Publisher: The Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Twórczość literacka publikujących we Francji pisarzy żydowskich pochodzenia maghrebskiego, której początki sięgają lat 50. XX wieku, rozwija się szczególnie dynamicznie począwszy od lat 80. Spełnia ona następujące funkcje społeczne: wspomnieniową, historiograficzną i adaptacyjną. Migracja wywołuje zachodzące w nowym środowisku procesy wspominania oraz upamiętniania, pozwalając ewentualnie walczyć z doświadczoną traumą i dostarczając grupie migrantów punktów odniesienia. Twórczość literacka pozwala snuć narrację o przeszłości, bez konieczności poddawania się rygorom naukowości. Procesy te zapośredniczają relacje między migrantami a wspólnotą przyjmującą, w której literatura wychodzi poza rzeczywistość społeczną, jaka ukształtowała jednostki. Literary production by Jewish writers from North Africa in France reaches back to the 1950s and has been gaining momentum since the 1980s. These works function as vectors of memory, ‘historiography’ and adaptation. In a new environment, exile leads to recollection and memorialization processes, enabling the subject to fight against trauma and providing the migrant group with a framework of reference. Literature, which does not require a scientific framework, is able immediately to take over the narration of the past. These processes mediate between the exiled group and the host community, in which the exile literary work transcends the social realities that help construct the individual.
traduction en polonais d’Elzbieta Koziolkiewicztraduction du titre de l'ouvrage en français : Rencontre de la polonistique des Trois Pays — Chine, Corée, Japon; Colloque international, Université de Canton Chine; International audience; Europe meets Asia in Siberia through W ludzkiej i leśnej kniei by Ferdynand Ossendowski (1923)Ferdynand Ossendowski (1876 – 1945) traveled through Mongolia and Siberia . He was a Polish scientist, a geologist, who was doing some research with a Russsian team. His book, Man and Mystery in Asia, relates his scientific missions and his adventures between 1898 and 1905 in the Iénissei region, the Sakhaline Island, the Altaï Mountains, Mongolia and Sinkiang. The first part of this study deals with the representation of the Asian peoples in this text. The traveler meets Mongolians, Chinese, Corean and Japanese people. The diversity of the population (there were also Europeans : Russians, Cossacks, Poles,) is explained by the historical, political and economic situation of the region at the time. The analysis is not limited to portraits and descriptions. The aim is also to understand the interactions between these different populations. From a literary point of view, does the writer relate his own experience of otherness ? Or is it ethnocentrism that prevails ? In fact, his testimony is as close to an adventure story as to the narration of a scientific mission, a travel narrative or a report. The Far West - like atmosphere that reigns over the steppe and in town, in Vladivostok for example, reminds the readers of the North American adventure stories that were very popular between World War I and World War II in Poland as well as in western Europe. And the specialists of this writer have already underlined the influence of this genre (Sienkiewicz, but also Karl May and Jack London) as well as that of the first westerns, on Ossendowski's fiction. The second part of this article therefore aims to show that Ossendowski has written an anticolonial western, where the local people play the role of the Indians and the Russians that of the settlers. This model contributes to the “westernization” of the reality of Central Asia and the Russian Far East that is described. It unveils a short-lived and exciting time, that of the birth of capitalism, very much like what the United States had experienced just before the Chinese (1912, 1949), Russian (1917) and Mongolian (1920-21) revolutions burst out and made Ossendowski a fugitive under the threat of death penalty by the bolcheviks.
Document disponible en ligne :http://docplayer.pl/11817173-Wies-i-rolnictwo-1-1-2015-kwartalnik-166-1-instytut-rozwoju-wsi-i-rolnictwa-polska-akademia-nauk.html; International audience; Family farming is the dominant form of agricultural production in the contemporary world. It fulfills various important economic (food security, employment, etc.) as well as other (social, environmental, etc.) functions. It is an extremely differentiated phenomenon resulting from various interrelationships among such factors, as: access to resources, investment potential, self-consumption, relations between farms and the market, families’ vocational activities, differentiation and specialization of production, substitution of family work-force by capital, the goals for the functioning of the farm as well as results of actions. Modern and intensive family farms in highly developed countries (Western Europe, North America, Australia) are a result of a so-called conventional (classic) way of modernization and account for only 2% of all family farms existing in the contemporary world. This implies that the result of a so-called “industrial revolution” in agriculture is not observed all over the world. It also means that the repetition of this “classic” way of modernization resulting in the growing level of productivity and a structural diversification in agricultural economy seems to be a impossible goal in the coming decades. This can be attributed, to the effects of demographic pressure, food shortages and a lack of financial resources especially in Asia and Africa. Basing on such a diagnosis the author suggests a re-definition of global policies focused on family farming. There should be a more integrative and multi-sector approach taking into consideration such issue as: diversity of the family farming phenomenon, multi-functionality of family farms, treating them as an important type of a public good, control of market mechanisms and speculation issues, strengthening of cooperation and risk reduction activities in agriculture as well as the relation between the family and the farm. Such an approach requires new institutional frameworks for family farming and for agricultural policies to take into consideration territorial and regional differences.
Wśród wielu rzeczy, których możemy dowiedzieć się od Williama Blake’a, angielskiego mistyka, poety i malarza z przełomu XVIII i XIX wieku, na szczególną uwagę zasługuje jego wizja artysty w działaniu. Dla Blake’a pisanie i wszelka twórczość to akt łaski, efekt kontaktu z czymś większym od nas, z wizjami, które jednocześnie rozjaśniają i upajają.
Publisher: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika
After more than two years of difficult negotiations, marked by a withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union and an eruption of the COVID-19 health crisis, the European Union has succeeded in adopting a multiannual financial framework for the years 2021–2027. The agreement reached at the European Council of 17 and 21 July 2020 constitutes a turning point in the construction of the European Union insofar as it transforms the multiannual financial framework into an instrument of a macroeconomic stabilization by backing it with a new recovery instrument called “Next Generation EU”. This change is linked to a new EU’s own resources decision for 2020, which establishes borrowing as a temporary resource for the European Union. Recourse to borrowing is strictly limited. However, for member states, recourse to borrowing could be a factor in accelerating the creation of other own resources in order to avoid using member states’ budgets (in a complementary manner) to repay the loan.