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Research data . Dataset . 2007

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor [GEM]: Adult Population Survey Data Set, 1998-2017

Version 6
Reynolds, Paul D.;
English
Published: 01 Jan 2007
Publisher: ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research
Abstract

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor [GEM] research program was developed to provide comparisons among countries related to participation of adults in the firm creation process. The initial data was assembled as a pretest of five countries in 1998 and by 2012 over 100 countries had been involved in the program. The initial design for the GEM initiative was based on the first US Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, and by 2012 data from 1,827,513 individuals had been gathered in 563 national samples and 6 specialized regional samples. This dataset is a harmonized file capturing results from all of the surveys. The procedure has been to harmonize the basic items across all surveys in all years, followed by implementing a standardized transform to identify those active as nascent entrepreneurs in the start-up process, as owner-managers of new firms, or as owner-managers of established firms. Those identified as nascent entrepreneurs or new business owners are the basis for the Total Entrepreneurial Activity [TEA] or Total Early-Stage index. This harmonized, consolidated assessment not only facilitates comparisons across countries, but provides a basis for temporal comparisons for individual countries. Respondents were queried on the following main topics: general entrepreneurship, start-up activities, ownership and management of the firm, and business angels (angel investors). Respondents were initially screened by way of a series of general questions pertaining to starting a business, such as whether they were currently trying to start a new business, whether they knew anyone who had started a new business, whether they thought it was a good time to start a new business, as well as their perceptions of the income potential and the prestige associated with starting a new business. Demographic variables include respondent age, sex, and employment status.

Developing representative samples of adults was a two stage process. The first step involved a random selection of households leading to a contact with an adult resident. In countries where a high proportion of households have land line telephones, this was done by creating a random set of numbers considered to be household phone numbers. In countries with a high proportion of cell-phone only adults, this has been supplemented with random samples of active cell phone numbers. Numbers were then called, generally up to three times, until an adult respondent answered the phone. In countries with low proportion of households with phones, geographic areas were selected at random for personal contacts by interviewers, who then approached households for a face-to-face interview. In some developing countries phone interviews are conducted in the major urban areas supplemented with face-to-face interviews in rural regions. Adults from each household were selected for interviews in one of two ways. In some cases it was the first adult contacted and in others a person would be randomly selected from those adults living in the household for the interview. In many developed countries there was a deliberate attempt, quota sampling, to complete half of all interviews with men and half with women. For additional information on sampling, please refer to the P.I. Codebook.

This dataset is a harmonized file capturing results from all of the surveys. The procedure has been to harmonize the basic items across all surveys in all years, followed by implementing a standardized transform to identify those active as nascent entrepreneurs in the start-up process, as owner-managers of new firms, or as owner-managers of established firms. Those identified as nascent entrepreneurs or new business owners are the basis for the Total Entrepreneurial Activity [TEA] or Total Early-Stage index. This harmonized, consolidated assessment not only facilitates comparisons across countries, but provides a basis for temporal comparisons for individual countries.

The data are not weighted, however, this collection contains three weight variables that should be used in any analysis: WEIGHT, WEIGHT_L, and WEIGHT_A. National survey vendors implemented weights that would match the annual cohorts with the best available national data, later adjusted by matching the sample to the U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base (IDB) on national population distributions by age and gender. For more information on weights and sampling please refer to the Original P.I. Documentation section in the ICPSR Codebook.

computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI); computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI); face-to-face interview; paper and pencil interview (PAPI); telephone interviewA related collection, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM): Expert Questionnaire Data, 1999-2003, is available as ICPSR 21862.Additional information on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor [GEM] can be found by visiting the GEM Web site.Online Analysis is available for V4 of the data, which covers 1998-2012. Access to 1998-2017 data is via data download only.

Datasets: DS1: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor [GEM]: Adult Population Survey Data Set, 1998-2017

Adults, 18 years and older. Smallest Geographic Unit: Country

Subjects

attitudes, business, business conditions, business ownership, entrepreneurs, investments, investors, occupations, perceptions, prestige, small businesses, startup companies

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