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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vaca-Orellana, Cristina; Valle Dávila, María;

    El Internet de las Cosas (IoT) tiene el potencial de revolucionar la atención médica al permitir la monitorización remota de pacientes, atención personalizada y prevención de enfermedades. En Ecuador, la investigación sobre IoT en el campo de la salud está expandiéndose rápidamente. Sin embargo, es necesario tener una comprensión más clara del estado actual de esta investigación. Es así como el presente trabajo analiza las contribuciones de los autores ecuatorianos en este campo, a través de sus publicaciones en dos bases de datos bibliográficas de impacto global. La metodología empleada es una revisión sistemática utilizando la declaración PRISMA, lo que resulta en una etapa final con 23 artículos. Las publicaciones abarcan propuestas de sistemas, prototipos y revisiones con aplicaciones en áreas como epidemiología, cardiología y enfermería. Se destaca la mención recurrente de la privacidad de la información del paciente como un desafío en la implementación de sistemas de atención médica basados en IoT. En las conclusiones se enfatiza que las perspectivas de trabajo futuro deben abordar los desafíos expuestos, teniendo en cuenta la creciente tendencia de publicaciones de autores ecuatorianos. The Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to revolutionize healthcare by enabling remote patient monitoring, personalized care and disease prevention. In Ecuador, research on IoT in the healthcare field is rapidly expanding. However, there’s a need for a clearer understanding of the current state of this research. This study examines the contributions of Ecuadorian authors in this field through their publications in two globally impactful bibliographic databases. The methodology employed is a systematic review using the PRISMA statement, resulting in a final stage comprising 23 articles. These publications encompass system proposals, prototypes, and reviews with applications in areas such as epidemiology, cardiology and nursing. The recurrent mention of patient information privacy is a challenge in implementing IoT-based healthcare systems. The conclusions emphasize that future work perspectives should address the challenges identified, considering the growing trend of publications from Ecuadorian authors.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Enfoqutearrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Segarra Guzmán, Edison; Ludeña-González, Patricia;

    El artículo presenta el Algoritmo de Función de Utilidad Distribuida (D-AFU) como una notable evolución en la gestión y optimización del tráfico de red en entornos distribuidos. Basado en el principio de función de utilidad, D-AFU ajusta dinámicamente la velocidad de datos en respuesta a las demandas cambiantes de la red, con un rendimiento óptimo y una mejor experiencia para el usuario. A diferencia del modelo centralizado, D-AFU emplea un mecanismo distribuido escalable y con mayor resistencia contra fallos y sobrecargas del sistema. Su eficiencia fue validada utilizando el simulador NS-3. Se utilizaron tres métricas principales: la tasa de asignación de transmisión, la utilidad por sesión y la equidad (cuantificada por el coeficiente de Gini). D-AFU mostró un rendimiento excepcional, especialmente vital para aplicaciones en tiempo real que exigen alta Calidad de Servicio (QoS) y baja latencia. This paper introduces the Distributed Utility Function Algorithm (D-AFU) as a notable progression in managing and optimizing network traffic within distributed settings. Based on the utility function principle, D-AFU dynamically adjusts data rate in response to ever-changing network demands, with optimal performance and a higher user experience. Contrary to the centralized model, D-AFU employs a distributed, scalable, and resilient against failures and system overloads mechanism. Its efficiency is validated using the NS-3 simulator. Three main metrics were used: the data rate allocation, utility per session, and fairness (quantified by the Gini coefficient). D-AFU displays exceptional performance and low latency, particularly vital for real-time applications with high Quality of Service (QoS) requirements.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Enfoqutearrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Amjad, Aqsa; Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Arshad, Muhammad; Majeed, Muhammad Zeeshan; +4 Authors

    En el contexto de los ecosistemas agrícolas, comprender la fisiología nutricional de los insectos y sus preferencias de plantas hospedantes es fundamental para optimizar las estrategias de manejo de plagas y mejorar la producción de cultivos. En este estudio, llevamos a cabo un examen en profundidad de la fisiología nutricional del gusano cogollero, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en el contexto de diferentes plantas hospedantes, específicamente variedades de trigo, en comparación con el maíz. Nuestra investigación se centró en parámetros clave, incluida la Tasa de consumo relativo (RCR), la Tasa de crecimiento relativo (RGR) y la Eficiencia de conversión de los alimentos ingeridos (ECI) de S. frugiperda alimentada con diferentes variedades de trigo, incluidas: Dilkash-20, Fakhar-E-Bhakkar-17, Subhani-21, Faisalabad-08 y Akbar-19 en comparación con el maíz (NK-6654). Los resultados revelaron que S. frugiperda mostró un RCR (8.08 g/g/día), un RGR (1.50 g/g/día) y un ECI (25.1 %) significativamente mayores (P < 0.05) cuando se alimentaba de maíz, seguido por Fakhar-E-Bhakkar-17 (RCR = 7.00 g/g/día, RGR = 1.24 g/g/día y ECI = 21.4 %) y Akbar-19 (RCR = 6.06 g/g/día, RGR = 1.04 g/g/día y ECI = 19.7 %) variedades de trigo después de 1 semana de alimentación. Los valores más bajos de todos estos parámetros nutricionales se registraron en la variedad Dilkash-20 (RCR = 2.98 g/g/día, RGR = 0.38 g/g/día y ECI = 7.94 %). Estos hallazgos ofrecen información valiosa sobre las interacciones nutricionales entre S. frugiperda y las plantas hospedantes, arrojando luz sobre las posibles implicaciones para las estrategias de manejo de plagas y los patrones de cultivo. Within the context of agricultural ecosystems, understanding the nutritional physiology of insects and their host plant preferences is essential for optimizing pest management strategies and improving crop production. In this study, we conducted an in-depth examination of the nutritional physiology of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the context of different host plants, specifically wheat varieties, in comparison to maize. Our investigation focused on key parameters, including the Relative Consumption Rate (RCR), Relative Growth Rate (RGR), and Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food (ECI) of S. frugiperda fed on different wheat varieties including: Dilkash-20, Fakhar-E-Bhakkar-17, Subhani-21, Faisalabad-08, and Akbar-19 in comparison to maize (NK-6654). The results revealed that S. frugiperda displayed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher RCR (8.08 g/g/day), RGR (1.50 g/g/day), and ECI (25.1 %) when feeding on maize, followed by Fakhar-E-Bhakkar-17 (RCR =7.00 g/g/day, RGR =1.24 g/g/day and ECI =21.4 %) and Akbar-19 (RCR = 6.06 g/g/day, RGR = 1.04 g/g/day and ECI =19.7 %) wheat varieties after 1 week of feeding. The lowest values of all these nutritional parameters were recorded on the Dilkash-20 variety (RCR = 2.98 g/g/day, RGR = 0.38 g/g/day, and ECI = 7.94 %). These findings offer valuable insights into the nutritional interactions between S. frugiperda and the host plants, shedding light on potential implications for pest management strategies and crop patterns.

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    Authors: Hernandez, Xochitl Citalli; Castañeda-Chávez, María del Refugio; Díaz-González, Mario; Morán-Silva, Ángel; +4 Authors

    El Puerto de Veracruz, México fue construido de manera artificial a principios del siglo XXI, dragando el suelo marino y removiendo arrecifes para permitir la entrada de buques de gran tamaño, lo que conllevó a un crecimiento en el tráfico de mercancías y personas a través de él y convirtiéndolo en el mayor puerto comercial de todo México. En 1992 el Gobierno de México decretó en la zona de arrecifes litorales cercanos al Puerto de Veracruz como un área natural protegida con el nombre de Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano (PSNSAV). En 2013, con la demanda del comercio internacional, se tomó la decisión de ampliar el puerto, generando un incremento de empleo en la zona y un aumento del flujo de contenedores y automóviles, además de tener una mayor capacidad para transportar cereales, minerales y combustibles. Frente a las disconformidades de la sociedad por la pérdida de espacio protegido, el polígono de Parques tuvo que ser modificado. Con este trabajo se demuestra que la construcción de la ampliación del puerto se inició previa autorización de las autoridades ambientales de la Manifestación de Impacto Ambiental y el cambio en los límites protegidos, lo dicho tuvo inicio con la desaparición de los arrecifes de Punta Gorda y el dragado de la Bahía de Vergara para el arribo de buques de gran calado. A través de un mapeo sistemático de la literatura científica combinado con mapeo satelital e interpretación visual de imágenes, así como el análisis documental, se determinó el daño al sistema de arrecife, el cual cuenta con especies protegidas de acuerdo a la normatividad nacional mexicana. The Port of Veracruz, Mexico was artificially built at the beginning of the 21st century, dredging the sea floor and removing reefs to allow the entry of large ships, which led to a growth in the traffic of goods and people through it, making it the largest commercial port in all of Mexico. In 1992 the Government of Mexico decreed the area of coastal reefs near the Port of Veracruz as a protected natural area with the name of the Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano (PSNSAV). In 2013, with the demand of international trade, the decision was made to expand the port, generating job growth in the area and an increase in the flow of containers and automobiles, also have a greater capacity to transport cereals, minerals and fuels. In contrast to the disagreements of the society due to the loss of protected space, the Parks polygon had to be modified. This work try to demonstrated that the construction of the port expansion began previous the presentation to the environmental authorities of the Environmental Impact Statement and the change in the protected limits with the disappearance of the Punta Gorda reefs and the dredging of Vergara Bay for the arrival of deep draft vessels. Through a systematic mapping of the scientific literature combined with satellite mapping and visual interpretation of images, and documentary analysis, we determined the damage to the reef system, which has protected species according to Mexican national regulations.

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    Authors: Martínez León, Andrés Santiago; Jatsun, Sergey; Emelyanova, Oksana;

    En este trabajo se realiza una evaluación del estado de los territorios costeros del Ecuador en términos de monitoreo. El uso de una plataforma aérea robótica autónoma se propone como una solución técnica para mejorar la eficiencia de las misiones de vigilancia remota realizadas por los servicios de seguridad nacional a lo largo de la zona costanera. Considerando la no linealidad de la dinámica de un UAV, así como la inexistencia de información sobre el entorno, se ha diseñado una estructura jerárquica de control compuesta por una estrategia adaptativa de PID basada en un controlador MPC. La implementación del controlador adaptativo PID basado en MPC conduce a mejorar significativamente la tarea de seguimiento de trayectoria óptima del UAV, así como a satisfacer propiedades tales como la adaptabilidad, el autoaprendizaje y la capacidad de manejar incertidumbres causadas por el comportamiento impredecible de las corrientes marinas y las cargas de viento, manteniendo características robustas de rendimiento. En este trabajo, la investigación de los efectos de las perturbaciones externas sobre la estabilización y precisión de posicionamiento del UAV considera flujos arremolinados y ráfagas de corta duración. Estos corresponden a procesos deterministas y aleatorios, son representados matemáticamente como funciones trigonométricas con amplitudes aleatorias determinadas por los coeficientes de perturbaciones y los períodos de carga de viento de las pulsaciones. El rango establecido se da mediante un conjunto de varias observaciones de cargas de viento en los territorios costeros de Ecuador. Los datos analizados son recogidos de la base de datos de las estaciones meteorológicas nacionales. Finalmente, el proceso de simulación del movimiento controlado perturbado del UAV a lo largo de una trayectoria lineal segmentada, así como el análisis de datos y gráficos, se llevan a cabo en el entorno de MATLAB. In this paper, an assessment of the state of coastal territories of Ecuador monitoring issue is conducted. The use of an autonomous robotic aerial platform is proposed as a technical solution to enhance the efficiency of remote surveillance missions performed by national security services along coastline. Considering the UAV nonlinear flight dynamics, as well as the missing information of the environment, is designed a UAV hierarchical control structure composed of an adaptive PID based MPC control strategy. The implementation of an adaptive PID based MPC controller leads to significantly improve the UAV optimal trajectory tracking task, as well as satisfy properties such as adaptiveness, self-learning, and capability of handling uncertainties caused by the unpredictable behavior of sea currents and wind loads retaining robust performance features. In this work, the investigation of external disturbances on UAV stabilization and positioning accuracy considers swirling wind flows and short-term wind gusts. These correspond to deterministic and random processes, are mathematically represented as trigonometric functions with random amplitudes determined by the gust coefficients and the wind loading periods of the pulses. The established range is given by a set of several observations of wind loads in the coastal territories of Ecuador. The analyzed data is collected from the database of national meteorological stations. Finally, the simulation process of the perturbed controlled motion of the UAV along a segmented linear trajectory, as well as the data analysis and graphics are carried out in the MATLAB environment.

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    Authors: Muentes, Josselyn; Moreira, Juan Manuel; Chata, César; Alcívar, Antonella; +2 Authors

    El ecosistema del bosque seco se caracteriza por su rica biodiversidad y adaptaciones a condiciones áridas. Este estudio se centró en determinar la composición y estructura de la vegetación, examinar las interacciones entre las especies y estimar el carbono almacenado en su biomasa aérea (AGB), se usó una ecuación alométrica propuesta para bosques secos mixtos. Utilizamos 10 parcelas de 10 x 20 m para registrar datos sobre árboles con un diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP) ≥ 5 cm. Inicialmente, la clasificación taxonómica se obtuvo consultando a expertos y bases de datos especializadas. La importancia ecológica se evaluó a través del Índice de Valor de Importancia (IVI) y la asociación de especies se determinó utilizando el Índice de Valor Indicador (Ind-Val%). Se identificaron 148 individuos de 21 especies, 19 géneros y 12 familias en cuatro grupos con fuertes asociaciones, destacándose C. Trischistandra por su alto IVI. El test de Kruskal-Wallis no mostró diferencias significativas en el carbono almacenado entre las parcelas y se estimó un potencial de almacenamiento de 70.47 Mg C ha-1. Esta investigación resalta la importancia de especies clave en la captura de carbono, lo cual es crucial para mitigar el cambio climático. El manejo efectivo de estas especies podría tener un impacto positivo en la conservación del ecosistema de bosque seco y en la lucha contra el calentamiento global. Este análisis brinda un entendimiento profundo de la estructura de este ecosistema. The dry forest ecosystem is characterized by their rich biodiversity and adaptations to arid conditions. This study focused on determining the composition and structure of the vegetation, examining species interactions, and estimating carbon stored in its aboveground biomass (AGB) using an allometric equation proposed for mixed dry forests. We used 10 plots of 10 x 20 m to record data on trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm. Taxonomic classification was initially obtained using experts and specialized databases. Ecological importance was assessed through the Importance Value Index (IVI), and species association was determined using the Indicator Value Index (IndVal%). We identified 148 individuals of 21 species, 19 genera, and 12 families in four groups with strong associations, with C. Trischistandra standing out for its high IVI. The Kruskal-Wallis test did not show significant differences in carbon stored between plots, and was estimated a storage potential of 70.47 Mg C ha-1. This research highlights the importance of key species in carbon capture, which is crucial for mitigating climate change. Effective management of these species could have a positive impact on the conservation of the dry forest ecosystem and the fight against global warming. This analysis provides a deep understanding of the structure of this ecosystem.

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    Authors: Juan Pushug; Leonidas Ramírez; Isaac Simbaña; David Saquinga;

    Esta investigación fue un estudio de caso en una línea de empaque de detergente, con el objetivo de reducir todos los desperdicios que no añaden valor al producto y que aumentan el costo de producción. La disminución o eliminación de desperdicios de cualquier tipo dentro de la industria manufacturera se convierte en una necesidad para que los negocios continúen siendo sustentables en el tiempo y generan desarrollo. Para alcanzar este objetivo, se implementó la metodología Lean Six Sigma DMAIC en una línea de envasado de polvo detergente, permitiendo descubrir los problemas que agobiaban y encarecían la producción. Al utilizar herramientas de calidad (como Diagramas de Pareto e Ishikawa, la aplicación de la metodología 5S, Poka-Yokes, SMED, capacitando al personal, y estandarizando procesos) se logró reducir tiempos improductivos. El consumo de energía se redujo hasta en un 20 %, la eficiencia y la disponibilidad de la máquina aumentaron en 10.98 % y 7.32 %, respectivamente. También se incrementó el rendimiento general de la línea en 15.16 %, lo cual se tradujo en un ahorro significativo mensual de USD 71 442.05. Mediante la aplicación de estas técnicas de mejora, la eficiencia más significativa se registró en los empaques de 1 kg, pasando de 47 hasta 89 %, aproximadamente. Para mantener esta productividad y perfeccionarla, es necesario contratar personal especializado, que conozca los procesos productivos y operaciones industriales. This investigation was a case of study in the powder detergent packaging line and aimed to reduce all those wastes that do not add value to the product, increasing the cost of production. Reducing or eliminating waste within the manufacturing industry becomes necessary for sustainable businesses over time and keeps generating development. To achieve it, the Lean Six Sigma DMAIC methodology was implemented in a detergent powder packaging line, to identify the problems that afflicted and made production more expensive. By using quality tools (such as Pareto and Ishikawa diagrams, 5S application, Poka-Yokes, SMED, training personnel, and standardizing processes) it was possible to reduce unproductive times. Energy consumption was reduced by up to 20 %, also efficiency and machine availability increased by 10.98 % and 7.32 %, respectively. The general performance of the line increased by 15.16 %, which translates into significant monthly savings of USD 71 442.05. By applying these improvement techniques, the most significant efficiency was registered in 1 kg packages, going from 47 % to 89 %, approximately. To maintain this productivity and even to perfect it, it is necessary to hire specialized personnel who know the production processes and industrial operations.

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    Authors: Fredy Rosero Obando; Xavier Rosero; Zamir Mera;

    En condiciones reales de circulación un vehículo interactúa con la carretera, con otros vehículos y con los dispositivos de control del tráfico. El nivel de tráfico influye en los patrones de conducción y, en consecuencia, esto puede afectar a la eficiencia del combustible y las emisiones del vehículo. El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar mapas motorizados de consumo de combustible y emisiones de dióxido de carbono (CO2) para un vehículo ligero que circule en condiciones reales de tráfico. Un vehículo de pasajeros propulsado a gasolina y representativo del parque automotor ecuatoriano fue seleccionado para la campaña experimental que se desarrolló en una ruta de prueba diseñada de acuerdo a la normativa de emisiones en conducción real (RDE). Se utilizó un dispositivo de diagnóstico a bordo (DAB) para registrar en tiempo real los parámetros de funcionamiento del motor y del vehículo. Además, las emisiones de CO2 se estimaron utilizando la tasa de combustible registrada desde el sistema OBD del vehículo. Este estudio propuso una metodología novedosa para desarrollar mapas de motor de contorno bidimensional basados en datos OBD. El resultado mostró que el motor del vehículo funcionaba en condiciones reales de tráfico con una eficiencia térmica de frenado (ETF) del 27 %, un consumo de combustible específico de frenado (CCFE) de 275 g/kWh y un factor de emisión de energía de CO2 de 716 g/kWh. En términos de distancia, el factor de emisión de CO2 del vehículo probado fue de aproximadamente 190 g/km. En general, este estudio demuestra que el enfoque OBD es un método potencial para ser utilizado para evaluar el consumo de combustible y las emisiones de CO2 de un vehículo que opera en condiciones de tráfico del mundo real, especialmente en los países de América Latina, países en los que los sistemas portátiles de medición de emisiones (PEMS) no están fácilmente disponibles. A vehicle interacts with the road, other vehicles, and traffic control devices in real traffic conditions. The level of traffic influences driving patterns and, consequently, this can affect the vehicle´s fuel efficiency and emissions. This study aims to develop engine maps of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions for a light vehicle operating under real traffic conditions. A representative passenger vehicle of the Ecuadorian vehicle fleet, powered by gasoline, was selected for the experimental campaign that was developed on a test route designed according to real driving emission (RDE) regulation. An on-board diagnostic (OBD) device was used for recording in real-time engine and vehicle operating parameters. Moreover, CO2 emissions were estimated using the fuel rate registered from the OBD system of the vehicle This study proposed a novel methodology for developing two-dimensional contour engine maps based on OBD data. The result showed that the vehicle engine operated in real traffic conditions with a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of 27%, a brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 275 g/kWh, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) energy-emission factor of 716 g/kWh. In terms of distance, the CO2 emission factor for the tested vehicle was approximately 190 g/km. Overall, this study demonstrates that the OBD approach is a potential method to be used to assess the fuel consumption and emissions of a vehicle operating under real-world traffic conditions, especially in Latin American countries, where portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) are not readily available.

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    Authors: Fernando Toapanta-Ramos; Elizabeth Suquillo; Carlos Cornejo;

    El presente estudio tiene como propósito identificar los patrones de flujo en los nanorefrigerantes R600a/CuO y R410a/CuO durante el proceso de ebullición forzada en tuberías cuadradas horizontales. Dichos patrones se obtienen empleando las propiedades termofísicas de los refrigerantes R600a y R410A en estado líquido y de vapor, así como, también las propiedades de las nanopartículas de CuO. El análisis se lo realizó mediante dos métodos: analítico y numérico. El método analítico se estableció mediante fórmulas y correlaciones a través de artículos científicos y libros para encontrar una mejora en la transferencia de calor de dos fases. El trabajo se llevo a cabo bajo las condiciones a una temperatura de entrada de 8 °C y con un rango de calidad de 0 a 1, comprobando que al añadir nanopartículas al refrigerante la transición entre los regímenes de flujo aumenta de manera progresiva, mientras que, la calidad de vapor reduce. Para el método numérico se procedió a especificar los diferentes límites de transición en un proceso de simulación en el Software CFD Ansys Fluent, bajo condiciones establecidas de diseño, lo que en consecuencia aumenta la eficiencia general de cualquier sistema de refrigeración. The present study aims to know the flow patterns in two nanorefrigerants R600a / CuO and R410A / CuO throughout the forced boiling process in horizontal square pipes. Those are obtained using the thermophysical properties of the refrigerants R600a and R410A in state liquid and vapor, as well as the properties of the CuO nanoparticles. The analysis was carried out using two methods: analytical and numerical. The analytical method was established by formulas and correlations through scientific articles and books to find an improvement in the two-phase heat transfer, under the conditions at an inlet temperature of 8 ° C and with a quality range of 0 to 1. This allowed to verify that by adding nanoparticles to the refrigerant, the transition between the flow regimes increases progressively, while the quality of the vapor decreases. For the numerical method, the different transition limits are specified in a simulation process in the Ansys Fluent CFD Software, under established design conditions, which consequently increases the general efficiency of any refrigeration system.

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    Authors: Perveen, Nahdia; Rashid, Eman; Aitzaz, Huda; Shaheen, Malaika; +2 Authors

    La creciente preocupación por el impacto ambiental de los pesticidas químicos ha impulsado la exploración de soluciones alternativas y ecológicas para controlar las plagas de insectos. El uso de hongos entomopatógenos (FPE) como agente de control biológico es de suma importancia. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin sobre la mortalidad larvaria y la formación de pupas de larvas de mosca sierra, una plaga importante de las plantas de rosas. Nuestro estudio reveló un efecto dependiente de la concentración de Metarhizium anisopliae sobre las larvas de mosca sierra. A los 7 días después de la exposición al EPF, la concentración más alta (1 × 109 conidios/ml) condujo a una tasa de mortalidad del 65.0 % y al día 11 la mortalidad larvaria alcanzó hasta el 82.5 %. La concentración más alta de EPF resultó en una formación de pupas mínima (7.5 %). Este estudio demuestra el potencial de Metarhizium anisopliae como un valioso agente de control biológico contra las infestaciones de larvas de mosca sierra en plantas de rosas. Increasing concerns over the environmental impact of chemical pesticides have prompted the exploration of alternative, and eco-friendly solutions for controlling insect pests. The use of entomopathogenic fungus (EPF) as a biological control agent is of paramount importance. We aimed to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin on larval mortality and pupal formation, of sawfly larvae, a major pest of rose plants. Our study revealed a concentration-dependent effect of M. anisopliae on sawfly larvae. At 7 days after EPF exposure, the highest concentration (1 × 109 conidia/ml) led to a mortality rate of 65.0% and at the 11th day, the larval mortality was reached up to 82.5%. The highest EPF concentration resulted in a minimal pupal formation (7.5%). This study demonstrates the potential of M. anisopliae as a valuable biological control agent against sawfly larvae infestations in rose plants.

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    Authors: Vaca-Orellana, Cristina; Valle Dávila, María;

    El Internet de las Cosas (IoT) tiene el potencial de revolucionar la atención médica al permitir la monitorización remota de pacientes, atención personalizada y prevención de enfermedades. En Ecuador, la investigación sobre IoT en el campo de la salud está expandiéndose rápidamente. Sin embargo, es necesario tener una comprensión más clara del estado actual de esta investigación. Es así como el presente trabajo analiza las contribuciones de los autores ecuatorianos en este campo, a través de sus publicaciones en dos bases de datos bibliográficas de impacto global. La metodología empleada es una revisión sistemática utilizando la declaración PRISMA, lo que resulta en una etapa final con 23 artículos. Las publicaciones abarcan propuestas de sistemas, prototipos y revisiones con aplicaciones en áreas como epidemiología, cardiología y enfermería. Se destaca la mención recurrente de la privacidad de la información del paciente como un desafío en la implementación de sistemas de atención médica basados en IoT. En las conclusiones se enfatiza que las perspectivas de trabajo futuro deben abordar los desafíos expuestos, teniendo en cuenta la creciente tendencia de publicaciones de autores ecuatorianos. The Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to revolutionize healthcare by enabling remote patient monitoring, personalized care and disease prevention. In Ecuador, research on IoT in the healthcare field is rapidly expanding. However, there’s a need for a clearer understanding of the current state of this research. This study examines the contributions of Ecuadorian authors in this field through their publications in two globally impactful bibliographic databases. The methodology employed is a systematic review using the PRISMA statement, resulting in a final stage comprising 23 articles. These publications encompass system proposals, prototypes, and reviews with applications in areas such as epidemiology, cardiology and nursing. The recurrent mention of patient information privacy is a challenge in implementing IoT-based healthcare systems. The conclusions emphasize that future work perspectives should address the challenges identified, considering the growing trend of publications from Ecuadorian authors.

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    Authors: Segarra Guzmán, Edison; Ludeña-González, Patricia;

    El artículo presenta el Algoritmo de Función de Utilidad Distribuida (D-AFU) como una notable evolución en la gestión y optimización del tráfico de red en entornos distribuidos. Basado en el principio de función de utilidad, D-AFU ajusta dinámicamente la velocidad de datos en respuesta a las demandas cambiantes de la red, con un rendimiento óptimo y una mejor experiencia para el usuario. A diferencia del modelo centralizado, D-AFU emplea un mecanismo distribuido escalable y con mayor resistencia contra fallos y sobrecargas del sistema. Su eficiencia fue validada utilizando el simulador NS-3. Se utilizaron tres métricas principales: la tasa de asignación de transmisión, la utilidad por sesión y la equidad (cuantificada por el coeficiente de Gini). D-AFU mostró un rendimiento excepcional, especialmente vital para aplicaciones en tiempo real que exigen alta Calidad de Servicio (QoS) y baja latencia. This paper introduces the Distributed Utility Function Algorithm (D-AFU) as a notable progression in managing and optimizing network traffic within distributed settings. Based on the utility function principle, D-AFU dynamically adjusts data rate in response to ever-changing network demands, with optimal performance and a higher user experience. Contrary to the centralized model, D-AFU employs a distributed, scalable, and resilient against failures and system overloads mechanism. Its efficiency is validated using the NS-3 simulator. Three main metrics were used: the data rate allocation, utility per session, and fairness (quantified by the Gini coefficient). D-AFU displays exceptional performance and low latency, particularly vital for real-time applications with high Quality of Service (QoS) requirements.

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    Authors: Amjad, Aqsa; Ullah, Muhammad Irfan; Arshad, Muhammad; Majeed, Muhammad Zeeshan; +4 Authors

    En el contexto de los ecosistemas agrícolas, comprender la fisiología nutricional de los insectos y sus preferencias de plantas hospedantes es fundamental para optimizar las estrategias de manejo de plagas y mejorar la producción de cultivos. En este estudio, llevamos a cabo un examen en profundidad de la fisiología nutricional del gusano cogollero, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en el contexto de diferentes plantas hospedantes, específicamente variedades de trigo, en comparación con el maíz. Nuestra investigación se centró en parámetros clave, incluida la Tasa de consumo relativo (RCR), la Tasa de crecimiento relativo (RGR) y la Eficiencia de conversión de los alimentos ingeridos (ECI) de S. frugiperda alimentada con diferentes variedades de trigo, incluidas: Dilkash-20, Fakhar-E-Bhakkar-17, Subhani-21, Faisalabad-08 y Akbar-19 en comparación con el maíz (NK-6654). Los resultados revelaron que S. frugiperda mostró un RCR (8.08 g/g/día), un RGR (1.50 g/g/día) y un ECI (25.1 %) significativamente mayores (P < 0.05) cuando se alimentaba de maíz, seguido por Fakhar-E-Bhakkar-17 (RCR = 7.00 g/g/día, RGR = 1.24 g/g/día y ECI = 21.4 %) y Akbar-19 (RCR = 6.06 g/g/día, RGR = 1.04 g/g/día y ECI = 19.7 %) variedades de trigo después de 1 semana de alimentación. Los valores más bajos de todos estos parámetros nutricionales se registraron en la variedad Dilkash-20 (RCR = 2.98 g/g/día, RGR = 0.38 g/g/día y ECI = 7.94 %). Estos hallazgos ofrecen información valiosa sobre las interacciones nutricionales entre S. frugiperda y las plantas hospedantes, arrojando luz sobre las posibles implicaciones para las estrategias de manejo de plagas y los patrones de cultivo. Within the context of agricultural ecosystems, understanding the nutritional physiology of insects and their host plant preferences is essential for optimizing pest management strategies and improving crop production. In this study, we conducted an in-depth examination of the nutritional physiology of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the context of different host plants, specifically wheat varieties, in comparison to maize. Our investigation focused on key parameters, including the Relative Consumption Rate (RCR), Relative Growth Rate (RGR), and Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food (ECI) of S. frugiperda fed on different wheat varieties including: Dilkash-20, Fakhar-E-Bhakkar-17, Subhani-21, Faisalabad-08, and Akbar-19 in comparison to maize (NK-6654). The results revealed that S. frugiperda displayed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher RCR (8.08 g/g/day), RGR (1.50 g/g/day), and ECI (25.1 %) when feeding on maize, followed by Fakhar-E-Bhakkar-17 (RCR =7.00 g/g/day, RGR =1.24 g/g/day and ECI =21.4 %) and Akbar-19 (RCR = 6.06 g/g/day, RGR = 1.04 g/g/day and ECI =19.7 %) wheat varieties after 1 week of feeding. The lowest values of all these nutritional parameters were recorded on the Dilkash-20 variety (RCR = 2.98 g/g/day, RGR = 0.38 g/g/day, and ECI = 7.94 %). These findings offer valuable insights into the nutritional interactions between S. frugiperda and the host plants, shedding light on potential implications for pest management strategies and crop patterns.

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    Authors: Hernandez, Xochitl Citalli; Castañeda-Chávez, María del Refugio; Díaz-González, Mario; Morán-Silva, Ángel; +4 Authors

    El Puerto de Veracruz, México fue construido de manera artificial a principios del siglo XXI, dragando el suelo marino y removiendo arrecifes para permitir la entrada de buques de gran tamaño, lo que conllevó a un crecimiento en el tráfico de mercancías y personas a través de él y convirtiéndolo en el mayor puerto comercial de todo México. En 1992 el Gobierno de México decretó en la zona de arrecifes litorales cercanos al Puerto de Veracruz como un área natural protegida con el nombre de Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano (PSNSAV). En 2013, con la demanda del comercio internacional, se tomó la decisión de ampliar el puerto, generando un incremento de empleo en la zona y un aumento del flujo de contenedores y automóviles, además de tener una mayor capacidad para transportar cereales, minerales y combustibles. Frente a las disconformidades de la sociedad por la pérdida de espacio protegido, el polígono de Parques tuvo que ser modificado. Con este trabajo se demuestra que la construcción de la ampliación del puerto se inició previa autorización de las autoridades ambientales de la Manifestación de Impacto Ambiental y el cambio en los límites protegidos, lo dicho tuvo inicio con la desaparición de los arrecifes de Punta Gorda y el dragado de la Bahía de Vergara para el arribo de buques de gran calado. A través de un mapeo sistemático de la literatura científica combinado con mapeo satelital e interpretación visual de imágenes, así como el análisis documental, se determinó el daño al sistema de arrecife, el cual cuenta con especies protegidas de acuerdo a la normatividad nacional mexicana. The Port of Veracruz, Mexico was artificially built at the beginning of the 21st century, dredging the sea floor and removing reefs to allow the entry of large ships, which led to a growth in the traffic of goods and people through it, making it the largest commercial port in all of Mexico. In 1992 the Government of Mexico decreed the area of coastal reefs near the Port of Veracruz as a protected natural area with the name of the Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano (PSNSAV). In 2013, with the demand of international trade, the decision was made to expand the port, generating job growth in the area and an increase in the flow of containers and automobiles, also have a greater capacity to transport cereals, minerals and fuels. In contrast to the disagreements of the society due to the loss of protected space, the Parks polygon had to be modified. This work try to demonstrated that the construction of the port expansion began previous the presentation to the environmental authorities of the Environmental Impact Statement and the change in the protected limits with the disappearance of the Punta Gorda reefs and the dredging of Vergara Bay for the arrival of deep draft vessels. Through a systematic mapping of the scientific literature combined with satellite mapping and visual interpretation of images, and documentary analysis, we determined the damage to the reef system, which has protected species according to Mexican national regulations.

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    Authors: Martínez León, Andrés Santiago; Jatsun, Sergey; Emelyanova, Oksana;

    En este trabajo se realiza una evaluación del estado de los territorios costeros del Ecuador en términos de monitoreo. El uso de una plataforma aérea robótica autónoma se propone como una solución técnica para mejorar la eficiencia de las misiones de vigilancia remota realizadas por los servicios de seguridad nacional a lo largo de la zona costanera. Considerando la no linealidad de la dinámica de un UAV, así como la inexistencia de información sobre el entorno, se ha diseñado una estructura jerárquica de control compuesta por una estrategia adaptativa de PID basada en un controlador MPC. La implementación del controlador adaptativo PID basado en MPC conduce a mejorar significativamente la tarea de seguimiento de trayectoria óptima del UAV, así como a satisfacer propiedades tales como la adaptabilidad, el autoaprendizaje y la capacidad de manejar incertidumbres causadas por el comportamiento impredecible de las corrientes marinas y las cargas de viento, manteniendo características robustas de rendimiento. En este trabajo, la investigación de los efectos de las perturbaciones externas sobre la estabilización y precisión de posicionamiento del UAV considera flujos arremolinados y ráfagas de corta duración. Estos corresponden a procesos deterministas y aleatorios, son representados matemáticamente como funciones trigonométricas con amplitudes aleatorias determinadas por los coeficientes de perturbaciones y los períodos de carga de viento de las pulsaciones. El rango establecido se da mediante un conjunto de varias observaciones de cargas de viento en los territorios costeros de Ecuador. Los datos analizados son recogidos de la base de datos de las estaciones meteorológicas nacionales. Finalmente, el proceso de simulación del movimiento controlado perturbado del UAV a lo largo de una trayectoria lineal segmentada, así como el análisis de datos y gráficos, se llevan a cabo en el entorno de MATLAB. In this paper, an assessment of the state of coastal territories of Ecuador monitoring issue is conducted. The use of an autonomous robotic aerial platform is proposed as a technical solution to enhance the efficiency of remote surveillance missions performed by national security services along coastline. Considering the UAV nonlinear flight dynamics, as well as the missing information of the environment, is designed a UAV hierarchical control structure composed of an adaptive PID based MPC control strategy. The implementation of an adaptive PID based MPC controller leads to significantly improve the UAV optimal trajectory tracking task, as well as satisfy properties such as adaptiveness, self-learning, and capability of handling uncertainties caused by the unpredictable behavior of sea currents and wind loads retaining robust performance features. In this work, the investigation of external disturbances on UAV stabilization and positioning accuracy considers swirling wind flows and short-term wind gusts. These correspond to deterministic and random processes, are mathematically represented as trigonometric functions with random amplitudes determined by the gust coefficients and the wind loading periods of the pulses. The established range is given by a set of several observations of wind loads in the coastal territories of Ecuador. The analyzed data is collected from the database of national meteorological stations. Finally, the simulation process of the perturbed controlled motion of the UAV along a segmented linear trajectory, as well as the data analysis and graphics are carried out in the MATLAB environment.

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    Authors: Muentes, Josselyn; Moreira, Juan Manuel; Chata, César; Alcívar, Antonella; +2 Authors

    El ecosistema del bosque seco se caracteriza por su rica biodiversidad y adaptaciones a condiciones áridas. Este estudio se centró en determinar la composición y estructura de la vegetación, examinar las interacciones entre las especies y estimar el carbono almacenado en su biomasa aérea (AGB), se usó una ecuación alométrica propuesta para bosques secos mixtos. Utilizamos 10 parcelas de 10 x 20 m para registrar datos sobre árboles con un diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP) ≥ 5 cm. Inicialmente, la clasificación taxonómica se obtuvo consultando a expertos y bases de datos especializadas. La importancia ecológica se evaluó a través del Índice de Valor de Importancia (IVI) y la asociación de especies se determinó utilizando el Índice de Valor Indicador (Ind-Val%). Se identificaron 148 individuos de 21 especies, 19 géneros y 12 familias en cuatro grupos con fuertes asociaciones, destacándose C. Trischistandra por su alto IVI. El test de Kruskal-Wallis no mostró diferencias significativas en el carbono almacenado entre las parcelas y se estimó un potencial de almacenamiento de 70.47 Mg C ha-1. Esta investigación resalta la importancia de especies clave en la captura de carbono, lo cual es crucial para mitigar el cambio climático. El manejo efectivo de estas especies podría tener un impacto positivo en la conservación del ecosistema de bosque seco y en la lucha contra el calentamiento global. Este análisis brinda un entendimiento profundo de la estructura de este ecosistema. The dry forest ecosystem is characterized by their rich biodiversity and adaptations to arid conditions. This study focused on determining the composition and structure of the vegetation, examining species interactions, and estimating carbon stored in its aboveground biomass (AGB) using an allometric equation proposed for mixed dry forests. We used 10 plots of 10 x 20 m to record data on trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm. Taxonomic classification was initially obtained using experts and specialized databases. Ecological importance was assessed through the Importance Value Index (IVI), and species association was determined using the Indicator Value Index (IndVal%). We identified 148 individuals of 21 species, 19 genera, and 12 families in four groups with strong associations, with C. Trischistandra standing out for its high IVI. The Kruskal-Wallis test did not show significant differences in carbon stored between plots, and was estimated a storage potential of 70.47 Mg C ha-1. This research highlights the importance of key species in carbon capture, which is crucial for mitigating climate change. Effective management of these species could have a positive impact on the conservation of the dry forest ecosystem and the fight against global warming. This analysis provides a deep understanding of the structure of this ecosystem.

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    Authors: Juan Pushug; Leonidas Ramírez; Isaac Simbaña; David Saquinga;

    Esta investigación fue un estudio de caso en una línea de empaque de detergente, con el objetivo de reducir todos los desperdicios que no añaden valor al producto y que aumentan el costo de producción. La disminución o eliminación de desperdicios de cualquier tipo dentro de la industria manufacturera se convierte en una necesidad para que los negocios continúen siendo sustentables en el tiempo y generan desarrollo. Para alcanzar este objetivo, se implementó la metodología Lean Six Sigma DMAIC en una línea de envasado de polvo detergente, permitiendo descubrir los problemas que agobiaban y encarecían la producción. Al utilizar herramientas de calidad (como Diagramas de Pareto e Ishikawa, la aplicación de la metodología 5S, Poka-Yokes, SMED, capacitando al personal, y estandarizando procesos) se logró reducir tiempos improductivos. El consumo de energía se redujo hasta en un 20 %, la eficiencia y la disponibilidad de la máquina aumentaron en 10.98 % y 7.32 %, respectivamente. También se incrementó el rendimiento general de la línea en 15.16 %, lo cual se tradujo en un ahorro significativo mensual de USD 71 442.05. Mediante la aplicación de estas técnicas de mejora, la eficiencia más significativa se registró en los empaques de 1 kg, pasando de 47 hasta 89 %, aproximadamente. Para mantener esta productividad y perfeccionarla, es necesario contratar personal especializado, que conozca los procesos productivos y operaciones industriales. This investigation was a case of study in the powder detergent packaging line and aimed to reduce all those wastes that do not add value to the product, increasing the cost of production. Reducing or eliminating waste within the manufacturing industry becomes necessary for sustainable businesses over time and keeps generating development. To achieve it, the Lean Six Sigma DMAIC methodology was implemented in a detergent powder packaging line, to identify the problems that afflicted and made production more expensive. By using quality tools (such as Pareto and Ishikawa diagrams, 5S application, Poka-Yokes, SMED, training personnel, and standardizing processes) it was possible to reduce unproductive times. Energy consumption was reduced by up to 20 %, also efficiency and machine availability increased by 10.98 % and 7.32 %, respectively. The general performance of the line increased by 15.16 %, which translates into significant monthly savings of USD 71 442.05. By applying these improvement techniques, the most significant efficiency was registered in 1 kg packages, going from 47 % to 89 %, approximately. To maintain this productivity and even to perfect it, it is necessary to hire specialized personnel who know the production processes and industrial operations.

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    Authors: Fredy Rosero Obando; Xavier Rosero; Zamir Mera;

    En condiciones reales de circulación un vehículo interactúa con la carretera, con otros vehículos y con los dispositivos de control del tráfico. El nivel de tráfico influye en los patrones de conducción y, en consecuencia, esto puede afectar a la eficiencia del combustible y las emisiones del vehículo. El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar mapas motorizados de consumo de combustible y emisiones de dióxido de carbono (CO2) para un vehículo ligero que circule en condiciones reales de tráfico. Un vehículo de pasajeros propulsado a gasolina y representativo del parque automotor ecuatoriano fue seleccionado para la campaña experimental que se desarrolló en una ruta de prueba diseñada de acuerdo a la normativa de emisiones en conducción real (RDE). Se utilizó un dispositivo de diagnóstico a bordo (DAB) para registrar en tiempo real los parámetros de funcionamiento del motor y del vehículo. Además, las emisiones de CO2 se estimaron utilizando la tasa de combustible registrada desde el sistema OBD del vehículo. Este estudio propuso una metodología novedosa para desarrollar mapas de motor de contorno bidimensional basados en datos OBD. El resultado mostró que el motor del vehículo funcionaba en condiciones reales de tráfico con una eficiencia térmica de frenado (ETF) del 27 %, un consumo de combustible específico de frenado (CCFE) de 275 g/kWh y un factor de emisión de energía de CO2 de 716 g/kWh. En términos de distancia, el factor de emisión de CO2 del vehículo probado fue de aproximadamente 190 g/km. En general, este estudio demuestra que el enfoque OBD es un método potencial para ser utilizado para evaluar el consumo de combustible y las emisiones de CO2 de un vehículo que opera en condiciones de tráfico del mundo real, especialmente en los países de América Latina, países en los que los sistemas portátiles de medición de emisiones (PEMS) no están fácilmente disponibles. A vehicle interacts with the road, other vehicles, and traffic control devices in real traffic conditions. The level of traffic influences driving patterns and, consequently, this can affect the vehicle´s fuel efficiency and emissions. This study aims to develop engine maps of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions for a light vehicle operating under real traffic conditions. A representative passenger vehicle of the Ecuadorian vehicle fleet, powered by gasoline, was selected for the experimental campaign that was developed on a test route designed according to real driving emission (RDE) regulation. An on-board diagnostic (OBD) device was used for recording in real-time engine and vehicle operating parameters. Moreover, CO2 emissions were estimated using the fuel rate registered from the OBD system of the vehicle This study proposed a novel methodology for developing two-dimensional contour engine maps based on OBD data. The result showed that the vehicle engine operated in real traffic conditions with a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of 27%, a brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 275 g/kWh, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) energy-emission factor of 716 g/kWh. In terms of distance, the CO2 emission factor for the tested vehicle was approximately 190 g/km. Overall, this study demonstrates that the OBD approach is a potential method to be used to assess the fuel consumption and emissions of a vehicle operating under real-world traffic conditions, especially in Latin American countries, where portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) are not readily available.

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