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246 Research products

  • 2018-2022
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  • Authors: Fotso, Ruben;

    This thesis aims to evaluate and analyse the direct and indirect effects of the Rhône-Alpes Technological Research Institutes (IRTs), which are one of the innovation policy devices based on science-industry transfers, created in France as pait of the Future Investment Programme. By applying a difference-in-difference model combined with matching methods, the results show a direct positive effect on turnover and financial autonomy and indicate that this effect varies according to the duration of participation and the type of assistance received. In addition, the type of assistance would play a more important role than the duration of treatment in the effectiveness of TRis. The results also indicate that the TRI had positive indirect effects on turnover, financial autonomy and the share of executives of non-directly beneficiary SMEs but located in the treated area and that these effects do not appear immediately after the treatment but a few years later. In addition, this research work assesses and analyses the direct effects of TRis by focusing on the R&D performance of large companies. Using the random trend model and the synthetic control model, the results of the first model indicate that participation in TRis has had an additional direct effect on total net R&D expenditures and that these expenditures are largely self-­financed and used outside the company through collaborations and outsourcing. The results of the second model show that a single company has almost systematic effects on all R&D performance indicators.; Cette thèse vise à évaluer et analyser les effets directs et indirects des Instituts de Recherche Technologique (IRT) Rhônalpins qui sont l'un des dispositifs des politiques d'innovation fondées sur les transferts science-industrie, créés en France dans le cadre du Programme d'investissement d' Avenir. En appliquant un modèle de différence-en-différence combiné aux méthodes d'appariement, les résultats montrent un effet direct positif sur le chiffre d'affaires et l'autonomie financière et indiquent que cet effet varie en fonction de la durée de participation et du type d'aide reçu. Par ailleurs le type d'aide jouerait un rôle plus important que la durée de traitement dans l'efficacité des IRT. Les résultats indiquent aussi que l'IRT a eu les effet indirects positifs sur le chiffre d'affaires, l'autonomie financière et la part des cadres des PMEs non-directement bénéficiaires, localisées dans la zone traitée et que ces effets n'apparaissent pas immédiatement après le traitement mais quelques années plus tard. Par ailleurs, ce travail de recherche évalue et analyse les effets directs des IRT en se focalisant sur les performances de R&D des grandes entreprises. En utilisant le modèle à tendance aléatoire et le modèle de contrôle synthétique, les résultats du premier modèle indiquent que la participation aux IRT a eu un effet direct additionnel sur les dépenses totales de R&D nettes et que ces dépenses sont largement autofinancées et utilisées à l'extérieur de l'entreprise à travers les collaborations et les sous-traitances. Les résultats du second modèle montrent qu'une seule entreprise a des effets quasi-systématiques sur tous les indicateurs de performance de R&D.

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  • Authors: Aurore Vigan; Melynda Hassouna; Coline Brame; Nadège Edouard; +10 Authors

    National audience; The increasing demand for animal products is a major challenge for the livestock sector that must reduce its environmental impacts and ensure its sustainability. This sector has been identified as an important contributor to polluting gas emissions. Improving the knowledge on the origin and the magnitude of air pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions from livestock sector is essential to address climate change and to contribute to improve air quality with the evolution of breeding practices (feeding strategy, manure management, etc.). A consortium involving research and extension services partners was created to build a database called ELFE (ELevages et Facteurs d’Emission) with international data from literature references focusing on emissions of ammonia, greenhouse gases, particles and odors on the different steps of manure management of cattle, pig and poultry productions systems and their associated key variables. Around 350 publications (among 1 000 publications collected) are integrated into the database and provide more than 5 200 emission values. The ELFE database allows calculating average of emission and their standard deviation taking into account the diversity of livestock systems. These data can be used to provide emission factor for national inventories for specific livestock systems and also, to evaluate practices on gas emissions mitigation. This database can also be used to analyze the influence of key variables on the emission factor variability using multicriteria assessment (climate, building type, etc.). Moreover, this database propose a classification of emission factor into three classes according to the degree on which information about their most influential key variables was complete (>50 % ; 30-50 % ; 50 % ; 30-50 % ; <30 % des métadonnées renseignées) afin d’évaluer son niveau de description.

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    Authors: Rangel, Jhonnatan;

    L’ayapaneco, zoque ayapaneco ou numte ʔoote (ethnonyme) est une langue en danger appartenant à la famille mixe-zoque et parlée exclusivement dans l’état de Tabasco, au Mexique, par environ 11 personnes âgées entre 69 et 95 ans. L’ayapaneco est l’une des langues de cette famille la moins étudiée et la moins documentée. Depuis les années 1950, elle ne se transmet plus aux nouvelles générations et son utilisation est actuellement très limitée dans le quotidien des locuteurs. Cette thèse documente, décrit et analyse tant la situation sociolinguistique de l’ayapaneco que sa réalité linguistique, en particulier l’existence de variations linguistiques. Bien que la variation soit un phénomène inhérent à toutes les langues du monde, les langues en danger présentent des défis théoriques et méthodologiques pour l’analyse des variations. Après avoir expliqué les variations linguistiques et les mécanismes qui les caractérisent en ayapaneco, cette thèse propose d’apporter des éléments nouveaux qui n’étaient pas pris en considération auparavant pour l’étude de la variation linguistique d’une langue vivant une situation de danger critique comme l’ayapaneco. Ceci contribue à questionner les analyses traditionnelles et à impulser, à partir d’une analyse multifactorielle, des explications originales pour faire avancer nos connaissances sur la nature des variations et du changement linguistique dans les langues en danger. Ayapaneco, Zoque Ayapaneco or numte ʔoote (ethnonyme) is a critically endangered language spoken by approximately 11 people between the ages of 69- and 95-years-old in the state of Tabasco, Mexico. Ayapaneco is the least studied and least documented language in the Mixe-Zoque family. The intergenerational transmission of the language was interrupted in the 1950s. Today, it has a very limited role in the daily language practices of its remaining speakers.This thesis documents, describes and analyzes the sociolinguistic situation of Ayapaneco as well as its linguistic characteristics, focusing on language variation. Although variation is a phenomenon inherent to all world languages, studying variation within the context of critically endangered languages presents specific theoretical and methodological challenges.After presenting the characteristics of language variation in Ayapaneco, this thesis offers new perspectives on the study of these variations in critically endangered languages. A multifactorial analysis is used to question traditional approaches and propose new insights, contributing to the fields of language variation and language change in the context of critically endangered languages.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2019
    HAL-IRD
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
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    Authors: Sécou Omar Diedhiou; Oumar Sy; Christine Margetic;

    Située au Sud-ouest du Sénégal, la ville de Ziguinchor appartient à la Basse Casamance. Développée sur un site fluvial, elle offre des conditions écologiques favorables à l’agriculture qui se trouve néanmoins affectée par une croissance démographique qui génère parfois des conflits d’utilisation du sol. Cet article interroge ainsi la place des agriculteurs urbains dans l’approvisionnement de la ville en identifiant les acteurs concernés, les modes d’accès à la terre, leurs pratiques et la façon dont l’activité agricole contribue à la sécurisation de leurs revenus.En l’absence de statistiques officielles, un travail qualitatif a été mené. Il s’est appuyé sur l’exploitation de 248 questionnaires soumis aux exploitants agricoles et de 130 autres aux marchands de légumes en 2016 et 2017. L’extension urbaine de Ziguinchor remonte aux années 1970 et contribue à la déstructuration des espaces agricoles, mais dans le même temps, cette croissance a pour corollaire une demande d’autant plus forte en denrées alimentaires que le périmètre communal a été élargi (de 3400 ha en 1972 à 4450 ha depuis 2002). Pour les exploitants, l’enjeu est double : maintenir l’autoconsommation familiale en riz, malgré une rétraction des terres cultivables, et dégager un revenu par la vente de légumes pour l’achat de denrées en période de soudure surtout. A la différence d’autres villes d’Afrique de l’Ouest, les femmes occupent une place centrale dans le système local, de la production à la commercialisation, en conjuguant plusieurs sites de production : un premier attenant au domicile, un autre dans les bas-fonds et un dernier sur le plateau. Fondamentales pour leur propre sécurité alimentaire, mais aussi pour celle de la ville, la pérennité de leurs pratiques suppose l’intégration de cette agriculture urbaine dans des politiques de développement urbain volontaristes. Located in south-western of Senegal, Ziguinchor is in Lower Casamance. Developed on a river site, it offers favorable ecological conditions to develop agricultural activities. However, this ecological advantages are affected by a population growth that generates some direct and indirect issues. This article examines the role of urban farmers in supplying the city by identifying the actors involved, the methods of access to land, their practices and the way in which agricultural activity contributes to securing their income.In the absence of official statistics, the latter authors’ statement is confirmed in the city through a questionary methodology near 248 farmers and 130 vegetable traders in 2016 and 2017. The choice of Ziguinchor is relevant. The urban extension that goes back to the 1970s contributes both to the de-structuring of agricultural spaces and the stronger demand for foodstuffs, which grows as the municipal area has been enlarged (from 3 400 ha in 1972 to 4 450 ha since 2002). For farmers’ perspectives, the challenge is twofold. The first challenge is to be able to maintain family self-consumption in rice, despite a retreat of arable land, while the second one is relay on generating income through the sale of vegetables for the purchase of food during the lean season. Unlike other cities in West Africa, women play a key role in the local agricultural value chain (i.e. from production to marketing) by combining several production sites: one site in home, in the shallows and other in the plateau. This combination of several production sites is fundamental not only for their own food security, but also for that of the city. Moreover, the durability of their practices supposes the integration of urban agriculture in voluntary urban development policies.

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    Espace populations sociétés
    Article . 2018
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      Espace populations sociétés
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Bourbousson, Céline;

    Notre recherche propose d’appréhender la « mise en dispositif », au sens de Foucault (1977), de projets de polarisation territoriale dans le champ de l’économie sociale et solidaire (ESS). Nous nous appuyons sur une analyse multi-niveaux qui se décline sous la forme : (1) d’une enquête qualitative sur l’élaboration du dispositif Pôle Territorial de Coopération Economique (PTCE) par les acteurs nationaux, (2) de deux études de cas auprès de deux de ces pôles en région Paca. Plus précisément, nous mobilisons la grille d’analyse du travail institutionnel pour cerner les pratiques mises en oeuvre par les deux PTCE pour s’approprier le dispositif dans un contexte de pluralisme institutionnel. Deux niveaux de résultats sont proposés. Le premier revient à éclairer le phénomène de banalisation du dispositif PTCE à l’échelle nationale, qui est d’abord caractérisé par une logique civique de développement territorial alternatif qui se voit ensuite remplacée par une logique gestionnaire de normalisation de l’ESS. Le second niveau de résultats consiste à caractériser les modalités d’appropriation de ce dispositif à l’échelle méso des deux cas analysés. Il en ressort que le PTCE qui parvient à survivre et à se développer est celui qui hybride les logiques civique et gestionnaire. Le second PTCE, très façonné par la logique civique, ne parvient pas à pérenniser son activité et suscite un rejet du dispositif, dont il ne partage aucunement l’intention stratégique. Conjuguer une posture critique à une analyse néo-institutionnaliste nous permet de dégager plusieurs apports théoriques. (1) Nous dessinons les contours conceptuels d’un nouveau type de dispositif que nous qualifions de normalisateur. (2) L’analyse du travail institutionnel dans un contexte de pluralisme institutionnel met en évidence un nouveau type de pratiques : celles qui ont trait à la résistance institutionnelle. Our research focuses on the adoption of a dispositive (Foucault, 1977) destinated to territorial polarization projects in the field of social and solidarity economy. We build on a multi-scalar approach which consists in : (1) a qualitative survey of the construction of the Pôle Territorial de Coopération Economique (“Territorial Cluster for Economic Cooperation”) policy by national actors, (2) two case studies of two of these clusters, selected in region Paca. More specifically, we build on the institutional work theory to characterize the practices deployed by the two TCECs in order to appropriate the dispositive in a context of institutional pluralism. Two levels of results are proposed. The first one sheds light on the banalisation process of the TCEC dispositive at the national level, which is first dominated by a civic logic of alternative territorial development that is then effaced by a a managerial logic of normalization of SSE. The second level of results consists in characterizing the modalities of appropriation of this dispositive at the meso scale of the two clusters analysed. It appears that the TCEC which manages to survive and develop is the one that hybridizes the civic and managerial logics. The other one, particularly shaped by the civic logic, doesn’t manage to perpetuate its activities and implies a reject of the dispositive, since it doesn’t share its strategic intention. Combining a critical approach and a neo-institutionalist analysis leads to several theoretical contributions. (1) We draw the outlines of a new type of dispositive that we conceptualize as a normalizing dispostive. (2) The analysis of institutional work in a context of institutional pluralism highlights a new type of practices : the ones which deal with institutional resistance.

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    HAL AMU
    Doctoral thesis . 2018
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  • Authors: Sarah Gensburger; Maël Le Noc;

    International audience

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    Authors: Hiroaki Utsunomiya; Therese Renstrøm; Gry Merete Tveten; Stéphane Goriely; +8 Authors

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for $^{137}$Ba and $^{138}$Ba at energies below two-neutron threshold using quasi-monochromatic $\gamma$-ray beams produced in laser Compton-scattering at the NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility. The photoneutron data are used to constrain the $\gamma$-ray strength function on the basis of the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov plus quasi-particle random phase approximation using the Gogny D1M interaction. Supplementing the experimentally constrained $\gamma$-ray strength function with the zero-limit E1 and M1 contributions which are unique to the deexcitation mode, we discuss radiative neutron capture cross sections relevant to the s-process nucleosynthesis of barium isotopes in the vicinity of the neutron magic number 82. Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1811.00291, arXiv:1804.07654

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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2019
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    HAL-CEA
    Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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      HAL-CEA
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Dupré, Frédéric;

    En France, les unités localisées pour l’inclusion scolaire (ULIS) au sein des collèges ont connu un fort développement depuis la loi du 11 février 2005. Ces dispositifs permettent à des élèves reconnus institutionnellement handicapés (ERIH) d’avoir une scolarité dans une classe ordinaire tout en bénéficiant d’un dispositif de soutien. Les élèves bénéficient d’un emploi du temps partagé qui les amène à fréquenter différents systèmes didactiques, que ce soit au sein de la classe ordinaire ou dans le cadre du regroupement spécialisé. Notre travail de recherche s’attache à observer des pratiques inclusives en mathématiques dans le cadre de ces dispositifs ULIS. Nous cherchons plus particulièrement à dégager quelles sont les conditions favorables pour que le regroupement spécialisé (système didactique auxiliaire - SDA) puisse jouer un rôle d’aide à l’étude vis-à-vis de la classe ordinaire (système didactique principal - SDP). Pour étudier la question des articulations entre différents systèmes didactiques nous nous plaçons dans un double cadre théorique. L’approche comparatiste en didactique, associée à des outils issus de la didactique de mathématiques, nous permet de comparer différents systèmes didactiques à partir de l’analyse des cadres temporels produits par ces systèmes. Ce travail, mené à partir de quatre études de cas réalisées dans quatre collèges différents, permet de mettre en évidence que si l’articulation entre la classe et le regroupement spécialisé est un objet pensé par une majorité des acteurs rencontrés, la fonction d’aide à l’étude du SDA vis-à-vis du SDP est possible lorsque certaines conditions sont réunies, mais elle n’est pas systématique. In France, localized units for inclusive education (ULIS) within the college have experienced a strong development since the law of February 11, 2005. These devices allow students recognized institutionally disabled to have a schooling in an ordinary class while benefiting from a support device. These students benefit from a shared schedule that leads them to attend various didactic systems, whether in the regular classroom or in the context of the specialized group. Our research work focuses on observing inclusive mathematical practices in these ULIS devices. In particular, we seek to find out what are the favorable conditions for the specialized grouping (auxiliary didactic system) to play a role in assisting the study with regard to the ordinary class (main didactic system). To study the question of articulations between different didactic systems we place ourselves in a double theoretical framework. The comparative approach in didactics combined with tools from mathematical didactics allows us to compare different didactic systems from the analysis of the time frames produced by these systems. This work, based on four case studies carried out in four different colleges, shows that if the articulation between the class and the specialized group is an object thought by a majority of the actors met, the assistance to the study of auxiliary didactic system vis-à-vis the main didactic system is possible when certain conditions are met, but it is not systematic.

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  • Authors: Pacaud, Jean-Michel;

    International audience; Résumé: Le nom Gibbolucina aremorica nom. nov. est ici proposé pour corriger l'homonymie primaire Lucina profunda Dufour, 1881 de l'Éocène de Loire-Atlantique non Lucina profunda Deshayes, 1850 [= Diplodonta], une espèce du Néogène du bassin d'Aquitaine, non Lucina profunda White, 1881, une espèce du Crétacé du Colorado (USA). Par ailleurs, le nom Diplodonta profunda Deshayes, 1857, introduit pour une espèce du Lutétien (Éocène moyen), homonyme de Diplodonta profunda (Deshayes, 1850), est renommé Diplodonta oesia nom. nov. Abstract: Gibbolucina aremorica nom. nov. is proposed here to correct the primary homonymy Lucina profunda Dufour, 1881 from the Eocene of Loire-Atlantique (France) non Lucina profunda Deshayes, 1850 [= Diplodonta], a Neogne species of the Aquitaine basin, non Lucina profunda White, 1881, a Cretaceous species of Colorado (USA). Moreover, the name Diplodonta profunda Deshayes, 1857, introduced for a species of the Lutetian (Middle Eocene), homonym of Diplodonta profunda (Deshayes, 1850), is renamed Diplodonta oesia nom. nov.

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    Authors: Touzeau, Amandine;

    Chez les eucaryotes, l’organisation de la chromatine est indispensable à la régulation de l’expression des gènes et la stabilité du génome. Les ciliés constituent un excellent modèle d’étude des mécanismes qui permettent de maintenir l’intégrité du génome eucaryote. Notre modèle d’étude, l’eucaryote unicellulaire Paramecium tetraurelia, se distingue par l’élimination massive et reproductible de près de 30% de séquences d’ADN germinal lors du développement du macronoyau somatique après les événements sexuels. Ces séquences sont éliminées grâce à un processus en plusieurs étapes impliquant la formation d’hétérochromatine dirigée par de petits ARN suivi d’excision par la transposase domestiquée Piggy Mac (Pgm) et de réparation. Les mécanismes moléculaires permettant de comprendre la reconnaissance spécifique de ces séquences germinales dans le contexte de la chromatine ainsi que la précision de la coupure demeurent mal compris.Le chaperon d’histone Spt16, associée au partenaire Pob3, fait partie du complexe hétéro-dimérique FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transactions). FACT intervient dans de nombreux mécanismes liés au métabolisme de l’ADN tels que la transcription, la réparation, la réplication ou l’accessibilité de la chromatine. Chez Paramecium tetraurelia, on a identifié deux protéines homologues de Spt16 et Pob3 exprimées uniquement durant le développement du macronoyau au moment où se produisent les réarrangements. Les protéines Spt16-1 et Pob3-1 fusionnées à la GFP se localisent dans les macronoyaux en développement. Nous avons montré que la protéine Spt16-1 est essentielle à la production d’une descendance sexuelle viable. Le reséquençage du génome après inactivation de SPT16-1 a montré que Spt16-1 est nécessaire à l‘ensemble des réarrangements du génome et conduit à des défauts semblables à ceux obtenus suite à l’inactivation de PGM. Spt16-1 agit en aval des voies de dépôt des marques d’hétérochromatine guidées par les petits ARNs mais en amont de l’endonucléase Pgm. Nous avons montré que Spt16-1 était nécessaire à la localisation correcte de Pgm responsable de l’introduction des cassures double brin dans les macronoyaux en développement. Nous proposons un modèle dans lequel Spt16-1 favorise l’interaction de la machinerie d’excision avec la chromatine pour rendre accessible les sites de coupure sur l’ADN à Pgm.La méthylation des adénines sur l’ADN (6mA), bien connue chez les bactéries pour son rôle dans le système de restriction modification, a été décrite ces deux dernières années chez plusieurs eucaryotes en faible proportion dans le génome. Cependant son rôle chez les eucaryotes est encore peu compris. D’anciennes analyses par chromatographie à l’aide de nucléotides marqués détectaient de l’ordre de 2,5% des adénines méthylées chez P. tetraurelia mais sa localisation précise n’avait jamais été montrée. Il avait été proposé que cette modification pourrait signaler avec précision les sites de coupures pendant les réarrangements d’ADN où une partie des séquences germinales présentent des bornes AT. L’abondance des adénines méthylées fait de la paramécie un excellent modèle d’étude de cette modification. En combinant des techniques d’Immunofluorescence, d’HPLC-MS et de séquençage, nous avons ainsi décrit la présence et la localisation dans la cellule et au cours du cycle de vie de 6mA chez P. tetraurelia. Ces approches ont également permis de montrer l’absence de cytosine méthylée chez la paramécie. Nous avons montré que la méthylation des adénines était retrouvée majoritairement dans le génome somatique et de manière transitoire dans le génome germinal. Elle est établie au cours du développement du macronoyau somatique quand se produisent les réarrangements du génome. Ces résultats préliminaires permettront de poursuivre l’étude de la méthylation afin d’identifier les enzymes responsables et son rôle dans la cellule. In eukaryotes, chromatin organization is required for the regulation of gene expression and genome stability. Ciliate provide excellent model to study mechanisms involved in maintain of genome integrity. Our study model, the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, has the particularity to eliminate massively and reproducibly 30% of germinal DNA sequences during the development of the somatic macronucleus after sexual events. Those sequences are eliminated by a multi-step process involving small RNA-directed heterochromatin formation followed by DNA excision by the domesticated transposase Piggy Mac (Pgm) and DNA repair. Molecular mechanisms underlying the specific recognition of those germinal sequences in chromatin context and the precision of the excision, remain elusive. The histone chaperone Spt16, associated to its partner Pob3, is part of the heterodimeric complex FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transactions). FACT is implicated in many mechanisms involving DNA metabolism such as transcription, repair, replication or chromatin accessibility. In P. tetraurelia, we identified two homologous proteins to Spt16 and Pob3 expressed only during macronucleus development at the time when genome rearrangements occur. Spt16-1 and Pob3-1 fused to GFP are localized in developing macronuclei. We showed that Spt16-1 is required to obtain a viable sexual progeny. Genome re-sequencing after SPT16-1 inactivation showed that Spt16-1 was required for all DNA elimination events and leads to similar phenotypes and defects to those obtained after PGM inactivation. Spt16-1 acts downstream of small RNA-directed heterochromatin formation and upstream of Pgm. We showed that Spt16-1 was required for the correct localization of Pgm responsible for DNA double strand breaks in developing macronuclei. We proposed a model in which Spt16-1 mediates interaction between chromatin and excision machinery that facilitates access to DNA cleavage sites for the Pgm endonuclease. Adenine DNA methylation, well known in bacteria for its role in restriction modification system, has been described during the last two years in several eukaryotes but in low proportion in the genome. However, its role in eukaryotes remains elusive. Previous analyses by chromatography with radio labelled nucleotides detected around 2,5% of methylated adenine in P. tetraurelia but its precise localization and role have never been analyzed. It has been proposed that this modification could mark with precision the excision sites during genome rearrangements when part of the eliminated sequences carry AT boundaries. The abundance of methylated adenine makes of Paramecium an excellent model to study this modification. Combining immunofluorescence techniques, HPLC-MS and sequencing, we described the presence and the cellular localization during life cycle of 6mA in P. tetraurelia. Those approaches allowed us to show that methylated cytosine are absent in Paramecium. We showed that methylation is mainly found in the somatic genome and transiently in germinal genome. It appears during somatic macronucleus development when genome rearrangements occur. Those preliminary results will allow us to pursue the study of adenine methylation by identifying responsible enzymes and its role in the cell.

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246 Research products
  • Authors: Fotso, Ruben;

    This thesis aims to evaluate and analyse the direct and indirect effects of the Rhône-Alpes Technological Research Institutes (IRTs), which are one of the innovation policy devices based on science-industry transfers, created in France as pait of the Future Investment Programme. By applying a difference-in-difference model combined with matching methods, the results show a direct positive effect on turnover and financial autonomy and indicate that this effect varies according to the duration of participation and the type of assistance received. In addition, the type of assistance would play a more important role than the duration of treatment in the effectiveness of TRis. The results also indicate that the TRI had positive indirect effects on turnover, financial autonomy and the share of executives of non-directly beneficiary SMEs but located in the treated area and that these effects do not appear immediately after the treatment but a few years later. In addition, this research work assesses and analyses the direct effects of TRis by focusing on the R&D performance of large companies. Using the random trend model and the synthetic control model, the results of the first model indicate that participation in TRis has had an additional direct effect on total net R&D expenditures and that these expenditures are largely self-­financed and used outside the company through collaborations and outsourcing. The results of the second model show that a single company has almost systematic effects on all R&D performance indicators.; Cette thèse vise à évaluer et analyser les effets directs et indirects des Instituts de Recherche Technologique (IRT) Rhônalpins qui sont l'un des dispositifs des politiques d'innovation fondées sur les transferts science-industrie, créés en France dans le cadre du Programme d'investissement d' Avenir. En appliquant un modèle de différence-en-différence combiné aux méthodes d'appariement, les résultats montrent un effet direct positif sur le chiffre d'affaires et l'autonomie financière et indiquent que cet effet varie en fonction de la durée de participation et du type d'aide reçu. Par ailleurs le type d'aide jouerait un rôle plus important que la durée de traitement dans l'efficacité des IRT. Les résultats indiquent aussi que l'IRT a eu les effet indirects positifs sur le chiffre d'affaires, l'autonomie financière et la part des cadres des PMEs non-directement bénéficiaires, localisées dans la zone traitée et que ces effets n'apparaissent pas immédiatement après le traitement mais quelques années plus tard. Par ailleurs, ce travail de recherche évalue et analyse les effets directs des IRT en se focalisant sur les performances de R&D des grandes entreprises. En utilisant le modèle à tendance aléatoire et le modèle de contrôle synthétique, les résultats du premier modèle indiquent que la participation aux IRT a eu un effet direct additionnel sur les dépenses totales de R&D nettes et que ces dépenses sont largement autofinancées et utilisées à l'extérieur de l'entreprise à travers les collaborations et les sous-traitances. Les résultats du second modèle montrent qu'une seule entreprise a des effets quasi-systématiques sur tous les indicateurs de performance de R&D.

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  • Authors: Aurore Vigan; Melynda Hassouna; Coline Brame; Nadège Edouard; +10 Authors

    National audience; The increasing demand for animal products is a major challenge for the livestock sector that must reduce its environmental impacts and ensure its sustainability. This sector has been identified as an important contributor to polluting gas emissions. Improving the knowledge on the origin and the magnitude of air pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions from livestock sector is essential to address climate change and to contribute to improve air quality with the evolution of breeding practices (feeding strategy, manure management, etc.). A consortium involving research and extension services partners was created to build a database called ELFE (ELevages et Facteurs d’Emission) with international data from literature references focusing on emissions of ammonia, greenhouse gases, particles and odors on the different steps of manure management of cattle, pig and poultry productions systems and their associated key variables. Around 350 publications (among 1 000 publications collected) are integrated into the database and provide more than 5 200 emission values. The ELFE database allows calculating average of emission and their standard deviation taking into account the diversity of livestock systems. These data can be used to provide emission factor for national inventories for specific livestock systems and also, to evaluate practices on gas emissions mitigation. This database can also be used to analyze the influence of key variables on the emission factor variability using multicriteria assessment (climate, building type, etc.). Moreover, this database propose a classification of emission factor into three classes according to the degree on which information about their most influential key variables was complete (>50 % ; 30-50 % ; 50 % ; 30-50 % ; <30 % des métadonnées renseignées) afin d’évaluer son niveau de description.

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    Authors: Rangel, Jhonnatan;

    L’ayapaneco, zoque ayapaneco ou numte ʔoote (ethnonyme) est une langue en danger appartenant à la famille mixe-zoque et parlée exclusivement dans l’état de Tabasco, au Mexique, par environ 11 personnes âgées entre 69 et 95 ans. L’ayapaneco est l’une des langues de cette famille la moins étudiée et la moins documentée. Depuis les années 1950, elle ne se transmet plus aux nouvelles générations et son utilisation est actuellement très limitée dans le quotidien des locuteurs. Cette thèse documente, décrit et analyse tant la situation sociolinguistique de l’ayapaneco que sa réalité linguistique, en particulier l’existence de variations linguistiques. Bien que la variation soit un phénomène inhérent à toutes les langues du monde, les langues en danger présentent des défis théoriques et méthodologiques pour l’analyse des variations. Après avoir expliqué les variations linguistiques et les mécanismes qui les caractérisent en ayapaneco, cette thèse propose d’apporter des éléments nouveaux qui n’étaient pas pris en considération auparavant pour l’étude de la variation linguistique d’une langue vivant une situation de danger critique comme l’ayapaneco. Ceci contribue à questionner les analyses traditionnelles et à impulser, à partir d’une analyse multifactorielle, des explications originales pour faire avancer nos connaissances sur la nature des variations et du changement linguistique dans les langues en danger. Ayapaneco, Zoque Ayapaneco or numte ʔoote (ethnonyme) is a critically endangered language spoken by approximately 11 people between the ages of 69- and 95-years-old in the state of Tabasco, Mexico. Ayapaneco is the least studied and least documented language in the Mixe-Zoque family. The intergenerational transmission of the language was interrupted in the 1950s. Today, it has a very limited role in the daily language practices of its remaining speakers.This thesis documents, describes and analyzes the sociolinguistic situation of Ayapaneco as well as its linguistic characteristics, focusing on language variation. Although variation is a phenomenon inherent to all world languages, studying variation within the context of critically endangered languages presents specific theoretical and methodological challenges.After presenting the characteristics of language variation in Ayapaneco, this thesis offers new perspectives on the study of these variations in critically endangered languages. A multifactorial analysis is used to question traditional approaches and propose new insights, contributing to the fields of language variation and language change in the context of critically endangered languages.

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    Other literature type . 2019
    HAL-IRD
    Doctoral thesis . 2019
    Data sources: HAL-IRD
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    Authors: Sécou Omar Diedhiou; Oumar Sy; Christine Margetic;

    Située au Sud-ouest du Sénégal, la ville de Ziguinchor appartient à la Basse Casamance. Développée sur un site fluvial, elle offre des conditions écologiques favorables à l’agriculture qui se trouve néanmoins affectée par une croissance démographique qui génère parfois des conflits d’utilisation du sol. Cet article interroge ainsi la place des agriculteurs urbains dans l’approvisionnement de la ville en identifiant les acteurs concernés, les modes d’accès à la terre, leurs pratiques et la façon dont l’activité agricole contribue à la sécurisation de leurs revenus.En l’absence de statistiques officielles, un travail qualitatif a été mené. Il s’est appuyé sur l’exploitation de 248 questionnaires soumis aux exploitants agricoles et de 130 autres aux marchands de légumes en 2016 et 2017. L’extension urbaine de Ziguinchor remonte aux années 1970 et contribue à la déstructuration des espaces agricoles, mais dans le même temps, cette croissance a pour corollaire une demande d’autant plus forte en denrées alimentaires que le périmètre communal a été élargi (de 3400 ha en 1972 à 4450 ha depuis 2002). Pour les exploitants, l’enjeu est double : maintenir l’autoconsommation familiale en riz, malgré une rétraction des terres cultivables, et dégager un revenu par la vente de légumes pour l’achat de denrées en période de soudure surtout. A la différence d’autres villes d’Afrique de l’Ouest, les femmes occupent une place centrale dans le système local, de la production à la commercialisation, en conjuguant plusieurs sites de production : un premier attenant au domicile, un autre dans les bas-fonds et un dernier sur le plateau. Fondamentales pour leur propre sécurité alimentaire, mais aussi pour celle de la ville, la pérennité de leurs pratiques suppose l’intégration de cette agriculture urbaine dans des politiques de développement urbain volontaristes. Located in south-western of Senegal, Ziguinchor is in Lower Casamance. Developed on a river site, it offers favorable ecological conditions to develop agricultural activities. However, this ecological advantages are affected by a population growth that generates some direct and indirect issues. This article examines the role of urban farmers in supplying the city by identifying the actors involved, the methods of access to land, their practices and the way in which agricultural activity contributes to securing their income.In the absence of official statistics, the latter authors’ statement is confirmed in the city through a questionary methodology near 248 farmers and 130 vegetable traders in 2016 and 2017. The choice of Ziguinchor is relevant. The urban extension that goes back to the 1970s contributes both to the de-structuring of agricultural spaces and the stronger demand for foodstuffs, which grows as the municipal area has been enlarged (from 3 400 ha in 1972 to 4 450 ha since 2002). For farmers’ perspectives, the challenge is twofold. The first challenge is to be able to maintain family self-consumption in rice, despite a retreat of arable land, while the second one is relay on generating income through the sale of vegetables for the purchase of food during the lean season. Unlike other cities in West Africa, women play a key role in the local agricultural value chain (i.e. from production to marketing) by combining several production sites: one site in home, in the shallows and other in the plateau. This combination of several production sites is fundamental not only for their own food security, but also for that of the city. Moreover, the durability of their practices supposes the integration of urban agriculture in voluntary urban development policies.

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    Espace populations sociétés
    Article . 2018
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      Espace populations sociétés
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Bourbousson, Céline;

    Notre recherche propose d’appréhender la « mise en dispositif », au sens de Foucault (1977), de projets de polarisation territoriale dans le champ de l’économie sociale et solidaire (ESS). Nous nous appuyons sur une analyse multi-niveaux qui se décline sous la forme : (1) d’une enquête qualitative sur l’élaboration du dispositif Pôle Territorial de Coopération Economique (PTCE) par les acteurs nationaux, (2) de deux études de cas auprès de deux de ces pôles en région Paca. Plus précisément, nous mobilisons la grille d’analyse du travail institutionnel pour cerner les pratiques mises en oeuvre par les deux PTCE pour s’approprier le dispositif dans un contexte de pluralisme institutionnel. Deux niveaux de résultats sont proposés. Le premier revient à éclairer le phénomène de banalisation du dispositif PTCE à l’échelle nationale, qui est d’abord caractérisé par une logique civique de développement territorial alternatif qui se voit ensuite remplacée par une logique gestionnaire de normalisation de l’ESS. Le second niveau de résultats consiste à caractériser les modalités d’appropriation de ce dispositif à l’échelle méso des deux cas analysés. Il en ressort que le PTCE qui parvient à survivre et à se développer est celui qui hybride les logiques civique et gestionnaire. Le second PTCE, très façonné par la logique civique, ne parvient pas à pérenniser son activité et suscite un rejet du dispositif, dont il ne partage aucunement l’intention stratégique. Conjuguer une posture critique à une analyse néo-institutionnaliste nous permet de dégager plusieurs apports théoriques. (1) Nous dessinons les contours conceptuels d’un nouveau type de dispositif que nous qualifions de normalisateur. (2) L’analyse du travail institutionnel dans un contexte de pluralisme institutionnel met en évidence un nouveau type de pratiques : celles qui ont trait à la résistance institutionnelle. Our research focuses on the adoption of a dispositive (Foucault, 1977) destinated to territorial polarization projects in the field of social and solidarity economy. We build on a multi-scalar approach which consists in : (1) a qualitative survey of the construction of the Pôle Territorial de Coopération Economique (“Territorial Cluster for Economic Cooperation”) policy by national actors, (2) two case studies of two of these clusters, selected in region Paca. More specifically, we build on the institutional work theory to characterize the practices deployed by the two TCECs in order to appropriate the dispositive in a context of institutional pluralism. Two levels of results are proposed. The first one sheds light on the banalisation process of the TCEC dispositive at the national level, which is first dominated by a civic logic of alternative territorial development that is then effaced by a a managerial logic of normalization of SSE. The second level of results consists in characterizing the modalities of appropriation of this dispositive at the meso scale of the two clusters analysed. It appears that the TCEC which manages to survive and develop is the one that hybridizes the civic and managerial logics. The other one, particularly shaped by the civic logic, doesn’t manage to perpetuate its activities and implies a reject of the dispositive, since it doesn’t share its strategic intention. Combining a critical approach and a neo-institutionalist analysis leads to several theoretical contributions. (1) We draw the outlines of a new type of dispositive that we conceptualize as a normalizing dispostive. (2) The analysis of institutional work in a context of institutional pluralism highlights a new type of practices : the ones which deal with institutional resistance.

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    HAL AMU
    Doctoral thesis . 2018
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  • Authors: Sarah Gensburger; Maël Le Noc;

    International audience

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    Authors: Hiroaki Utsunomiya; Therese Renstrøm; Gry Merete Tveten; Stéphane Goriely; +8 Authors

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for $^{137}$Ba and $^{138}$Ba at energies below two-neutron threshold using quasi-monochromatic $\gamma$-ray beams produced in laser Compton-scattering at the NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility. The photoneutron data are used to constrain the $\gamma$-ray strength function on the basis of the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov plus quasi-particle random phase approximation using the Gogny D1M interaction. Supplementing the experimentally constrained $\gamma$-ray strength function with the zero-limit E1 and M1 contributions which are unique to the deexcitation mode, we discuss radiative neutron capture cross sections relevant to the s-process nucleosynthesis of barium isotopes in the vicinity of the neutron magic number 82. Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1811.00291, arXiv:1804.07654

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    DI-fusion
    Article . 2019
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    HAL-CEA
    Article . 2019
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      DI-fusion
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      HAL-CEA
      Article . 2019
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