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  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    N, A. B. (Atamurodov); N, I. I. (Ibodov); M, N. M. (Najmiddinov); T, S. S. (Safarov); Q, N. D. (Najimov);
    Publisher: Research Parks Publishing
    Country: Indonesia

    Kidroponics is a method of growing plants in an artificial environment without soil. In this method, it is possible to achieve the cultivation of mainly vegetables, flowers, berries, greens for livestock and poultry, much more effective than other methods of watering and forming a glaze.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Vivekanandhan, V. (V); M, C. (Christopher); M, D. (Dilipkumar); G, G. (Gopal);
    Publisher: Research Parks Publishing
    Country: Indonesia

    Agriculture plays an important role in producing food supply for survival. The agriculture practice is performed by multiple factors such as soil type, fertilisers, plant samplings, irrigation practice, etc. On these factors on which agriculture depends, irrigation is one of the major factors for the better yield of crops, just like any other factor. Therefore, efficient irrigation practice has to be performed to increase cultivation production and preserve available water resources for optimal usage. Traditional methods of irrigation practice are well suited for situations with surplus water resources but not very efficient when it comes to scarce places. So, we propose a new IoT-driven root zone injection method of irrigation which is estimated to perform required irrigation practices in places of high water scarcity. This method is performed with the help of machine learning, IoT devices, wireless neural networking of sensors, and root zone injection equipment for automation. The mechanism starts with collecting real-time data from the agricultural field for specified crop types by using a wireless neural network of sensors and forming the dataset. Once the dataset is formed, it will be processed and cleaned to feed into machine learning algorithms. The machine learning algorithm (here, it is linear regression) will make the required prediction for the water content needed for the irrigation process for that particular day. The dynamic estimation is made as the water content required will vary from the growing phases of plants where it is minimum at the initial phase, peak at middle and reduce or increase depending on the plant species at later phase of growth. This estimated water content is then delivered to the plants through the irrigation process, governed by the IoT devices, which have the procedures encoded for irrigation. ML prediction guides the IoT system on how much water to deliver to the plants. Finally, the injection setup of the root zone passes the water directly to the underground root zones. Thus, completely preventing evaporation wastage and accurate water content estimation and supply, achieving optimal irrigation practice.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Sukarman, S. (Sukarman); Mulyani, A. (Anny); Purwanto, S. (Setiyo);
    Publisher: Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development
    Country: Indonesia

    . Evaluasi lahan adalah salah satu instrumen yang biasa digunakan dalam menilai kesesuaian lahan untuk berbagai komoditas pertanian di suatu wilayah. Lahan dapat diklasfikasikan sesuai untuk pengembangan komoditas tertentu jika secara biofisik maupun secara sosial ekonomi tergolong sesuai. Parameter yang digunakan dalam menilai suatu lahan adalah karakteristik lahan, diantaranya adalah unsur iklim, yaitu curah hujan rata-rata tahunan, temperatur udara rata-rata tahunan dan kelembaban udara. Tujuan dari makalah ini adalah untuk memberikan saran dan rekomendasi untuk menambahkan parameter pada karakteristik tanah yang digunakan dalam penilaian kesesuaian lahan berbagai komoditas pertanian sebagai akibat dari Perubahan iklim. Saat ini di dunia telah terjadi Perubahan iklim yang berdampak pada karakteristik lahan di suatu wilayah. Umumnya, Perubahan iklim dianggap sebagai salah satu ancaman yang sangat serius terhadap sektor pertanian dan berpotensi mendatangkan masalah baru bagi keberlanjutan produksi pangan dan sistem produksi pertanian. Secara umum, Perubahan iklim akan menyebabkan terjadinya ancaman kekeringan, banjir dan kenaikan muka air laut. Hal tersebut berdampak terhadap penyusutan dan degradasi (penurunan fungsi dan kualitas) sumberdaya lahan, air dan infrastruktur irigasi. Kejadian tersebut menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan pertumbuhan serta produksi tanaman. Oleh karena itu faktor kerentanan kekeringan, kerentanan banjir dan kenaikan permukaan air laut diusulkan untuk dijadikan parameter penilaian kesesuaian lahan agar hasil penilaian kesesuaian lahan sesuai dengan kondisi sebenarnya.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Ngatiman, N. (Ngatiman); Fajri, M. (Muhammad);
    Publisher: Forestry Research, Development and Innovation Agency
    Country: Indonesia

    Shorea leprosula adalah salah satu jenis pohon utama di KHDTK Labanan, Berau , Kalimantan Timur. Pertumbuhannya di alam seringkali terganggu dengan kehadiran gulma. Pengendalian gulma sangat diperlukan dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman. Oleh karena itu, tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan teknik pengendalian gulma yang terbaik dan jenis-jenis gulma pada tanaman S. leprosula. Variabel respon dalam penelitian ini adalah pertumbuhan tinggi dan diameter per enam bulan dan variabel penduga adalah teknik pengendalian gulma pola lajur (P1), pola lajur + mulsa (P2), pola melingkar setempat (P3), pola melingkar setempat + mulsa (P4) dan kontrol (P0), kelas sinar rumpang dan naung, dan komponen geomorfik lembah, lereng dan punggung. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linier berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa teknik pengendalian gulma dengan perlakuan P1 memberikan nilai riap yang lebih rendah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya pada tanaman S. leprosula setiap enam bulan. Sementara itu, untuk perlakuan P3 memberikan hasil yang paling baik terhadap nilai riap S. leprosula setiap enam bulan. Pada tanaman S. leprosula ditemukan 93 jenis gulma, dimana yang menyebabkan dampak kerusakan dan invasi suatu lahan secara nyata adalah gulma jenis Mikania micrantha.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Soni, V. D. (Vishal);
    Publisher: Research Parks Publishing
    Country: Indonesia

    Human-robot interaction can increase the challenges of artificial intelligence. Many domains of AI and its effect is laid down, which is mainly called for their integration, modelling of human cognition and human, collecting and representing knowledge, use of this knowledge in human level, maintaining decision making processes and providing these decisions towards physical action eligible to and in coordination with humans. A huge number of AI technologies are abstracted from task planning to theory of mind building, from visual processing to symbolic reasoning and from reactive control to action recognition and learning. Specific human-robot interaction is focused on this case. Multi-model and situated communication can support human-robot collaborative task achievement. Present study deals with the process of using artificial intelligence (AI) for human-robot interaction.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Asatovna, I. F. (Ishonkulova); Jamshedovich, K. M. (Khamitov);
    Publisher: Research Parks Publishing
    Country: Indonesia

    The subject of the study is the development of the service sector in the framework of the digitalization of the economic space. The goal is to clarify the processes of dependence of the development of the service sector in the context of the digital transformation of the economy at the present stage of development of the national economy. The author sets the following tasks: to analyze the main economic indicators of the development of the service sector; identify the features of digital transformation of business in this area; determine the patterns of development of the service sector under the influence of digital processes. As a result, the author reveals patterns and trends in the development of the service sector under the influence of digital processes - an increase in the activity coefficient and a decrease in the number of personnel. The obtained materials can be used to promote the development of the service sector at the macro and micro levels, which determines the value of this study. Scientific novelty lies in the formed matrix of the relationship between the development of individual service industries and business digitalization processes. The article reveals the heterogeneity in the field of digitalization of business processes in the service sector, as well as the trend towards a relative increase in the efficiency of enterprises in industries characterized by high digital activity.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Endra, R. Y. (Robby); Cucus, A. (Ahmad); Affandi, F. N. (Freddy); Hermawan, D. (Deni);
    Publisher: Bandar Lampung University
    Country: Indonesia

    Saat ini sistem yang dapat mengontrol suatu ruangan secara otomatis masih sangat hangat dan digemari masyarakat modern melihat fungsinya yang sangat berkesesuaian dengan fungsi utama dari teknologi itu sendiri yaitu mempermudah serta membantu kebutuhan manusia. Agar kondisi rumah bisa di kontrol jarak jauh tentunya banyak teknologi-teknologi yang harus diterapakan seperti pemasangan sensor agar bisa mendeteksi secara otomatis bila terjadi pemasalahan dan juga biasanya ada juga alat kontrol berupa mikro kontroler yang bertujuan untuk mengontrol peralatan elektronik yang dipadukan dengan konsep internet of things. Internet of Things sendiri merupakan sebuah konsep yang bertujuan untuk memperluas manfaat dari konektivitas internet yang tersambung secara terus menerus. Adapun kemampuan seperti berbagi data, remote control dan sebagainya, termasuk juga pada benda di dunia nyata. Contohnya peralatan elektronik yang terhubung ke jaringan lokal dan global melalui sensor yang tertanan dan selalu aktif. Dengan melihat definisi dari ini Internet of Things ini sangat cocok untuk diterapkan pada konsep smart room.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Fatimah, S. (Siti); Muafalah, S. (Siti); Nurholis, N. (Nurholis); Djunaedy, A. (Achmad);
    Publisher: Trunojoyo University Madura
    Country: Indonesia

    Landraces breeding scheme of bambara groundnut from various regions of Indonesia since 2012 provides several potential lines which are uniform, high yielding and drought-tolerant. Evaluation of resistance to pests and diseases is aimed to select potential lines which are resistant to pests and diseases and potential for development in Madura dry land during the dry season. The present study used descriptive method through field observation technique on 10 selected potential lines of Bambara groundnut. The results showed that there were 5 (five) types of pests and 4 types of diseases found in bambara groundnut crops planted during the dry season in Bangkalan Regency of Madura. The pests attacking more than 25% per plot were aphids, ladybugs and grasshoppers. A symptom of pathogen attacking more than 25% per plot were Bean common mosaic virus and soybean common mosaic virus. The GSG 1.1.1 potential line had the lowest pest attack and the BBL 2.1.1 potential line had the lowest disease incidence.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Mishra, S. K. (Santosh);
    Publisher: IndraStra Global
    Country: Indonesia

    The road to efficiency, efficacy is important for sustainability. It'll take goals, strategies, and simulations with techniques to compliment development alternatives. One is the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Its utilities are many...in resolving logistic objectives to acquire inputs to act and control procedures for desired outcome with depth over distances. It is examined for use in cultivation in developing India situation. Unless the agricultural wars would reach our door-step that we cannot turn away from. India would rather bargain on a flight plan to UAV and not just make do with a game of leapfrog. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3584049

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Anova, I. T. (Inda); Yeni, G. (Gustri);
    Publisher: Indonesian Ministry of Industry
    Country: Indonesia

    Gambir salah satu tanaman herbal yang mempunyai banyak manfaat, terutama untuk produk farmasi, kosmetik, pewarna dan lain sebagainya. Kandungan senyawa katekin yang tinggi pada gambir sangat dipengaruhi oleh proses ekstraksi yang dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk melihat pengaruh dari rasio pelarut etanol dan etil asetat serta waktu ekstraksi yang digunakan terhadap rendemen dan karakteristik katekin gambir yang dihasilkan. Proses ekstraksi menggunakan pelarut etanol dan etil asetat, dengan rasio sebagai berikut : E1= etil asetat : etanol (0:1), E2 = etil aetat : etanol (1:0), E3= etil asetat : etanol (3 : 2), E4 = etil asetat : etanol (4 : 1); waktu ekstraksi : 5 jam (T1) dan 6 jam (T2), rasio pelarut dan gambir tetap yaitu 1:2. Pada produk katekin yang didapatkan dilakukan perhitungan rendemen, kadar katekin, kandungan unsur mineral logam dan non logam dengan uji XRF dan morfologi SEM EDX. Perlakuan optimal didapat pada perlakuan E3T2 dengan rendemen 74,86% dan kadar katekin 98,66%. Menurut uji XRF terdapat beberapa jenis unsur logam dan non logam yang lebih kompleks seperti Mg, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Ag, S, Eu dan Cd, morfologi SEM menunjukkan bentuk partikel yang masih sama serta tidak teratur dengan ukuran partikel yang lebih kecil jika dibandingkan dengan ukuran partikel bahan baku gambir.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
449 Research products, page 1 of 45
  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    N, A. B. (Atamurodov); N, I. I. (Ibodov); M, N. M. (Najmiddinov); T, S. S. (Safarov); Q, N. D. (Najimov);
    Publisher: Research Parks Publishing
    Country: Indonesia

    Kidroponics is a method of growing plants in an artificial environment without soil. In this method, it is possible to achieve the cultivation of mainly vegetables, flowers, berries, greens for livestock and poultry, much more effective than other methods of watering and forming a glaze.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Vivekanandhan, V. (V); M, C. (Christopher); M, D. (Dilipkumar); G, G. (Gopal);
    Publisher: Research Parks Publishing
    Country: Indonesia

    Agriculture plays an important role in producing food supply for survival. The agriculture practice is performed by multiple factors such as soil type, fertilisers, plant samplings, irrigation practice, etc. On these factors on which agriculture depends, irrigation is one of the major factors for the better yield of crops, just like any other factor. Therefore, efficient irrigation practice has to be performed to increase cultivation production and preserve available water resources for optimal usage. Traditional methods of irrigation practice are well suited for situations with surplus water resources but not very efficient when it comes to scarce places. So, we propose a new IoT-driven root zone injection method of irrigation which is estimated to perform required irrigation practices in places of high water scarcity. This method is performed with the help of machine learning, IoT devices, wireless neural networking of sensors, and root zone injection equipment for automation. The mechanism starts with collecting real-time data from the agricultural field for specified crop types by using a wireless neural network of sensors and forming the dataset. Once the dataset is formed, it will be processed and cleaned to feed into machine learning algorithms. The machine learning algorithm (here, it is linear regression) will make the required prediction for the water content needed for the irrigation process for that particular day. The dynamic estimation is made as the water content required will vary from the growing phases of plants where it is minimum at the initial phase, peak at middle and reduce or increase depending on the plant species at later phase of growth. This estimated water content is then delivered to the plants through the irrigation process, governed by the IoT devices, which have the procedures encoded for irrigation. ML prediction guides the IoT system on how much water to deliver to the plants. Finally, the injection setup of the root zone passes the water directly to the underground root zones. Thus, completely preventing evaporation wastage and accurate water content estimation and supply, achieving optimal irrigation practice.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Sukarman, S. (Sukarman); Mulyani, A. (Anny); Purwanto, S. (Setiyo);
    Publisher: Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development
    Country: Indonesia

    . Evaluasi lahan adalah salah satu instrumen yang biasa digunakan dalam menilai kesesuaian lahan untuk berbagai komoditas pertanian di suatu wilayah. Lahan dapat diklasfikasikan sesuai untuk pengembangan komoditas tertentu jika secara biofisik maupun secara sosial ekonomi tergolong sesuai. Parameter yang digunakan dalam menilai suatu lahan adalah karakteristik lahan, diantaranya adalah unsur iklim, yaitu curah hujan rata-rata tahunan, temperatur udara rata-rata tahunan dan kelembaban udara. Tujuan dari makalah ini adalah untuk memberikan saran dan rekomendasi untuk menambahkan parameter pada karakteristik tanah yang digunakan dalam penilaian kesesuaian lahan berbagai komoditas pertanian sebagai akibat dari Perubahan iklim. Saat ini di dunia telah terjadi Perubahan iklim yang berdampak pada karakteristik lahan di suatu wilayah. Umumnya, Perubahan iklim dianggap sebagai salah satu ancaman yang sangat serius terhadap sektor pertanian dan berpotensi mendatangkan masalah baru bagi keberlanjutan produksi pangan dan sistem produksi pertanian. Secara umum, Perubahan iklim akan menyebabkan terjadinya ancaman kekeringan, banjir dan kenaikan muka air laut. Hal tersebut berdampak terhadap penyusutan dan degradasi (penurunan fungsi dan kualitas) sumberdaya lahan, air dan infrastruktur irigasi. Kejadian tersebut menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan pertumbuhan serta produksi tanaman. Oleh karena itu faktor kerentanan kekeringan, kerentanan banjir dan kenaikan permukaan air laut diusulkan untuk dijadikan parameter penilaian kesesuaian lahan agar hasil penilaian kesesuaian lahan sesuai dengan kondisi sebenarnya.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Ngatiman, N. (Ngatiman); Fajri, M. (Muhammad);
    Publisher: Forestry Research, Development and Innovation Agency
    Country: Indonesia

    Shorea leprosula adalah salah satu jenis pohon utama di KHDTK Labanan, Berau , Kalimantan Timur. Pertumbuhannya di alam seringkali terganggu dengan kehadiran gulma. Pengendalian gulma sangat diperlukan dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman. Oleh karena itu, tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan teknik pengendalian gulma yang terbaik dan jenis-jenis gulma pada tanaman S. leprosula. Variabel respon dalam penelitian ini adalah pertumbuhan tinggi dan diameter per enam bulan dan variabel penduga adalah teknik pengendalian gulma pola lajur (P1), pola lajur + mulsa (P2), pola melingkar setempat (P3), pola melingkar setempat + mulsa (P4) dan kontrol (P0), kelas sinar rumpang dan naung, dan komponen geomorfik lembah, lereng dan punggung. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linier berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa teknik pengendalian gulma dengan perlakuan P1 memberikan nilai riap yang lebih rendah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya pada tanaman S. leprosula setiap enam bulan. Sementara itu, untuk perlakuan P3 memberikan hasil yang paling baik terhadap nilai riap S. leprosula setiap enam bulan. Pada tanaman S. leprosula ditemukan 93 jenis gulma, dimana yang menyebabkan dampak kerusakan dan invasi suatu lahan secara nyata adalah gulma jenis Mikania micrantha.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Soni, V. D. (Vishal);
    Publisher: Research Parks Publishing
    Country: Indonesia

    Human-robot interaction can increase the challenges of artificial intelligence. Many domains of AI and its effect is laid down, which is mainly called for their integration, modelling of human cognition and human, collecting and representing knowledge, use of this knowledge in human level, maintaining decision making processes and providing these decisions towards physical action eligible to and in coordination with humans. A huge number of AI technologies are abstracted from task planning to theory of mind building, from visual processing to symbolic reasoning and from reactive control to action recognition and learning. Specific human-robot interaction is focused on this case. Multi-model and situated communication can support human-robot collaborative task achievement. Present study deals with the process of using artificial intelligence (AI) for human-robot interaction.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Asatovna, I. F. (Ishonkulova); Jamshedovich, K. M. (Khamitov);
    Publisher: Research Parks Publishing
    Country: Indonesia

    The subject of the study is the development of the service sector in the framework of the digitalization of the economic space. The goal is to clarify the processes of dependence of the development of the service sector in the context of the digital transformation of the economy at the present stage of development of the national economy. The author sets the following tasks: to analyze the main economic indicators of the development of the service sector; identify the features of digital transformation of business in this area; determine the patterns of development of the service sector under the influence of digital processes. As a result, the author reveals patterns and trends in the development of the service sector under the influence of digital processes - an increase in the activity coefficient and a decrease in the number of personnel. The obtained materials can be used to promote the development of the service sector at the macro and micro levels, which determines the value of this study. Scientific novelty lies in the formed matrix of the relationship between the development of individual service industries and business digitalization processes. The article reveals the heterogeneity in the field of digitalization of business processes in the service sector, as well as the trend towards a relative increase in the efficiency of enterprises in industries characterized by high digital activity.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Endra, R. Y. (Robby); Cucus, A. (Ahmad); Affandi, F. N. (Freddy); Hermawan, D. (Deni);
    Publisher: Bandar Lampung University
    Country: Indonesia

    Saat ini sistem yang dapat mengontrol suatu ruangan secara otomatis masih sangat hangat dan digemari masyarakat modern melihat fungsinya yang sangat berkesesuaian dengan fungsi utama dari teknologi itu sendiri yaitu mempermudah serta membantu kebutuhan manusia. Agar kondisi rumah bisa di kontrol jarak jauh tentunya banyak teknologi-teknologi yang harus diterapakan seperti pemasangan sensor agar bisa mendeteksi secara otomatis bila terjadi pemasalahan dan juga biasanya ada juga alat kontrol berupa mikro kontroler yang bertujuan untuk mengontrol peralatan elektronik yang dipadukan dengan konsep internet of things. Internet of Things sendiri merupakan sebuah konsep yang bertujuan untuk memperluas manfaat dari konektivitas internet yang tersambung secara terus menerus. Adapun kemampuan seperti berbagi data, remote control dan sebagainya, termasuk juga pada benda di dunia nyata. Contohnya peralatan elektronik yang terhubung ke jaringan lokal dan global melalui sensor yang tertanan dan selalu aktif. Dengan melihat definisi dari ini Internet of Things ini sangat cocok untuk diterapkan pada konsep smart room.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Fatimah, S. (Siti); Muafalah, S. (Siti); Nurholis, N. (Nurholis); Djunaedy, A. (Achmad);
    Publisher: Trunojoyo University Madura
    Country: Indonesia

    Landraces breeding scheme of bambara groundnut from various regions of Indonesia since 2012 provides several potential lines which are uniform, high yielding and drought-tolerant. Evaluation of resistance to pests and diseases is aimed to select potential lines which are resistant to pests and diseases and potential for development in Madura dry land during the dry season. The present study used descriptive method through field observation technique on 10 selected potential lines of Bambara groundnut. The results showed that there were 5 (five) types of pests and 4 types of diseases found in bambara groundnut crops planted during the dry season in Bangkalan Regency of Madura. The pests attacking more than 25% per plot were aphids, ladybugs and grasshoppers. A symptom of pathogen attacking more than 25% per plot were Bean common mosaic virus and soybean common mosaic virus. The GSG 1.1.1 potential line had the lowest pest attack and the BBL 2.1.1 potential line had the lowest disease incidence.

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Mishra, S. K. (Santosh);
    Publisher: IndraStra Global
    Country: Indonesia

    The road to efficiency, efficacy is important for sustainability. It'll take goals, strategies, and simulations with techniques to compliment development alternatives. One is the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Its utilities are many...in resolving logistic objectives to acquire inputs to act and control procedures for desired outcome with depth over distances. It is examined for use in cultivation in developing India situation. Unless the agricultural wars would reach our door-step that we cannot turn away from. India would rather bargain on a flight plan to UAV and not just make do with a game of leapfrog. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3584049

  • Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Anova, I. T. (Inda); Yeni, G. (Gustri);
    Publisher: Indonesian Ministry of Industry
    Country: Indonesia

    Gambir salah satu tanaman herbal yang mempunyai banyak manfaat, terutama untuk produk farmasi, kosmetik, pewarna dan lain sebagainya. Kandungan senyawa katekin yang tinggi pada gambir sangat dipengaruhi oleh proses ekstraksi yang dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk melihat pengaruh dari rasio pelarut etanol dan etil asetat serta waktu ekstraksi yang digunakan terhadap rendemen dan karakteristik katekin gambir yang dihasilkan. Proses ekstraksi menggunakan pelarut etanol dan etil asetat, dengan rasio sebagai berikut : E1= etil asetat : etanol (0:1), E2 = etil aetat : etanol (1:0), E3= etil asetat : etanol (3 : 2), E4 = etil asetat : etanol (4 : 1); waktu ekstraksi : 5 jam (T1) dan 6 jam (T2), rasio pelarut dan gambir tetap yaitu 1:2. Pada produk katekin yang didapatkan dilakukan perhitungan rendemen, kadar katekin, kandungan unsur mineral logam dan non logam dengan uji XRF dan morfologi SEM EDX. Perlakuan optimal didapat pada perlakuan E3T2 dengan rendemen 74,86% dan kadar katekin 98,66%. Menurut uji XRF terdapat beberapa jenis unsur logam dan non logam yang lebih kompleks seperti Mg, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Ag, S, Eu dan Cd, morfologi SEM menunjukkan bentuk partikel yang masih sama serta tidak teratur dengan ukuran partikel yang lebih kecil jika dibandingkan dengan ukuran partikel bahan baku gambir.

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