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Smoking is associated with worse outcomes of COVID-19 particularly among younger adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Glantz, Stanton; Patanavanich, Roengrudee;
Open Access
<p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Smoking impairs lung immune functions and damages upper airways, increasing risks of contracting and severity of infectious diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We searched PubMed for studies published from January 1-May 25, 2020. We included studies reporting smoking behavior of COVID-19 patients and progression of disease, including death. We used a random effects meta-analysis and used meta-regression and lowess regressions to examine relationships in the data.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We identified 47 peer-reviewed papers with a total of 31,871 COVID-19 patients, 5,759 (18.1%) experienced disease progression ...
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