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  • Open Access English
    Partzsch, Henriette;
    Publisher: Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia
    Country: United Kingdom

    ‘Salvage’ evokes complex dynamics of loss, recovery and value, in such contexts\ud as waste management or shipwreck and maritime law. Similar dynamics, often\ud triggered by a collective or individual experience of a void or an absence, motivate\ud and inform much research into the history of women’s writing. The present article\ud explores, from the point of view of literary studies, the effects of understanding\ud research into the history of women’s writing as a salvage operation. This metaphor\ud bestows on the material studied the ambiguous status of remains. While\ud hindering the full integration of women’ s writing in more traditional accounts of\ud the literary past, the understanding of surviving material as remains can become\ud the starting point for constructing new, inclusive approaches to literary history.\ud This reframing of the problem is possible thanks to recent developments in the\ud Humanities, with an increasing interest in models and theories that allow us\ud to better understand complex and dynamic phenomena. In order to illustrate\ud the possibilities of this approach, the article draws on a brief analysis of nineteenth-century Spanish fashion magazines.

  • Open Access English
    Magdalena Matysek; Stephanie Evers; Marshall K. Samuel; Sofie Sjögersten;
    Publisher: Springer Verlag
    Country: United Kingdom

    AbstractTropical peatlands are currently being rapidly cleared and drained for the establishment of oil palm plantations, which threatens their globally significant carbon sequestration capacity. Large-scale land conversion of tropical peatlands is important in the context of greenhouse gas emission factors and sustainable land management. At present, quantification of carbon dioxide losses from tropical peatlands is limited by our understanding of the relative contribution of heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration to net peat surface CO2 emissions. In this study we separated heterotrophic and autotrophic components of peat CO2 losses from two oil palm plantations (one established in ‘2000’ and the other in 1978, then replanted in ‘2006’) using chamber-based emissions sampling along a transect from the rooting to non-rooting zones on a peatland in Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia over the course of 3 months (June–August, 2014). Collar CO2 measurements were compared with soil temperature and moisture at site and also accompanied by depth profiles assessing peat C and bulk density. The soil respiration decreased exponentially with distance from the palm trunks with the sharpest decline found for the plantation with the younger palms with overall fluxes of 1341 and 988 mg CO2 m−2 h−1, respectively, at the 2000 and 2006 plantations, respectively. The mean heterotrophic flux was 909 ± SE 136 and 716 ± SE 201 mg m−2 h−1 at the 2000 and 2006 plantations, respectively. Autotrophic emissions adjacent to the palm trunks were 845 ± SE 135 and 1558 ± SE 341 mg m−2 h−1 at the 2000 and 2006 plantations, respectively. Heterotrophic CO2 flux was positively related to peat soil moisture, but not temperature. Total peat C stocks were 60 kg m−2 (down to 1 m depth) and did not vary among plantations of different ages but SOC concentrations declined significantly with depth at both plantations but the decline was sharper in the second generation 2006 plantation. The CO2 flux values reported in this study suggest a potential for very high carbon (C) loss from drained tropical peats during the dry season. This is particularly concerning given that more intense dry periods related to climate change are predicted for SE Asia. Taken together, this study highlights the need for careful management of tropical peatlands, and the vulnerability of their carbon storage capability under conditions of drainage.

  • Open Access English
    DataCloud Collaboration; Salomoni, Davide; Campos, Isabel; Gaido, Luciano; de Lucas, Jesus Marco; Solagna, Peter; Gomes, Jorge; Matyska, Ludek; Fuhrman, Patrick; Hardt, Marcus; +54 more
    Project: EC | INDIGO-DataCloud (653549)

    This paper describes the achievements of the H2020 project INDIGO-DataCloud. The project has provided e-infrastructures with tools, applications and cloud framework enhancements to manage the demanding requirements of scientific communities, either locally or through enhanced interfaces. The middleware developed allows to federate hybrid resources, to easily write, port and run scientific applications to the cloud. In particular, we have extended existing PaaS (Platform as a Service) solutions, allowing public and private e-infrastructures, including those provided by EGI, EUDAT, and Helix Nebula, to integrate their existing services and make them available through AAI services compliant with GEANT interfederation policies, thus guaranteeing transparency and trust in the provisioning of such services. Our middleware facilitates the execution of applications using containers on Cloud and Grid based infrastructures, as well as on HPC clusters. Our developments are freely downloadable as open source components, and are already being integrated into many scientific applications. 39 pages, 15 figures.Version accepted in Journal of Grid Computing

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Lilia Simeonova; Kiril Simov; Petya Osenova; Preslav Nakov;

    We propose a morphologically informed model for named entity recognition, which is based on LSTM-CRF architecture and combines word embeddings, Bi-LSTM character embeddings, part-of-speech (POS) tags, and morphological information. While previous work has focused on learning from raw word input, using word and character embeddings only, we show that for morphologically rich languages, such as Bulgarian, access to POS information contributes more to the performance gains than the detailed morphological information. Thus, we show that named entity recognition needs only coarse-grained POS tags, but at the same time it can benefit from simultaneously using some POS information of different granularity. Our evaluation results over a standard dataset show sizable improvements over the state-of-the-art for Bulgarian NER. named entity recognition; Bulgarian NER; morphology; morpho-syntax

  • Open Access English
    Zamani, Maryam; Tejedor, Alejandro; Vogl, Malte; Krautli, Florian; Valleriani, Matteo; Kantz, Holger;

    We investigated the evolution and transformation of scientific knowledge in the early modern period, analyzing more than 350 different editions of textbooks used for teaching astronomy in European universities from the late fifteenth century to mid-seventeenth century. These historical sources constitute the Sphaera Corpus. By examining different semantic relations among individual parts of each edition on record, we built a multiplex network consisting of six layers, as well as the aggregated network built from the superposition of all the layers. The network analysis reveals the emergence of five different communities. The contribution of each layer in shaping the communities and the properties of each community are studied. The most influential books in the corpus are found by calculating the average age of all the out-going and in-coming links for each book. A small group of editions is identified as a transmitter of knowledge as they bridge past knowledge to the future through a long temporal interval. Our analysis, moreover, identifies the most disruptive books. These books introduce new knowledge that is then adopted by almost all the books published afterwards until the end of the whole period of study. The historical research on the content of the identified books, as an empirical test, finally corroborates the results of all our analyses. 19 pages, 9 figures

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    John A. Walsh; Peter J. Cobb; Wayne de Fremery; Koraljka Golub; Humphrey Keah; Jeonghyun Kim; Joseph Kiplang'at; Ying-Hsang Liu; Simon Mahony; Sam Gyun Oh; +3 more
    Publisher: Wiley

    The interdisciplinary field known as digital humanities (DH) is represented in various forms in the teaching and research practiced in iSchools. Building on the work of an iSchools organization committee charged with exploring digital humanities curricula, we present findings from a series of related studies exploring aspects of DH teaching, education, and research in iSchools, often in collaboration with other units and disciplines. Through a survey of iSchool programs and an online DH course registry, we investigate the various education models for DH training found in iSchools, followed by a detailed look at DH courses and curricula, explored through analysis of course syllabi and course descriptions. We take a brief look at collaborative disciplines with which iSchools cooperate on DH research projects or in offering DH education. Next, we explore DH careers through an analysis of relevant job advertisements. Finally, we offer some observations about the management and administrative challenges and opportunities related to offering a new iSchool DH program. Our results provide a snapshot of the current state of digital humanities in iSchools which may usefully inform the design and evolution of new DH programs, degrees, and related initiatives.

  • Open Access
    Laura Rimell; Thomas Lippincott; Karin Verspoor; Helen L. Johnson; Anna Korhonen;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: UKRI | Lexical Acquisition for t... (EP/G051070/1)

    Background: Biomedical natural language processing (NLP) applications that have access to detailed resources about the linguistic characteristics of biomedical language demonstrate improved performance on tasks such as relation extraction and syntactic or semantic parsing. Such applications are important for transforming the growing unstructured information buried in the biomedical literature into structured, actionable information. In this paper, we address the creation of linguistic resources that capture how individual biomedical verbs behave. We specifically consider verb subcategorization, or the tendency of verbs to ''select'' co-occurrence with particular phrase types, which influences the interpretation of verbs and identification of verbal arguments in context. There are currently a limited number of biomedical resources containing information about subcategorization frames (SCFs), and these are the result of either labor-intensive manual collation, or automatic methods that use tools adapted to a single biomedical subdomain. Either method may result in resources that lack coverage. Moreover, the quality of existing verb SCF resources for biomedicine is unknown, due to a lack of available gold standards for evaluation. Results: This paper presents three new resources related to verb subcategorization frames in biomedicine, and four experiments making use of the new resources. We present the first biomedical SCF gold standards, capturing two different but widely-used definitions of subcategorization, and a new SCF lexicon, BioCat, covering a large number of biomedical sub-domains. We evaluate the SCF acquisition methodologies for BioCat with respect to the gold standards, and compare the results with the accuracy of the only previously existing automatically-acquired SCF lexicon for biomedicine, the BioLexicon. Our results show that the BioLexicon has greater precision while BioCat has better coverage of SCFs. Finally, we explore the definition of subcategorization using these resources and its implications for biomedical NLP. All resources are made publicly available. Conclusion: The SCF resources we have evaluated still show considerably lower accuracy than that reported with general English lexicons, demonstrating the need for domain- and subdomain-specific SCF acquisition tools for biomedicine. Our new gold standards reveal major differences when annotators use the different definitions. Moreover, evaluation of BioCat yields major differences in accuracy depending on the gold standard, demonstrating that the definition of subcategorization adopted will have a direct impact on perceived system accuracy for specific tasks.

  • Open Access English
    Helene Brinken; Iryna Kuchma; Vasso Kalaitzi; Joy Davidson; Nancy Pontika; Matteo Cancellieri; Antónia Correia; José Carvalho; Remedios Melero; Damjana Kastelic; +7 more
    Countries: Spain, Portugal, Germany, Portugal, Germany
    Project: EC | FOSTER Plus (741839), EC | FOSTER Plus (741839)

    To foster responsible research and innovation, research communities, institutions, and funders are shifting their practices and requirements towards Open Science. Open Science skills are becoming increasingly essential for researchers. Indeed general awareness of Open Science has grown among EU researchers, but the practical adoption can be further improved. Recognizing a gap between the needed and the provided training offer, the FOSTER project offers practical guidance and training to help researchers learn how to open up their research within a particular domain or research environment. Aiming for a sustainable approach, FOSTER focused on strengthening the Open Science training capacity by establishing and supporting a community of trainers. The creation of an Open Science training handbook was a first step towards bringing together trainers to share their experiences and to create an open and living knowledge resource. A subsequent series of train-the-trainer bootcamps helped trainers to find inspiration, improve their skills and to intensify exchange within a peer group. Four trainers, who attended one of the bootcamps, contributed a case study on their experiences and how they rolled out Open Science training within their own institutions. On its platform the project provides a range of online courses and resources to learn about key Open Science topics. FOSTER awards users gamification badges when completing courses in order to provide incentives and rewards, and to spur them on to even greater achievements in learning. The paper at hand describes FOSTER Plus’ training strategies, shares the lessons learnt and provides guidance on how to re-use the project’s materials and training approaches. Peer reviewed

  • Authors: 
    Georgios Artopoulos; Panayiotis Charalambous; Colter Eugene Wehmeier;
    Publisher: IGI Global

    This article reports on the technical development and testing of the basic components of a virtual environment platform that could be used for the cross-disciplinary study of complex urban realities, such as the historic city of Nicosia, Cyprus - the last divided capital of Europe. This platform captures data of virtual visitors' movements in space, and the article suggests that these data could help better understand the impact of planning scenarios and design interventions in open public spaces that used to be popular among the citizens of the historic city. The article presents how this platform uses interaction and immersion opportunities to engage citizens and stakeholders in the management of public open spaces that are associated with built heritage. Crowd simulation is discussed as a computational technique that when is combined with the presented virtual environment platform, and under the right conditions, would contribute to a digital practice for small-scale urban modelling. However, it is beyond the scope of this technical note to provide a full empirical testing and validation of the presented immersive virtual environment.

  • Open Access English
    Duarte, Afonso M S; Psomopoulos, Fotis E; Blanchet, Christophe; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Corpas, Manuel; Franc, Alain; Jimenez, Rafael C; de Lucas, Jesus M; Nyrönen, Tommi; Sipos, Gergely; +3 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Spain, Spain, Netherlands, Netherlands, France
    Project: FCT | EXPL/BBB-BEP/1356/2013 (EXPL/BBB-BEP/1356/2013), AKA | ELIXIR - Data for Life Eu... (273655), WT , EC | WENMR (261572), EC | EGI-INSPIRE (261323), EC | BIOMEDBRIDGES (284209), FCT | SFRH/BPD/78075/2011 (SFRH/BPD/78075/2011), FCT | EXPL/BBB-BEP/1356/2013 (EXPL/BBB-BEP/1356/2013), AKA | ELIXIR - Data for Life Eu... (273655), WT ,...

    With the increasingly rapid growth of data in life sciences we are witnessing a major transition in the way research is conducted, from hypothesis-driven studies to data-driven simulations of whole systems. Such approaches necessitate the use of large-scale computational resources and e-infrastructures, such as the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI). EGI, one of key the enablers of the digital European Research Area, is a federation of resource providers set up to deliver sustainable, integrated and secure computing services to European researchers and their international partners. Here we aim to provide the state of the art of Grid/Cloud computing in EU research as viewed from within the field of life sciences, focusing on key infrastructures and projects within the life sciences community. Rather than focusing purely on the technical aspects underlying the currently provided solutions, we outline the design aspects and key characteristics that can be identified across major research approaches. Overall, we aim to provide significant insights into the road ahead by establishing ever-strengthening connections between EGI as a whole and the life sciences community. AD was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal (SFRH/BPD/78075/2011 and EXPL/BBBBEP/1356/2013). FP has been supported by the National Grid Infrastructure NGI_GRNET, HellasGRID, as part of the EGI. IFB acknowledges funding from the “National Infrastructures in Biology and Health” call of the French “Investments for the Future” initiative. The WeNMR project has been funded by a European FP7 e-Infrastructure grant, contract no. 261572. AF was supported by a grant from Labex CEBA (Centre d’études de la Biodiversité Amazonienne) from ANR. MC is supported by UK’s BBSRC core funding. CSC was supported by Academy of Finland grant No. 273655 for ELIXIR Finland. The EGI-InSPIRE project (Integrated Sustainable Pan-European Infrastructure for Researchers in Europe) is co-funded by the European Commission (contract number: RI-261323). The BioMedBridges project is funded by the European Commission within Research Infrastructures of the FP7 Capacities Specific Programme, grant agreement number 284209. This is an open-access article.-- et al. Peer Reviewed

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