B. schnelles Internet, Fernsehen über das Internet und hochauflösende Bildqualität vom Endverbraucher immer stärker nachgefragt werden. Daher ist ein gut ausgebautes Kernnetz der Telekommunikationsanbieter erforderlich, welches in der Regel auf Glasfaserleitungen basiert. Es müssen Konzepte entwickelt werden, die es ermöglichen, unter Weiterverwendung der vorhandenen Kabelnetzinfrastruktur die Datenrate signifikant zu erhöhen. Wirtschaftliche Aspekte spielen hierbei eine große Rolle, damit sich die neuen Breitbanddienste erfolgreich am Markt etablieren. Die Telekommunikationsanbieter sind daher dabei ihr Kernnetz von 10 Gbit/s auf 40 Gbit/s umzustellen. Bei bereits verlegten Glasfaserleitungen treten bei diesen Datenraten Polarisationsmodendispersion und chromatische Dispersion auf. Zur Korrektur dieser Effekte wird ein elektronischer Entzerrer, der sich adaptiv an den Kanal anpasst, vorgeschlagen. Der elektronische Entzerrer wird in einer 90 nm CMOS-Technologie entworfen, da CMOS-Technologien aus wirtschaftlichen Gründen bei Massenproduktion und beim Energieverbrauch Bipolartechnologien überlegen sind. Die statische CMOS-Logik zeichnet sich gegenüber Pseudo-NMOS und CML durch einen besonders niedrigen Energieverbrauch aus. Als Entzerrerkonzept wird das trellisbasierte MLSE-Verfahren mit dem Spezialfall des Viterbi-Algorithmus gewählt. Die Implementierung erfolgt nach einem Blockdekodierverfahren, bei dem sowohl Pipelining und Parallelisierung eingesetzt werden. Da für die kombinatorische Logik eine Taktfrequenz von über 1 GHz angestrebt wird, ist eine 32-fache Parallelisierung notwendig. Die Verarbeitung erfolgt in vier parallel geschalteten systolischen Blockdekodern. Die Umsetzung des Viterbi-Algorithmus erfolgt mit speziellen Recheneinheiten. Das charakteristische Trellisdiagramm lässt sich mit Hilfe sogenannter Addier-Vergleichs-Auswahleinheiten realisieren, die wiederum aus Addierern, Subtrahierern und Multiplexern aufgebaut sind. Die Bestimmung der Zweigmetriken erfolgt Hilfe einer im Betrieb aktualisierbaren Wertetabelle. Die Rückverfolgung des kürzesten Pfades geschieht mittels Multiplexern und Flipflops. Über Minimumauswahlschaltungen werden die vier systolischen Blockdekoder miteinander verknüpft. Um die Ein- und Ausgangsschnittstelle schlank zu halten, werden Demultiplexer und Multiplexer eingesetzt. Der Viterbi-Entzerrer wird anhand eines Bottom-up-Entwurfs aufgebaut. Es werden zunächst CMOS-Grundgatter entworfen, die um den Faktor 2 schneller sind als die Standardzellen des Halbleiterherstellers. Aufgrund dieses Geschwindigkeitsvorteils reduziert sich die Chipfläche, was sich in niedrigeren Maskenkosten niederschlägt. Der Zeitaufwand für einen Full-Custom-Entwurf ist damit begründet. Die schnellen Ein- und Ausgangsschnittstellenschaltungen werden in CML-Logik erstellt, da hierfür die statische CMOS-Logik zu langsam ist. Daher sind Pegelkonversionsschaltungen notwendig. Aus den Grundgattern werden komplexere Logikbausteine wie z.B. Volladdierer, Speicherzellen und Flipflops erstellt. Diese Komponenten werden auf Transistorebene simuliert, um die Verzögerungszeit zu ermitteln. Verschiedene Addiererarchitekturen werden verglichen, um herauszufinden welche sich für Additionen mit Wortbreiten von 8 bit besonders eigenen. Als besonders aussichtsreich stellt sich in diesem speziellen Anwendungsfall ein Paralleladdierer mit sukzessiver Übertragskorrektur heraus, da dieser hinsichtlich Verzögerungszeit, Flächenaufwand und Stromverbrauch optimal ist. Für die Umsetzung der Wertetabelle als Teil einer Zweigmetrikrecheneinheit werden statische Speicherzellen gegenüber dynamischen Speicherkonzepten bevorzugt. Zur Korrektur der zeitvarianten Dispersionseffekte ist eine Statistikschnittstelle vorgesehen, über die eingehende verzerrte Symbole und die dazugehörigen entzerrten Bits ausgegeben werden. Mittels einer Histogrammmethode lassen sich über eine Kostenfunktion neue Zweigmetriken bestimmen. Die Berechnung der neuen Metriken erfolgt jedoch mit Hilfe einer externen Schaltung. Die neuen Metriken können im laufenden Betrieb aktualisiert werden. Der in dieser Arbeit vorgestellte Viterbi-Entzerrer wird einer 90 nm CMOS-Technologie prozessiert und erfolgreich bei Datenraten von bis zu 32 Gbit/s vermessen. Dies ist ungefähr dreimal so schnell wie kommerziell verfügbare Produkte. Eine Messung bei höheren Datenraten ist aufgrund der Limitierung des Messsystems nicht möglich. Die Leistungsaufnahme beträgt bei einer Datenrate von 32 Gbit/s 2,39 W. Die aufgewendete Energie für die Verarbeitung von einem Bit beträgt 75 pJ/bit. Dies ist eine Verbesserung um den Faktor 2,5 bis 4,6 bisheriger Veröffentlichungen. Setzt man die Chipfläche in Relation zum Durchsatz, erhält man einen Wert von 0,178 mm²/Gbit/s, was einer Verbesserung um etwa Faktor 5 entspricht. The bandwidth requirements of today’s communication systems continue to improve because applications such as high-speed internet, television via the internet and high-resolution image quality are more and more in demand. Thus, a well-developed fiber core network of the telecommunication providers is required. Concepts that increase significantly the data rate of the existing network infrastructure are necessary. Economic considerations have to be involved to establish the new broadband services on the market. Therefore an upgrade of the data rates of the telecommunication provider’s core networks from 10 Gbit/s to 40 Gbit/s is in progress. The already laid fibers suffer from polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion. An electronic equalizer is proposed that corrects adaptively the dispersion. The electronic equalizer is designed in a 90 nm CMOS technology because CMOS technologies show superior economic characteristics concerning mass production and power consumption in comparison to bipolar technologies. The static CMOS logic is distinguished from pseudo-NMOS and CML by particularly low energy consumption. As an equalizer concept the MLSE concept is chosen. MLSE is realised by the trellis-based Viterbi algorithm. For implementation a block decoding scheme is chosen that allows pipelining and parallelisation. Since a clock frequency of over 1 GHz will be aimed for the combinatorial logic, a 32-fold parallelisation is necessary. The data processing is done by four systolic block decoders in parallel. The implementation of the Viterbi algorithm is done by special computing units. The characteristical trellis diagram consists of so-called Add-Compare-Select-Units that are composed of adders, subtractors and multiplexers. The branch metrics are determined using an updatable look up table. The trace back of the shortest path is done by multiplexers and flip-flops. Select-Minimum-Units concatenate the four systolic block decoders. Demultiplexers and multiplexers are applied to keep slim the input and output interface. The Viterbi equalizer is designed using the bottom-up approach. First CMOS basic gates are designed that are twice as fast as the standard cells of the semiconductor manufacturer. Because of this speed advantage, the chip area is reduced that is reflected in lower mask costs. Thus a motivation for the time intensive full custom approach is given. The high-speed input and output interfaces are created in CML logic, since the static CMOS logic is too slow. Therefore level conversion circuits are necessary. More complex logic devices such as full adders, memory cells and flip-flops are created out of the basic gates. These components are simulated on transistor level to determine the combinatorial delay. Several adder architectures are compared to find the best architecture that is suitable for additions with a word length of 8 bit. The Ripple-Carry-Adder architecture is chosen since this is optimal in terms of delay, area cost and power consumption. For the implementation of the look up table that is part of the Branch-Metric-Unit, static memory cells are preferred to dynamic memory concepts. For equalisation of the time-variant dispersion effects a statistic interface is provided. This interface outputs the incoming distorted symbols and the corresponding equalised bits. Using a histogram method new branch-metrics can be determined through a cost function. The calculation of the new metrics is done with the aid of an external circuit. The new metrics can be updated during normal operation. The presented Viterbi equalizer is processed in a 90 nm CMOS technology and is measured successfully at data rates up to 32 Gbit/s. This is approximately three times faster than commercially available products. Due to limitations of the measurement setup a measurement at the targeted data rate is not possible. The power dissipation at a data rate of 32 Gbit/s is 2.39 W leading to the normalised energy effort of 75 pJ/bit. This is an improvement by a factor of 2.5 to 4.6 of previous publications. The normalised chip area is 0,178 mm2/Gbit/s that is an improvement by a factor of 5.

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    https://doi.org/10.18419/opus-...
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    Authors: Grossi, Alberto <1971>;
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    AMS Acta
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    Hot stars are the main source of ionization of the interstellar medium and its enrichment due to heavy elements. Constraining the physical conditions of their environments is crucial to understand how these stars evolve and their impact on the evolution of galaxies. The objective of my thesis was to investigate the physical properties of the photosphere and circumstellar environment of massive hot stars confronting multi-band spectroscopic or spectro-interferometric observations and sophisticated non-LTE radiative transfer codes. My work was focused on two main lines of research. The first concerns radiative line-driven winds. Using UV and visible spectroscopic data and the radiative transfer code CMFGEN, I investigated the weak wind phenomenon on a sample of nine Galactic O stars. This study shows for the first time that the weak wind phenomenon, originally found for O dwarfs, also exists on more evolved O stars and that future studies must evaluate its impact on the evolution of massive stars. My other line of research concerns the study of classical Be stars, the fastest rotators among the non-degenerated stars, and which are surrounded by rotating equatorial disks. I studied the Be star $\omicron$ Aquarii using H$\alpha$ (CHARA/VEGA) and Br$\gamma$ (VLTI/AMBER) spectro-interferometric observations, the radiative transfer code HDUST, and developing new automatic procedures to better constrain the kinematics of the disk. This multi-band study allowed to draw the most detailed picture of this object and its environment, to test the limits of the current generation of radiative transfer models, and paved the way to my future work on a large samples of Be stars observed with VEGA, AMBER, and the newly available VLTI mid-infrared combiner MATISSE. Comment: PhD Thesis, Universit\'e C\^ote d'Azur, Observatoire de la C\^ote d'Azur, 2020, 300 pages, in English. Abstract shortened to fit within arXiv character limit

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    Authors: Strasser, M.;
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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/200...
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    Authors: Silva, Márcio Luiz da, 1980-;

    Orientador: Alessandro Batezelli Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Geociências Resumo: Integração entre métodos da sedimentologia e da paleopedologia tem auxiliado a análise paleoambiental e estudos de evolução de bacias sedimentares continentais. Solos e paleossolos refletem complexa inter-relação entre sedimentação, erosão e não-deposição, além de registrarem as condições ambientais durante seus processos evolutivos, por se constituírem sistemas abertos. Paleossolos também têm contribuído e permitido estudos mais completos de natureza estratigráfica, por indicarem estabilidade nas paisagens e descontinuidade temporal no registro sedimentar. A maioria das sucessões sedimentares que se formou em ambientes continentais é caracterizada por uma interestratificação vertical e horizontal de paleossolos e sedimentos. Estudos de interação entre paleossolos e sedimentos são valiosos instrumentos na reconstituição paleoambiental e estratigrafia de bacias sedimentares continentais, uma vez que os solos, além servirem como registros das condições ambientais, representam momentos de estabilidade da paisagem, podendo ser utilizados como proxies estratigráficos. O objetivo da presente tese foi elaborar um modelo de evolução paleoambiental do Maastrichtiano da Bacia Bauru, através do estudo da interação entre sedimentos e paleossolos, em sistemas deposicionais continentais. Foram descritas onze seções da Formação Marília (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10 e S11), compreendendo quarenta e três perfis. As análises micromorfológicas, mineralógicas e geoquímicas foram feitas de acordo com a literatura especializada. Foram identificadas três litofácies principais: arentito (S), conglomerado (G) e lamito (F). Os paleossolos da Formação Marília apresentaram horizontes argílicos (Btkm, Bt, Bss) e cálcicos (Bk) com distintos graus de cimentação, constituindo-se calcretes em sua maioria. Paligorskita, quartzo e calcita foram os minerais dominantes. Pedofeições texturais de revestimentos, distribuições relativas porfíricas, quitônicas e gefúricas, associadas com fábricas birrefringentes cristalíticas, granoestriadas, poroestriadas e salpicadas foram identificadas nos paleossolos. Na Bacia Bauru, a sedimentação da Formação Marília ocorreu durante o Maastrichtiano, a partir de depósitos de sistemas fluviais dominados por rios entrelaçados. Sedimentação, erosão e pedogênese foram processos que ocorreram de forma conjunta na Formação Marília. Os ciclos deposicionais, intercalados com processos erosivos, tiveram taxas de sedimentação variando entre altas e baixas, contínuas e lentas, episódicas e rápidas e controlaram a freqüência de avulsões. Na Formação Marília, os paleossolos, exumados e soterrados, constituídos por horizontes argílicos e cálcicos, e definidos como poligenéticos, compostos e cumulativos, indicam o término de ciclos deposicionais, com taxas, intensidades e duração diferenciadas. Os paleossolos compreendem pedotipos bem drenados, moderadamente drenados, hidromórficos, indicativos de sazonalidade climática e pedotipos de condições mais secas. A Formação Marília corresponde a trato de sistemas deposicionais distributivos de clima semiárido, de baixa taxa de acomodação, dominados por depósitos de rios entrelaçados em zonas proximais a distais, depósitos de planície de inundação e depósitos eólicos limitados na porção intermediária e compreendidos por dunas sand sea isoladas. Os paleossolos, com horizontes cálcicos (Bk) e argílicos (Btk, Bt, Bss), são reflexos das paradas na sedimentação e da dinâmica de avulsão e erosão, indicando momentos de estabilidade da paisagem e das condições paleodeposicionais e sugerindo ciclicidade climática, com variação na umidificação do clima semiárido, acompanhada por mudanças na circulação hidrológica durante o Maastrichtiano da Bacia Bauru Abstract: Integration between methods of sedimentology and paleopedology has helped paleoenvironmental analysis and studies of evolution of continental sedimentary basins. Soils and paleosols reflect a complex interrelationship between sedimentation, erosion and non-deposition, in addition to registering the environmental conditions during their evolutionary processes, since they are open systems. Paleosols have also contributed and allowed more complete studies of stratigraphic nature, since they indicate stability in the landscapes and temporal discontinuity in the sedimentary record. Most of the sedimentary sequences that formed in continental environments are characterized by vertical and horizontal interstratification of paleosols and sediments. Studies of interaction between paleosols and sediments are valuable instruments in the paleoenvironmental reconstruction and stratigraphy of continental sedimentary basins, since the soils, besides serving as records of the environmental conditions, represent moments of stability of the landscape, and can be used as stratigraphic proxies. The objective of this thesis was to elaborate a paleoenvironmental evolution model of the Maastrichtian of the Bauru Basin, through the study of the interaction between sediments and paleosols, in continental depositional systems. Eleven sections of the Marília Formation (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10 and S11) were described, comprising forty three profiles. The micromorphological, mineralogical and geochemical analyzes were done according to the specialized literature. Three main lithofacies were identified: sandstone (S), conglomerate (G) and mudstone (F). The paleosols of the Marília Formation presented argillic (Btkm, Bt, Bss) and calcic (Bk) horizons with different degrees of cementation, constituting calcretes in their majority. Palygorskite, quartz and calcite were the dominant minerals. Textural pedofeatures of coatings, porphyric, chitonic and gefuric c/f-related distributions, associated with crystallitic, granostriated, porostriated e speckled b-fabrics were identified in the paleosols. In the Bauru Basin, the sedimentation of the Marília Formation occurred during the Maastrichtian, from deposits of fluvial systems dominated by braided rivers. Sedimentation, erosion and pedogenesis were processes that occurred together in the Marília Formation. The depositional cycles, interspersed with erosive processes, had sedimentation rates varying between high and low, continuous and slow, episodic and quick controlled the frequency of avulsions. In the Marília Formation, paleosols, exhumed and buried, constituted by argillic and calcic horizons, and defined as polygenetic, compound and cumulative, indicate the end of depositional cycles, with differentiated rates, intensities and duration. The palaeosols comprise well drained, moderately drained, hydromorphic pedotypes, indicative of climatic seasonality and pedotypes of drier conditions. The Marília Formation corresponds to the tracts of distributive fluvial systems of semi-arid climate, low rate of accommodation, dominated by deposits of braided rivers in proximal and distal zones, floodplain deposits and eolic deposits limited in the intermediate portion and comprised of dunes isolated. The paleosols, with calcic (Bk) and argillic (Btk, Bt, Bss) horizons, are reflections of the non-sedimentation and avulsion and erosion dynamics, indicating moments of landscape stability and paleodepositional conditions and suggesting climatic cyclicity, with variation in the humidification of the semi-arid climate, accompanied by changes in the hydrological circulation during the Maastrichtian of the Bauru Basin Doutorado Geologia e Recursos Naturais Doutor em Ciências

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    https://doi.org/10.47749/t/uni...
    Thesis . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Rabe, Johannes;

    This works describes an approach to lane-precise localization on current digital maps. A particle filter fuses data from production vehicle sensors, such as GPS, radar, and camera. Performance evaluations on more than 200 km of data show that the proposed algorithm can reliably determine the current lane. Furthermore, a possible architecture for an intuitive route guidance system based on Augmented Reality is proposed together with a lane-change recommendation for unclear situations.

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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ksp/10...
    Doctoral thesis . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Garcia Ferrer, Irene;

    La regulació de l'activitat proteolítica és crucial per al bon funcionament dels organismes, ja que afecta processos biològics com la nutrició, la defensa immunològica, la virulència de determinats microorganismes o la remodelació de teixits. Per això, en el genoma de pràcticament tots els éssers vius s'hi troben gens que codifiquen per inhibidors de peptidases que permeten el control dels enzims proteolítcs mitjançant la reducció de la seva activitat. Els inhibidors de peptidases són molt abundants en el genoma dels animals, on poden arribar a representar fins a un 1% dels gens, però la seva presència en bacteris és limitada. Malgrat això, alguns bacteris necessiten sobreviure en ambients rics en peptidases, com per exemple l'intestí humà, i per tant els inhibidors de peptidases son importants mecanismes de defensa en aquests microorganismes. Entre els inhibidors de peptidases codificats en els genomes bacterians, se n'han trobat que presenten homologia amb les a2 -macroglobulines (a2Ms) de metazoa, proteïnes altament abundants que participen, entre altres, en la immunitat innata dels animals. Tot i que s'ha postulat que les a2Ms bacterianes provenen de la transferència gènica horitzontal de gens de metazoa, la funció biològica, el mecanisme d'acció i l'estructura molecular d'aquestes proteïnes s'ha mantingut desconeguda. En aquesta tesi s'ha caracteritzat la a2M bacteriana de Escherichia coli, anomenada ECAM, per tal de definir la seva funció en la cèl•lula bacteriana. Els resultats obtinguts han permès descriure un nou mecanisme d'inhibició de peptidases, el qual s'ha anomenat mecanisme "snap-trap". En aquest, les peptidases que aconsegueixen accedir al periplasma de E. coli tallen la forma nativa d'ECAM en una regió anomenada esquer (bait region). Això causa un canvi conformacional i produeix la forma activada de la proteïna, la qual pot unir covalentment la peptidasa a través d'un enllaç tioèster molt reactiu. Aquest canvi conformacional i els elements estructurals implicats en el mecanisme d'acció d'ECAM s'han pogut descriure mitjançant l'obtenció de models atòmics de la proteïna en les dues conformacions, tant per cristal•lografia de raigs X com per criomicroscòpia electrònica. Un cop atrapades, les peptidases romanen inhibides i no poden tallar substrats d' alts pesos mol•leculars com podrien ser els components proteics de la paret bacteriana, explicant així la funció protectora que ECAM exerceix en la cèl•lula bacteriana i que ha sigut demostrada experimentalment per primer cop en aquesta tesi. En resum, a través de la combinació d'estudis estructurals, bioquímics i funcionals, s'ha obtingut un model del mecanisme d'acció d'ECAM a la cèl•lula bacteriana. Així, es contribueix a enriquir el coneixement sobre les a2Ms bacterianes i s'aporta informació sobre els mecanismes de defensa que presenten determinats bacteris. The balance between proteolytic and antiproteolytic activity is crucial in many biological processes such as nutrition, immune defence, virulence and tissue remodelling. Therefore, it is controlled by several mechanisms, among which by peptidic peptidase inhibitors that are encoded in the genomes of many organisms, representing up to 1% of genes in metazoa but being scarce and sketchy in bacteria. However, among bacterial peptidase inhibitors, some proteins with homology to the highly abundant metazoan a2-macroglobulins (a2Ms) have been described, which may have been acquired by bacteria from metazoa by horizontal gene transfer. Although a 2Ms have been extensively characterised in metazoa, where they play important roles in innate immunity, the biological role, mechanism of action and molecular structure of bacterial a2Ms (ba2Ms) remained largely unknown. In this thesis, the characterisation of the Escherichia coli a2M, ECAM, was undertaken in order to elucidate its role in the bacterial cell. The results unveiled a novel mechanism of peptidase inhibition, called the snap-trap mechanism, that is probably shared by other monomeric a2Ms, both from bacteria and metazoa. In this, attacking endopeptidases cleave the native inhibitor in an accessible bait region, thus causing a major conformational rearrangement and producing induced species that covalently traps peptidases through a highly reactive thioester bond. The rearrangement, involving most of the 13 domains of ECAM, but also key structural elements of the mechanism, were described by producing the first atomic models of ECAM in both conformations, by using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Through a covalent trap, ECAM prevents peptidases from cleaving large substrates, such as components of the bacterial cell wall, thus protecting E. coli cells against potentially damaging proteolytic activity. Therefore, it seems that ECAM participates in defence mechanisms in bacteria that thrive in the presence of peptidases, for which this thesis provides the first experimental evidence by in vivo functional assays. In summary, through a multifaceted approach that combined structural, biochemical and functional characterisation, this thesis yielded a mechanistic model for ECAM, significantly enriching our understanding of ba2Ms and providing new insights into bacterial defence mechanisms. Tesi realitzada a l'Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona (IBMB-CSIC)

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    Authors: Takeda, Masataka;

    学位論文

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    Authors: Noordzij, G.A.;

    In the late middle ages, the inhabitants of the duchy of Guelders had to deal with a number of negative stereotypes. They were reputed to be lumpish, barbaric, belligerent, and rebellious. These stereotypes had come into existence during the many wars with the Burgundian and Habsburg princes, who wanted to conquer the duchy. Some Guelders historians, however, used these negative stereotypes in order to create a positive image of their compatriots: they described the people of Guelders as natural, brave, and as lovers of freedom. According to them, these labels were the essence of the Guelders identity. In Gelre. Dynastie, land en identiteit Aart Noordzij describes the development of a political identity in Guelders between 1100 and 1600. He does this by analyzing the interaction between political processes, state-formation and the shaping of identities. Successively, the formation of the dynasty, the structure of the territory, and the imagination of the dynasty, the territory, and its inhabitants pass in review. By reconstructing the interaction between political processes, imagination, and the shaping of identities, we can understand how a political community like Guelders, notwithstanding its complexity and lack of unity, could exist, function, and get coherence.

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    Doctoral thesis . 2008
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    Doctoral thesis . 2008
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      Doctoral thesis . 2008
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      Doctoral thesis . 2008
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    Authors: Medrano Jiménez, Diego;

    We have presented for the rst time a detailed description of planar radiation zeros as a novel mathematical structure giving rise to new insights on the internal behavior of a theory, such as the biadjoint scalar theory, the Yang-Mills theory or the Einstein-Hilbert gravity. The concept \radiation zero" makes reference to all the con gurations in phase space for which the full scattering amplitude of a given process vanishes. In our case, we have studied \planar zeros", meaning that our characterization applies to those processes where all particle momenta lie in the same spatial plane. Although being a rather naive concept, the obtained results are far from incidental. On one side, we have found that the conditions of emergence of gauge planar zeros in the maximally helicity violating sector live inside the projective space spanned by the stereographic coordinates labelling the direction of ight of the outgoing momenta. The existence of such a projective characterization implies that planar zeros are always realized inside the soft limit of any of the emitted particles, which might be of relevance for the infrared structure or the asymptotic symmetries of the theory. On a di erent side, we have found that gravitational amplitudes always vanish inside this planar limit for non-helicity conserving con gurations without imposing any further kinematic conditions. String 0-corrections of these behaviors have also been obtained. All the computations have been done in the context of the color-kinematics du- ality, used as a procedure to compute gravitational amplitudes from their gauge analogues; and the Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, as a novel integral representation to write scattering amplitudes in contrast to the traditional Feynman diagram decomposition. In particular, the latter relies upon a rational map between the space of null D-dimensional momentum vectors and the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, given the name of scattering equations. Considered to be a challenging task, we have shown the advantages of using the Sudakov parametrization of particle momenta to simplify the computation of their exact solutions. In particular, we have shown that both punctures in the Riemann sphere and scattering amplitudes themselves adopt rather compact formulas when expressed in terms of Sudakov variables, suggesting the parametrization to be a natural candidate for an e cient description of scattering amplitudes inside the formalism. Tesis Doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Física Teórica. Fecha de Lectura: 06-09-2019

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    Doctoral thesis . 2019
    Data sources: Biblos-e Archivo
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biblos-e Archivoarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Biblos-e Archivo
      Doctoral thesis . 2019
      Data sources: Biblos-e Archivo
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/