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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tcacenco, Andrei;

    My research looks at Soviet republics outside the Russian Federation such as the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs, and takes a more localized approach to understanding the state’s campaigns to produce a moral Soviet citizen during the Late Socialist period of Soviet history. I look at how interactions between Soviet citizens in the periphery and Central Party organs resulted in a dynamic, negotiated understanding of socialist morality and concepts of the New Socialist Person in new discursive spaces of home entertainment, especially television and radio. Soviet citizens utilized mass media to spark debates about the meaning of Soviet identity, nationalism and morality, and sometimes to express outright hostility toward the Soviet state. The appropriation of official Soviet language in the periphery led to the creation of new, unpredictable meanings in Soviet discourse. I show that some former Soviet citizens often viewed their national identity as a form of resistance to the Soviet state, while others saw little contradiction between their national and Soviet identities. This paradox is central to my project, as I aim to explore the fluidity, ambiguity, and variation of national and Soviet identity. Ultimately, I argue that the conversations and arguments surrounding morality led to the collapse of the Soviet Union by December 1991.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • Authors: Dubouclez, Olivier;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kamsteeg, Frans; Verbuyst, Rafaël; Wels, Harry;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • Authors: Nyamba, Isaïe; Lechanteur, Anna; Semdé, Rasmé; Evrard, Brigitte;

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenolic active compound with antimalarial and other promising therapeutic activities. However, its solubility and its permeability are both low (BCS IV). These properties greatly compromise its oral bioavailability and clinical utilizations. To overcome these limitations of the physicochemical parameters, several formulation approaches, including particle size reduction, amorphization and lipid-based formulations, have been used. Although these strategies have not yet led to a clinical application, some of them have resulted in significant improvements in the solubility and bioavailability of EA. This critical review reports and analyses the different formulation approaches used by scientists to improve both the biopharmaceutical properties and the clinical use of EA.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Li, Sihuan;

    Extremely large scale scientific simulation applications have been very important in many scientific domains including cosmology, climate, fluid dynamics, chemistry and so on. It has been shown that running the simulations at a larger scale can bring more discoveries. On one hand, with the increasing scale of those applications, the saturated I/O bandwidth can slow down the execution of the simulation significantly because of the huge amount of data needed to be dumped to the storage system. On the other hand, soft errors striking the simulations are not negligible considering the great number of components in the supercomputer and a single scientific execution spending days to finish. Therefore, it is meaningful to reduce the I/O time and harden the resilience of those large scale simulations. Though hardware solutions like designing new storage systems or error resilient computing devices have great generality, it usually takes longer development time and much more effort than software solutions. This thesis seeks software solutions by designing efficient and resilient lossy compressors for large scale scientific simulations.To improve the overall simulation performance, we propose a better lossy compressor which has a much higher compression ratio to reduce the I/O time significantly. More specifically, we focus on particle based scientific simulations. As we know, greater compression ratios imply less data to be written to the storage system which in turn, reduces I/O time. The state-of-art lossy compressor takes the advantage of spatial smoothness to achieve high compression ratios. However, particle based simulations have very limited smoothness in space which leads to inadequate compression ratios. In contrast, we propose to exploit smoothness in time for lossy compression and design an optimized compression model based on the existing lossy compressor. Results show our optimized compression model achieves much better compression ratios and significantly reduces I/O time at large scale.To improve the resilience of the simulation applications equipped with lossy compression, we design soft error resilient schemes for lossy compressors. First, we provide an algorithm-scope protection for one widely used lossy compressor named SZ. Then, we provide an application-scope protection that can be applied to all error-bounded lossy compressors. The algorithm-scope protection can only cover soft errors happening during the execution of the lossy compression itself while the application-scope protection can cover soft errors during simulation, lossy compression and even data writing. Both the algorithm- scope and the application-scope protections can provide significantly better resilience but keep the performance overhead low.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Porquet, Florent; Weidong, Lin; Jehasse, Kevin; Gazon, Hélène; +9 Authors

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a neuromuscular disease that originates from an expansion of CTG microsatellites in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene, thus leading to the expression of transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats (CUGexp). The pathophysiology is explained by a toxic RNA gain of function where CUGexp RNAs form nuclear aggregates that sequester and alter the function of MBNL splicing factors, triggering splicing misregulation linked to the DM1 symptoms. There is currently no cure for DM1, and most therapeutic strategies aim at eliminating CUGexp-DMPK transcripts. Here, we investigate a DMPK-promoter silencing strategy using CRISPR interference as a new alternative approach. Different sgRNAs targeting the DMPK promoter are evaluated in DM1 patient muscle cells. The most effective guides allowed us to reduce the level of DMPK transcripts and CUGexp-RNA aggregates up to 80%. The CUGexp-DMPK repression corrects the overall transcriptome, including spliceopathy, and reverses a physiological parameter in DM1 muscle cells. Its action is specific and restricted to the DMPK gene, as confirmed by genome-wide expression analysis. Altogether, our findings highlight DMPK-promoter silencing by CRISPRi as a promising therapeutic approach for DM1.

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  • Authors: Dufour, Patrice; PIRARD, Catherine; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine; BOEMER, François; +1 Authors
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  • Authors: Manirakiza, Dismas;

    Depuis plus de deux décennies, le Burundi a connu un regain d’intérêt pour les coopératives agricoles à la suite de l’appel des partenaires humanitaires visant à réorienter leur intervention face à la dégradation des conditions de vie de la population rurale. Dans la foulée, le gouvernement a accordé une très haute priorité au développement des cultures vivrières pour assurer l’approvisionnement de la population à partir des productions nationales. Au regard de sa situation historique d’insécurité alimentaire récurrente, la province de Ngozi a dès lors subi un foisonnement des coopératives agricoles autour des cultures vivrières. La majorité des coopératives sont impliquées dans l’appui à la production, l’accès et la gestion des intrants, le stockage, la transformation, l’accès au crédit, la mutualisation de l’assurance-santé et la recherche des marchés. L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer l’impact des coopératives agricoles des cultures vivrières sur les conditions de vie des ménages ruraux au Burundi, notamment dans la province de Ngozi. Cette étude qui s’étend sur une période de 2016 à 2020, a privilégié l’approche terrain par la réalisation d’enquêtes auprès des paysans membres des coopératives et ceux n’appartenant à aucune organisation paysanne et d’entretiens formels et informels avec les divers acteurs de la coopération agricole. Les enquêtes ont été conduites dans un premier temps sur un échantillon de 90 membres aléatoirement choisis dans six coopératives de cette province, spécialement dans deux communes, Busiga et Gashikanwa, et dans un deuxième temps, sur un groupe témoin de 60 non-membres sélectionnés dans le même groupe social que les premiers. Cette étude met en lumière les services offerts par les coopératives à leurs membres et dans une certaine mesure à la communauté environnante. En fonction de leur taille, elles constituent un canal privilégié pour l’approvisionnement en intrants agricoles et l’apprentissage de nouvelles techniques culturales. La valorisation de la production (stockage, transformation, vente et warrantage) fait partie de leurs préoccupations. Face aux défis de l’accès au financement agricole, les coopératives innovent des alternatives d’accès aux petits crédits. Avec la solidarité mutuelle, qui est d’ailleurs le socle de la coopération, les membres se cotisent pour constituer un dispositif d’assurance santé communautaire. Les coopérateurs bénéficient aussi des formations sur l’hygiène, le petit entrepreneuriat, la protection de l’environnement, etc. Dans l’évaluation de l’impact, les résultats montrent que les coopératives exercent des effets sur la majorité des aspects de conditions de vie de leurs membres. Au niveau de la production, le test statistique montre un écart significatif des rendements (kg/ha) de la banane entre les deux groupes (p = 0,075) au seuil de 10%. L’impact correspond à une augmentation moyenne du rendement de 640 kg/ha par ménage des membres. Vu que la banane est une culture importante dans la consommation et surtout dans la commercialisation, l’augmentation de sa production apporte un revenu relativement élevé. Dans la foulée, le stockage permet aux coopérateurs de bénéficier d’une plus-value de la production et d’obtenir un crédit warrantage. Pour ce qui est de l’élevage, l’impact s’évalue à une augmentation moyenne de 0,40 bovin et de 0,46 caprin par ménage des membres. Cette situation dénote une détention de richesse (épargne en nature) d’une valeur moyenne de 160.000 Fbu (bovin) et 46.000 Fbu (caprin); ce qui leur confère également une forte estime sociale et une grande opportunité d’acquisition de fumier relativement plus importante. L’analyse comparative révèle un écart significatif entre les montants moyens de crédits contractés par les deux groupes. L’écart moyen de 28.500 Fbu constituerait donc un impact induit par l’adhésion dans les coopératives. En ce qui concerne l’habitat, l’écart est significatif pour la qualité des matériaux des murs, l’accès à l’eau potable et la nature des latrines. En effet, l’impact correspond à une baisse de 13% du niveau de possession des maisons à murs en pisés, une diminution de 9% du niveau de consommation d’eau non potable et une augmentation de 7% du niveau de possession de latrines aménagées chez les membres. Si bien que l’écart n’est pas significatif pour la nature du sol, le niveau de possession des maisons en terres battues est en baisse de 9% au profit des sols cimentés. A cet égard, les membres paraissent moins exposés aux risques d’accident et aux conditions d'hygiène précaires que les non-membres. De plus, la mutualisation de l'assurance maladie au sein de la coopérative leur offre une accessibilité financière et physique aux soins de santé relativement élevée. L’écart est aussi significatif quant au nombre de maisons en possession dans les ménages. L’impact obtenu est de 0,5 maison correspondant à un supplément de maisons possédé par un ménage des coopérateurs. En rapport avec les équipements de la maison, l’impact apparaît dans la possession de l’armoire et de la salle à manger. Une maison supplémentaire et la possession des équipements dits « complémentaires » permettent de renforcer le confort d’un ménage. En rapport avec la possession d’autres moyens matériels, l’impact apparait dans la détention du vélo et de la radio dans les ménages des membres. Le vélo joue un rôle majeur au niveau de la rapidité et du coût des activités exercées dans le foyer et la radio leur permet d’être constamment informés. L’analyse du décrochage scolaire révèle un impact correspondant à une diminution moyenne de 0,15 abandon scolaire dans les ménages des membres. Quoi que l’écart soit minime, la baisse de 15% dans la prise d’un seul repas par jour dans le groupe des membres de la catégorie à faible revenu pourrait aussi constituer un impact. À la sortie de la crise, les coopératives ont réussi à rassembler des personnes vivant sur les mêmes collines autour d'un idéal commun. L’harmonie sociale observée dans les coopératives étudiées se traduit par l’entraide dans de nombreuses situations. For more than two decades, Burundi has experienced a resurgence of interest in agricultural cooperatives following the appeal of humanitarian partners aiming to reorient their intervention. In the regard, the Government has given a higher priority to the development of food crops to ensure the supply of the population from national productions. Considering its historical situation of recurring food insecurity, the province of Ngozi has since had a proliferation of agricultural cooperatives around food crops, as well as cash crops, mainly coffee. Most of them are involved in access to low-cost agricultural inputs, markets, agricultural micro-credits, natural resources, training and information. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of food crops cooperatives on the living conditions of rural households in Burundi, particularly in the province of Ngozi. The realization of this study covering a period from 2016 to 2019 combines three methods such as the documentary exploitation, surveys and interviews with different actors of the cooperative movement of Busiga and Gashikanwa communes in Ngozi province. The fist survey was conducted on 90 members randomly selected in cooperatives of three main organizations present in each commune. The second survey was carried out on a comparison group of 60 non-members, who were selected by using the purposive sampling technique in the same social group and geographical area as cooperatives’ members. This study highlights various services offered by cooperatives to their members and to the surrounding community. Depending on their size, cooperatives are a preferred channel for supplying agricultural inputs and learning new farming techniques. The valuation of production (storage, processing, sale and inventory credit) is part of their concern. Facing the challenge to get agricultural financing, the cooperatives are innovating alternatives for accessing small loans. Under of mutual solidarity, members organize a kind of community health insurance. For some, cooperative members benefit from regular training on hygiene, small entrepreneurship, environmental protection, peaceful cohabitation, etc. Regarding of the impact assessment, the analysis shows that cooperatives have effects on the majority of aspects of the living conditions of their members. At the production level, the statistical test shows a significant difference in the yields of bananas between the two groups (p = 0.075) at the significance level of 10%. The impact corresponds to an average yield increase of 640 kg / ha per member household. Considering that the banana is an important crop in consumption and especially in commercialization; the increase in its production brings relatively high income to households, especially in member’s. In the process, the storage also allowed the cooperative members to have a capital gain on the production and an inventory credit. Regarding of the livestock, the impact is estimated at an average increase of 0.40 cattle and 0.46 goats per household of members. This situation expresses a great opportunity for fertilization, a social esteem and a wealth with an average value of 160,000 BIF (cattle) and 46,000 BIF (goat) The comparative analysis reveals a significant difference between the average amounts of loans taken out by the two groups. The average difference of 28,500 BIF would therefore constitute an impact induced by membership in cooperatives. Regarding of the habitat, the difference is significant for the quality of materials of the walls, access to safe water and the quality of latrines. Indeed, the impact corresponds to a 13% decrease in the level of possession of houses whose walls are built with wood covered of mud, a 9% decrease in the level of unsafe water consumption and a 7% increase in the level of possession of fitted latrines among members. In this respect, members appear less exposed to precarious hygienic conditions than non-members. In addition, the mutual health insurance within the cooperative offers them financial and physical accessibility to health care. The difference is also significant in the number of houses owned by households. The impact obtained is 0.5 houses corresponding to an additional number of houses owned by a household of cooperators. In relation to the equipment of the house, the impact appears in the possession of the cupboard and the dining room. An additional house and the possession of "complementary" equipment would enhance the comfort of a household. For the other material means, the impact appears in the possession of the bicycle and the radio in the households of the members. The bicycle plays a major role in the speed and cost of activities carried out in the households and the radio allows them to be constantly informed. The analysis of early school leaving reveals an impact corresponding to an average decrease of 0.15 school dropouts in member households. Although the difference is small, the 15% drop in eating just one meal per day among the low-income group could also be an impact. Coming out of the crisis, the cooperatives have succeeded in gathering together people living on the same hills around a common ideal. The social harmony observed in farmers’ cooperatives studied is reflected in mutual aid in many situations.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Xu, Jialin;

    Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) are drug target candidates due to their role in cell signaling and involvement in the pathologies of various diseases. Difficulty in developing orthosteric inhibitors of PTPs has raised interest in the development of allosteric inhibitors. Previous studies have identified an allosteric mechanism in receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase α (RPTPα), yet the mechanism requires further characterization for future development of small molecule therapeutics. In this study, through comparing RPTPα and the closely related RPTPε, we achieved the identification and in vitro validation of a segment of RPTPα (residues 261-330) responsible for its allosteric effect. It lays the groundwork for identification of amino acid residues participating in the establishment of allostery, which is a step in fully elucidating the allosteric mechanism.

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    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries play an essential role in our daily lives and are considered the main power source in electric vehicles. The process of charging and discharging the battery continuously drives to a significant amount of heat generation which results in temperature differences, non-uniformity, and thermal runaway. An effective battery thermal management strategy (BTMS) is required to maintain battery temperature in the optimal range and thus ensure high performance, safety, and longevity of lithium-ion batteries. Many cooling mediums have been conducted into BTMS to absorb, transfer, and dissipate the heat generated from the batteries. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient, cooling performance, cost, toxicity, environment, system size, and equipment needed are critical factors in choosing the ideal heat transfer methods for the BTMS. Air cooling systems with either passive or active control are considered one of the most traditional, common, and widely embraced cooling strategies in automotive applications. This is due to their simplicity in structure, flexibility in maintenance and packaging, water leakage avoidance, low weight and power consumption. However, the main concerning points are low cooling efficiency and nonuniform temperature distribution within the cells. Phase change material (PCM) is a substance that change its material structure from one physical phase to another, and can absorb or release heat at specific temperature ranges. Therefore, towards reaching the melting point liquid-solid PCMs absorb heat energy and eventually transform from solid phase to liquid. The PCM absorbs the heat accumulated on the battery surface by conduction. It has large latent heat and constitutes a low- cost thermal management strategy. On the other hand, PCMs suffer from low thermal conductivity, and thermal management systems based on them are considered volumetric and massive. Therefore, power consumption and low thermal conductivity in air-cooling systems and passive cooling system with PCM assisted need further design optimization. In this PhD thesis, a novel and environmental material called jute is integrated with both cooling strategies, air-cooling, and passive cooling PCM assisted. Jute is a cheap, light, eco-friendly, widely available material well-known for its cooling properties, Jute fibers haven’t been investigated and integrated before with battery thermal management strategies. Firstly, a unique battery thermal management depends on using the jute as a plant-based, cheap, environmental, economic, renewable and lightweight fiber is proposed to be integrated with air cooling. Thorough experiments are carried out on a 50Ah prismatic high-energy battery cell with an integrated evaporative cooling system and its effects on battery thermal behavior are studied. The maximum cell surface temperature, temperature difference, and temperature uniformity on the cell surface are compared under different ambient and loading conditions, considering natural convection cooling, forced air cooling, and evaporative cooling. The results confirm that using the jute for the proposed BTMS improves the performance of air cooling with a better temperature uniformity as well as reduced equipment and weight. Then, jute was integrated with a passive PCM cooling system, and the thermal performance of a 50 Ah prismatic battery was studied. Cell surface temperature evolution and uniformity were investigated. Afterwards, a comparison between the thermal behavior of the air- based and PCM-assisted BTMS cooling system was performed. The results indicated that adding jute to the BTMS increased the cooling improvement and especially decreased the temperature development. Furthermore, the temperature difference (ΔT) was enhanced by 60% when integrating jute with PCM, and temperature uniformity improved by 3% when integrating jute with air-based BTMS. This study compared the integration of jute with active and passive cooling; thus, it sheds the light on the importance of jute as a novel, eco-friendly, lightweight, cheap, available, and non-toxic material added to two strategies of BTMS. The setup was physically made and experimentally studied for the purpose of BTMS optimization. The results of this research confirm that the proposed designs with jute fibers combination improved the cooling performance besides reduced the equipment and weight.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tcacenco, Andrei;

    My research looks at Soviet republics outside the Russian Federation such as the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs, and takes a more localized approach to understanding the state’s campaigns to produce a moral Soviet citizen during the Late Socialist period of Soviet history. I look at how interactions between Soviet citizens in the periphery and Central Party organs resulted in a dynamic, negotiated understanding of socialist morality and concepts of the New Socialist Person in new discursive spaces of home entertainment, especially television and radio. Soviet citizens utilized mass media to spark debates about the meaning of Soviet identity, nationalism and morality, and sometimes to express outright hostility toward the Soviet state. The appropriation of official Soviet language in the periphery led to the creation of new, unpredictable meanings in Soviet discourse. I show that some former Soviet citizens often viewed their national identity as a form of resistance to the Soviet state, while others saw little contradiction between their national and Soviet identities. This paradox is central to my project, as I aim to explore the fluidity, ambiguity, and variation of national and Soviet identity. Ultimately, I argue that the conversations and arguments surrounding morality led to the collapse of the Soviet Union by December 1991.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Dubouclez, Olivier;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kamsteeg, Frans; Verbuyst, Rafaël; Wels, Harry;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Ghent University Aca...arrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Nyamba, Isaïe; Lechanteur, Anna; Semdé, Rasmé; Evrard, Brigitte;

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenolic active compound with antimalarial and other promising therapeutic activities. However, its solubility and its permeability are both low (BCS IV). These properties greatly compromise its oral bioavailability and clinical utilizations. To overcome these limitations of the physicochemical parameters, several formulation approaches, including particle size reduction, amorphization and lipid-based formulations, have been used. Although these strategies have not yet led to a clinical application, some of them have resulted in significant improvements in the solubility and bioavailability of EA. This critical review reports and analyses the different formulation approaches used by scientists to improve both the biopharmaceutical properties and the clinical use of EA.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Li, Sihuan;

    Extremely large scale scientific simulation applications have been very important in many scientific domains including cosmology, climate, fluid dynamics, chemistry and so on. It has been shown that running the simulations at a larger scale can bring more discoveries. On one hand, with the increasing scale of those applications, the saturated I/O bandwidth can slow down the execution of the simulation significantly because of the huge amount of data needed to be dumped to the storage system. On the other hand, soft errors striking the simulations are not negligible considering the great number of components in the supercomputer and a single scientific execution spending days to finish. Therefore, it is meaningful to reduce the I/O time and harden the resilience of those large scale simulations. Though hardware solutions like designing new storage systems or error resilient computing devices have great generality, it usually takes longer development time and much more effort than software solutions. This thesis seeks software solutions by designing efficient and resilient lossy compressors for large scale scientific simulations.To improve the overall simulation performance, we propose a better lossy compressor which has a much higher compression ratio to reduce the I/O time significantly. More specifically, we focus on particle based scientific simulations. As we know, greater compression ratios imply less data to be written to the storage system which in turn, reduces I/O time. The state-of-art lossy compressor takes the advantage of spatial smoothness to achieve high compression ratios. However, particle based simulations have very limited smoothness in space which leads to inadequate compression ratios. In contrast, we propose to exploit smoothness in time for lossy compression and design an optimized compression model based on the existing lossy compressor. Results show our optimized compression model achieves much better compression ratios and significantly reduces I/O time at large scale.To improve the resilience of the simulation applications equipped with lossy compression, we design soft error resilient schemes for lossy compressors. First, we provide an algorithm-scope protection for one widely used lossy compressor named SZ. Then, we provide an application-scope protection that can be applied to all error-bounded lossy compressors. The algorithm-scope protection can only cover soft errors happening during the execution of the lossy compression itself while the application-scope protection can cover soft errors during simulation, lossy compression and even data writing. Both the algorithm- scope and the application-scope protections can provide significantly better resilience but keep the performance overhead low.

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  • Authors: Porquet, Florent; Weidong, Lin; Jehasse, Kevin; Gazon, Hélène; +9 Authors

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a neuromuscular disease that originates from an expansion of CTG microsatellites in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene, thus leading to the expression of transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats (CUGexp). The pathophysiology is explained by a toxic RNA gain of function where CUGexp RNAs form nuclear aggregates that sequester and alter the function of MBNL splicing factors, triggering splicing misregulation linked to the DM1 symptoms. There is currently no cure for DM1, and most therapeutic strategies aim at eliminating CUGexp-DMPK transcripts. Here, we investigate a DMPK-promoter silencing strategy using CRISPR interference as a new alternative approach. Different sgRNAs targeting the DMPK promoter are evaluated in DM1 patient muscle cells. The most effective guides allowed us to reduce the level of DMPK transcripts and CUGexp-RNA aggregates up to 80%. The CUGexp-DMPK repression corrects the overall transcriptome, including spliceopathy, and reverses a physiological parameter in DM1 muscle cells. Its action is specific and restricted to the DMPK gene, as confirmed by genome-wide expression analysis. Altogether, our findings highlight DMPK-promoter silencing by CRISPRi as a promising therapeutic approach for DM1.

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  • Authors: Dufour, Patrice; PIRARD, Catherine; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine; BOEMER, François; +1 Authors
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