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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Annweiler, Cédric; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir, Susan W; Beauchet, Olivier;

    International audience; Hypovitaminosis D is associated with cognitive decline in the elderly, but the issue of causality remains unresolved. Definitive evidence would include the visualization of brain lesions resulting from hypovitaminosis D. The aim of the present article is to determine, through a literature review, the location and nature of possible brain disorders in hypovitaminosis D. We found limited brain-imaging data, which reported ischemic infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in hypovitaminosis D, though did not provide their specific location or report any focal atrophy. Based on the finding of executive dysfunctions (i.e., mental shifting and information updating impairments) in the presence of hypovitaminosis D, we suggest that hypovitaminosis D is associated with a dysfunction of the frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits, particularly the dorsolateral circuit. Further imaging studies are required to corroborate this assumption and to determine whether hypovitaminosis D results in degenerative and / or vascular lesions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Open Neuroimaging Journal
    Article
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    Open Neuroimaging Journal
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Open Neuroimaging Journal
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Open Neuroimaging Journal
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Suzanne E, Welcome; Allan, Paivio; Ken, McRae; Marc F, Joanisse;

    We examined ERP responses during the generation of word associates or mental images in response to concrete and abstract concepts. Of interest were the predictions of dual coding theory (DCT), which proposes that processing lexical concepts depends on functionally independent but interconnected verbal and nonverbal systems. ERP responses were time-locked to either stimulus onset or response to compensate for potential latency differences across conditions. During word associate generation, but not mental imagery, concrete items elicited a greater N400 than abstract items. A concreteness effect emerged at a later time point during the mental imagery task. Data were also analyzed using time-frequency analysis that investigated synchronization of neuronal populations over time during processing. Concrete words elicited an enhanced late going desynchronization of theta-band power (723-938 ms post stimulus onset) during associate generation. During mental imagery, abstract items elicited greater delta-band power from 800 to 1,000 ms following stimulus onset, theta-band power from 350 to 205 ms before response, and alpha-band power from 900 to 800 ms before response. Overall, the findings support DCT in suggesting that lexical concepts are not amodal and that concreteness effects are modulated by tasks that focus participants on verbal versus nonverbal, imagery-based knowledge.

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    Experimental Brain Research
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Experimental Brain Research
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mor Regev; Andrea R. Halpern; Adrian M. Owen; Aniruddh D. Patel; +1 Authors

    Abstract Humans can mentally represent auditory information without an external stimulus, but the specificity of these internal representations remains unclear. Here, we asked how similar the temporally unfolding neural representations of imagined music are compared to those during the original perceived experience. We also tested whether rhythmic motion can influence the neural representation of music during imagery as during perception. Participants first memorized six 1-min-long instrumental musical pieces with high accuracy. Functional MRI data were collected during: 1) silent imagery of melodies to the beat of a visual metronome; 2) same but while tapping to the beat; and 3) passive listening. During imagery, inter-subject correlation analysis showed that melody-specific temporal response patterns were reinstated in right associative auditory cortices. When tapping accompanied imagery, the melody-specific neural patterns were reinstated in more extensive temporal-lobe regions bilaterally. These results indicate that the specific contents of conscious experience are encoded similarly during imagery and perception in the dynamic activity of auditory cortices. Furthermore, rhythmic motion can enhance the reinstatement of neural patterns associated with the experience of complex sounds, in keeping with models of motor to sensory influences in auditory processing.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cerebral Cortexarrow_drop_down
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Cerebral Cortex
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cerebral Cortexarrow_drop_down
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      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Cerebral Cortex
      Article
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      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: BrainsCAN , Western University; Mitchell, Derek; Finger, Elizabeth; Neufeld, Richard;

    In this project, we will uncover any existing interaction between violent media and the capacity for empathic reactions (known as trait empathy) at a neural level, as the foundational milestone for the kind of large-scale study discussed above. The level of trait empathy varies by individual - we will explore whether exposure to violent media exacerbates the difficulties that those with low trait empathy already show in relating to the emotions of others https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/brainscanprojectsummaries/1021/thumbnail.jpg

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    Scholarship@Western
    Other literature type . 2018
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      Scholarship@Western
      Other literature type . 2018
      License: CC BY NC ND
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    Authors: Demetrius, Ribeiro de Paula; Erik, Ziegler; Pubuditha M, Abeyasinghe; Tushar K, Das; +14 Authors

    AbstractIntroductionIndependent component analysis (ICA) has been extensively used for reducing task‐free BOLD fMRI recordings into spatial maps and their associated time‐courses. The spatially identified independent components can be considered as intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) of non‐contiguous regions. To date, the spatial patterns of the networks have been analyzed with techniques developed for volumetric data.ObjectiveHere, we detail a graph building technique that allows these ICNs to be analyzed with graph theory.MethodsFirst, ICA was performed at the single‐subject level in 15 healthy volunteers using a 3T MRI scanner. The identification of nine networks was performed by a multiple‐template matching procedure and a subsequent component classification based on the network “neuronal” properties. Second, for each of the identified networks, the nodes were defined as 1,015 anatomically parcellated regions. Third, between‐node functional connectivity was established by building edge weights for each networks. Group‐level graph analysis was finally performed for each network and compared to the classical network.ResultsNetwork graph comparison between the classically constructed network and the nine networks showed significant differences in the auditory and visual medial networks with regard to the average degree and the number of edges, while the visual lateral network showed a significant difference in the small‐worldness.ConclusionsThis novel approach permits us to take advantage of the well‐recognized power of ICA in BOLD signal decomposition and, at the same time, to make use of well‐established graph measures to evaluate connectivity differences. Moreover, by providing a graph for each separate network, it can offer the possibility to extract graph measures in a specific way for each network. This increased specificity could be relevant for studying pathological brain activity or altered states of consciousness as induced by anesthesia or sleep, where specific networks are known to be altered in different strength.

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    Scholarship@Western
    Other literature type . 2017
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    Brain and Behavior
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Scholarship@Western
      Other literature type . 2017
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      Brain and Behavior
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Matejko, Anna A;

    What are the cognitive underpinnings of arithmetic and how do they contribute to individual differences in children’s calculation abilities? Behavioural research has provided insights into which domain general (e.g. working memory) and domain specific (e.g. symbol-quantity associations) competencies are important for the acquisition of arithmetic skills. However, how domain general and domain specific skills are related to arithmetic at the neural level remains unclear. This thesis investigates the interplay between arithmetic and both domain general and specific competencies in the brain. In Chapter 2 I examine how visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) networks overlap with those for arithmetic in children and adults. While both children and adults recruited the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) for VSWM and arithmetic, children showed more focal activation within the right IPS, whereas adults recruited the bilateral IPS. These findings indicate that the regions underlying VSWM and arithmetic undergo age-related changes and become more left-lateralized in adults. Chapter 3 provides evidence that basic number processing networks overlap with those for arithmetic in adults and children. Number processing and arithmetic elicited conjoint activity in the IPS in children and adults. Their overlap was also related to arithmetic problem size (i.e. how demanding the problems were of time-intensive procedural strategies); both arithmetic and basic number processing recruited the IPS when the problems relied on procedural strategies that likely involve the manipulation of numerical quantities. In Chapter 4 I investigate how individual differences in domain general and domain specific competencies relate to the recruitment of the IPS during arithmetic. Both VSWM and symbolic number skills correlated with brain activity in the IPS, however, the relationships depended on the index of brain activity used. VSWM was related to a neural index of arithmetic complexity (neural problem size effect), whereas symbolic number skills were related to overall arithmetic activity (small and large problems). The present thesis provides the first empirical evidence that shows how domain general and domain specific abilities are related to the neural basis of arithmetic in children and adults. Moreover, this thesis suggests the IPS plays a multifaceted role during arithmetic and cannot be attributed to one function.

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    Authors: David J. Ostry; Paul L. Gribble;

    There is accumulating evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies that the acquisition of motor skills involves both perceptual and motor learning. Perceptual learning alters movements, motor learning, and motor networks of the brain. Motor learning changes perceptual function and the sensory circuits of the brain. Here, we review studies of both human limb movement and speech that indicate that plasticity in sensory and motor systems is reciprocally linked. Taken together, this points to an approach to motor learning in which perceptual learning and sensory plasticity have a fundamental role.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Trends in Neurosciences
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Trends in Neurosciences
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Nico Sollmann; Paul S. Echlin; Vivian Schultz; Petra V. Viher; +14 Authors

    Objective Repetitive subconcussive head impacts (RSHI) may lead to structural, functional, and metabolic alterations of the brain. While differences between males and females have already been suggested following a concussion, whether there are sex differences following exposure to RSHI remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify and to characterize sex differences following exposure to RSHI. Methods Twenty-five collegiate ice hockey players (14 males and 11 females, 20.6 ± 2.0 years), all part of the Hockey Concussion Education Project (HCEP), underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) before and after the Canadian Interuniversity Sports (CIS) ice hockey season 2011–2012 and did not experience a concussion during the season. Whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used to compare pre- and postseason imaging in both sexes for fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Pre- and postseason neurocognitive performance were assessed by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT). Results Significant differences between the sexes were primarily located within the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the internal capsule (IC), and the corona radiata (CR) of the right hemisphere (RH). In significant voxel clusters (p < 0.05), decreases in FA (absolute difference pre- vs. postseason: 0.0268) and increases in MD (0.0002), AD (0.00008), and RD (0.00005) were observed in females whereas males showed no significant changes. There was no significant correlation between the change in diffusion scalar measures over the course of the season and neurocognitive performance as evidenced from postseason ImPACT scores. Conclusions The results of this study suggest sex differences in structural alterations following exposure to RSHI. Future studies need to investigate further the underlying mechanisms and association with exposure and clinical outcomes. Highlights • This study explores sex differences following repetitive subconcussive head impacts. • Decreases in FA were observed in females over the course of one ice hockey season. • Females also showed increases in MD, AD, and RD over the course of the season. • In contrast, males showed no significant changes in these diffusion measures. • The results suggest sex differences in structural alterations following subconcussion.

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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kathryn S Hayward; Julia Schmidt; Keith R. Lohse; Sue Peters; +3 Authors

    To build an understanding of the neurobiology underpinning arm recovery in people with severe arm impairment due to stroke, we conducted a pooled individual data systematic review to: 1) characterize brain biomarkers; 2) determine relationship(s) between biomarkers and motor outcome; and 3) establish relationship(s) between biomarkers and motor recovery. Three electronic databases were searched up to October 2, 2015. Eligible studies included adults with severe arm impairment after stroke. Descriptive statistics were calculated to characterize brain biomarkers, and pooling of individual patient data was performed using mixed-effects linear regression to examine relationships between brain biomarkers and motor outcome and recovery. Thirty-eight articles including individual data from 372 people with severe arm impairment were analysed. The majority of individuals were in the chronic (> 6 months) phase post stroke (51%) and had a subcortical stroke (49%). The presence of a motor evoked potential (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) was the only biomarker related to better motor outcome (p = 0.02). There was no relationship between motor outcome and stroke volume (cm3), location (cortical, subcortical, mixed) or side (left vs. right), and corticospinal tract asymmetry index (extracted from diffusion weighted imaging). Only one study had longitudinal data, thus no data pooling was possible to address change over time (preventing our third objective). Based on the available evidence, motor evoked potentials at rest were the only biomarker that predicted motor outcome in individuals with severe arm impairment following stroke. Given that few biomarkers emerged, this review highlights the need to move beyond currently known biomarkers and identify new indices with sufficient variability and sensitivity to guide recovery models in individuals with severe motor impairments following stroke. PROSPERO: CRD42015026107. Highlights • The majority of studies investigated individuals in the chronic stage of stroke recovery. • Presence of a motor evoked potential at rest was related to a better motor outcome after stroke. • Lesion and white matter characteristics were not related to motor outcome in this individual patient data review.

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    Article . 2017
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    Article . 2017
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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Scholarship@Western
    Article . 2017
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    NeuroImage: Clinical
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Scholarship@Western
      Article . 2017
      License: CC BY
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      NeuroImage: Clinical
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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    Authors: Palaniyappan, Lena; Mahmood, Jenaid; Balain, Vijender; Mougin, Olivier; +2 Authors

    Background: Persistent formal thought disorder (FTD) is one of the most characteristic features of schizophrenia. Several neuroimaging studies report spatially distinct neuroanatomical changes in association with FTD. Given that most studies so far have employed a univariate localisation approach that obscures the study of covarying interregional relationships, the present study focussed on the multivariate systemic pattern of anatomical changes that contribute to FTD. Methods: Speech samples from nineteen medicated clinically stable schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy controls were evaluated for subtle formal thought disorder. Ultra high-field (7. T) anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans were obtained from all subjects. Multivariate morphometric patterns were identified using an independent component approach (source based morphometry). Using multiple regression analysis, the morphometric patterns predicting positive and negative FTD scores were identified. Results: Morphometric variations in grey matter predicted a substantial portion of inter-individual variance in negative but not positive FTD. A pattern of concomitant striato-insular/precuneus reduction along with frontocingular grey matter increase had a significant association with negative FTD. Conclusions: These results suggest that concomitant increase and decrease in grey matter occur in association with persistent negative thought disorder in clinically stable individuals with schizophrenia.

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    Authors: Annweiler, Cédric; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir, Susan W; Beauchet, Olivier;

    International audience; Hypovitaminosis D is associated with cognitive decline in the elderly, but the issue of causality remains unresolved. Definitive evidence would include the visualization of brain lesions resulting from hypovitaminosis D. The aim of the present article is to determine, through a literature review, the location and nature of possible brain disorders in hypovitaminosis D. We found limited brain-imaging data, which reported ischemic infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in hypovitaminosis D, though did not provide their specific location or report any focal atrophy. Based on the finding of executive dysfunctions (i.e., mental shifting and information updating impairments) in the presence of hypovitaminosis D, we suggest that hypovitaminosis D is associated with a dysfunction of the frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits, particularly the dorsolateral circuit. Further imaging studies are required to corroborate this assumption and to determine whether hypovitaminosis D results in degenerative and / or vascular lesions.

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    Open Neuroimaging Journal
    Article
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    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Open Neuroimaging Journal
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Open Neuroimaging Journal
      Article
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      Open Neuroimaging Journal
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Suzanne E, Welcome; Allan, Paivio; Ken, McRae; Marc F, Joanisse;

    We examined ERP responses during the generation of word associates or mental images in response to concrete and abstract concepts. Of interest were the predictions of dual coding theory (DCT), which proposes that processing lexical concepts depends on functionally independent but interconnected verbal and nonverbal systems. ERP responses were time-locked to either stimulus onset or response to compensate for potential latency differences across conditions. During word associate generation, but not mental imagery, concrete items elicited a greater N400 than abstract items. A concreteness effect emerged at a later time point during the mental imagery task. Data were also analyzed using time-frequency analysis that investigated synchronization of neuronal populations over time during processing. Concrete words elicited an enhanced late going desynchronization of theta-band power (723-938 ms post stimulus onset) during associate generation. During mental imagery, abstract items elicited greater delta-band power from 800 to 1,000 ms following stimulus onset, theta-band power from 350 to 205 ms before response, and alpha-band power from 900 to 800 ms before response. Overall, the findings support DCT in suggesting that lexical concepts are not amodal and that concreteness effects are modulated by tasks that focus participants on verbal versus nonverbal, imagery-based knowledge.

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    Experimental Brain Research
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Experimental Brain Research
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
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