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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Geraint H. Jones; Matthew M. Knight; Karl Battams; Daniel C. Boice; John C. Brown; Silvio Giordano; John C. Raymond; Colin Snodgrass; Jordan K. Steckloff; Paul R. Weissman; +9 more
    Publisher: Springer Netherlands
    Countries: United States, United Kingdom, Italy, Norway, Italy, Norway, United States
    Project: NSF | Modeling Composition and ... (0908529), EC | ISANDAL (268421), NSF | Modeling Composition and ... (0908529), EC | ISANDAL (268421)

    Source at https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-017-0446-5. This review addresses our current understanding of comets that venture close to the Sun, and are hence exposed to much more extreme conditions than comets that are typically studied from Earth. The extreme solar heating and plasma environments that these objects encounter change many aspects of their behaviour, thus yielding valuable information on both the comets themselves that complements other data we have on primitive solar system bodies, as well as on the near-solar environment which they traverse. We propose clear definitions for these comets: We use the term near-Sun comets to encompass all objects that pass sunward of the perihelion distance of planet Mercury (0.307 AU). Sunskirters are defined as objects that pass within 33 solar radii of the Sun’s centre, equal to half of Mercury’s perihelion distance, and the commonly-used phrase sungrazers to be objects that reach perihelion within 3.45 solar radii, i.e. the fluid Roche limit. Finally, comets with orbits that intersect the solar photosphere are termed sundivers. We summarize past studies of these objects, as well as the instruments and facilities used to study them, including space-based platforms that have led to a recent revolution in the quantity and quality of relevant observations. Relevant comet populations are described, including the Kreutz, Marsden, Kracht, and Meyer groups, near-Sun asteroids, and a brief discussion of their origins. The importance of light curves and the clues they provide on cometary composition are emphasized, together with what information has been gleaned about nucleus parameters, including the sizes and masses of objects and their families, and their tensile strengths. The physical processes occurring at these objects are considered in some detail, including the disruption of nuclei, sublimation, and ionisation, and we consider the mass, momentum, and energy loss of comets in the corona and those that venture to lower altitudes. The different components of comae and tails are described, including dust, neutral and ionised gases, their chemical reactions, and their contributions to the near-Sun environment. Comet-solar wind interactions are discussed, including the use of comets as probes of solar wind and coronal conditions in their vicinities. We address the relevance of work on comets near the Sun to similar objects orbiting other stars, and conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field and the planned ground- and space-based facilities that will allow us to address those science topics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leandro Borges; Maria Elizabeth Pereira Passos; Maysa Braga Barros Silva; Vinicius Coneglian Santos; Cesar Miguel Momesso; Tania Cristina Pithon-Curi; Renata Gorjão; Stuart R. Gray; Kauê Carvalho de Almeida Lima; Paulo Barbosa de Freitas; +1 more
    Publisher: Hindawi
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background. Evidence suggests that exercise improves neutrophil function. The decreased functional longevity of neutrophils and their increased clearance from infectious sites contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection and severity of infection observed in patients with diabetes.Objective. Herein, we investigated the effects of a dance program on neutrophil number, function, and death in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and healthy volunteers.Methods. Ten patients with T2DM and twelve healthy individuals participated in a moderate-intensity dance training program for 4 months. The plasma levels of leptin, free fatty acids (FFAs), tumour necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra); neutrophil counts; extent of DNA fragmentation; cell membrane integrity; and production of TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1βin neutrophils were measured before and after training.Results. Training reduced plasma levels of TNF-α(1.9-fold in controls and 2.2-fold in patients with T2DM) and CRP (1.4-fold in controls and 3.4-fold in patients with T2DM). IL-1ra levels were higher in the control group (2.2-fold) after training. After training, neutrophil DNA fragmentation was decreased in patients with T2DM (90%), while the number of neutrophils increased (70% in controls and 1.1-fold in patients with T2DM).Conclusion. Dance training is a nonpharmacological strategy to reduce inflammation and improve neutrophil clearance in patients with T2DM.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ade Kearns;
    Publisher: BMJ
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Callum Sutherland;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper intervenes in the recent movement in religious geographies to produce more nuanced understandings of the religious subject. By introducing the concept of theography, this paper explores a religious reflexivity that directs subjects towards struggles over the content of theology, its effects on their spatial imagination, and their praxis. Theography advances conversations about praxis in the geography of religion by tying together poststructural scholarship regarding the religious subject’s potential to subvert abstract categorization, geographies concerning the subject’s reframing of theology, and philosophical contributions vis-à-vis praxes that stem from particular understandings of transcendence.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lee, Edward S.; Thomas, Paul G.; Mold, Jeff E.; Yates, Andrew J.;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: NIH | Modeling the development ... (5R01AI093870-02)

    Characterisation of the T cell receptors (TCR) involved in immune responses is important for the design of vaccines and immunotherapies for cancer and autoimmune disease. The specificity of the interaction between the TCR heterodimer and its peptide-MHC ligand derives largely from the juxtaposed hypervariable CDR3 regions on the TCRα and TCRβ chains, and obtaining the paired sequences of these regions is a standard for functionally defining the TCR. A brute force approach to identifying the TCRs in a population of T cells is to use high-throughput single-cell sequencing, but currently this process remains costly and risks missing small clones. Alternatively, CDR3α and CDR3β sequences can be associated using their frequency of co-occurrence in independent samples, but this approach can be confounded by the sharing of CDR3α and CDR3β across clones, commonly observed within epitope-specific T cell populations. The accurate, exhaustive, and economical recovery of TCR sequences from such populations therefore remains a challenging problem. Here we describe an algorithm for performing frequency-based pairing (alphabetr) that accommodates CDR3α- and CDR3β-sharing, cells expressing two TCRα chains, and multiple forms of sequencing error. The algorithm also yields accurate estimates of clonal frequencies. Author Summary Our repertoires of T cell receptors (TCR) give our immune system the ability to recognise a huge diversity of foreign and self antigens, and identifying the TCRs involved in infectious disease, cancer, and autoimmune disease is important for designing vaccines and immunotherapies. The majority of T cells express a TCR made up of two chains, the TCRα and TCRβ, and high-throughput sequencing of samples of T cells results in the loss of this pairing information. One can identify TCRαβ clones using single-cell sequencing, but this is costly and typically probes only part of the diversity of T cell populations. Statistical approaches are potentially more powerful by sequencing the TCRα and TCRβ in multiple samples of T cells and pairing them using their frequency of co-occurrence. However, T cells involved in immune responses frequently share TCRα and TCRβ chains with other responding cells. This promiscuity, combined with a high prevalence of T cells with two TCRα chains and sequencing errors, presents significant challenges to frequency-based pairing methods. Here we present a new algorithm that addresses these challenges and also provides accurate estimates of the abundances of T cell clonotypes, allowing us to build a more complete picture of T cell responses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sanne A. H. Giesbers; L. Hendriks; Andrew Jahoda; Richard P. Hastings; Petri J. C. M. Embregts;
    Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, Netherlands

    Background:\ud To enhance social inclusion of people with intellectual disability, policy is aimed at increasing informal support networks. Nevertheless, staff continue to play a vital role in their support networks.\ud \ud Method:\ud Six individuals with mild intellectual disability, living in community‐based settings, were interviewed following a semi‐structured format. In‐depth accounts of participants’ support experiences were established using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.\ud \ud Results:\ud Three main themes were identified: relationships with staff placed within a personal history, relationships with staff within an organisational context, and staff support and interviewees’ place in the world.\ud \ud Conclusions:\ud Relationships with staff were often one of the closest and most significant social relationships participants had. As living in the community had not necessarily led to meaningful inclusion for participants, the findings point at the important role of staff in supporting and facilitating friendships and close relationships of people with intellectual disability.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eirini Kaiserli;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: United Kingdom

    Light and hormones tightly regulate plant growth and development by both synergistic and antagonistic actions. In the current issue of Developmental Cell, Liang et al. (2018) uncover how the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 mediates inhibition of plant growth via direct interactions with key transcriptional regulators of brassinosteroid signaling.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    A. Nicholas Black; Enno Giese; Boris Braverman; Nicholas Zollo; Stephen M. Barnett; Robert W. Boyd;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Phase distortions, or aberrations, can negatively influence the performance of an optical imaging system. Through the use of position-momentum entangled photons, we nonlocally correct for aberrations in one photon's optical path by intentionally introducing the complementary aberrations in the optical path of the other photon. In particular, we demonstrate the simultaneous nonlocal cancellation of aberrations that are of both even and odd order in the photons' transverse degrees of freedom. We also demonstrate a potential application of this technique by nonlocally cancelling the effect of defocus in a quantum imaging experiment and thereby recover the original spatial resolution. 6 pages, 4 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    André A. Neves; Bangwen Xie; Sarah Fawcett; Israt S. Alam; Timothy H. Witney; Maaike M. de Backer; Julia Summers; William Hughes; Sarah McGuire; Dmitry Soloviev; +6 more
    Publisher: Society of Nuclear Medicine
    Country: United Kingdom

    Cell death is an important target for imaging the early response of tumors to treatment. We describe here validation of a phosphatidylserine-binding agent for detecting tumor cell death in vivo based on the C2A domain of Synaptotagmin-I. Methods: The capability of near infrared fluorophore-labeled and 99mTechnetium- and 111Indium-labeled derivatives of C2Am for imaging tumor cell death, using planar near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging and single photon computed tomography (SPECT) respectively, was evaluated in implanted and genetically engineered mouse models of lymphoma and in a human colorectal xenograft. Results: The fluorophore labeled C2Am derivative showed predominantly renal clearance and high specificity and sensitivity for detecting low levels of tumor cell death (2-5%). There was a significant correlation (R>0.9, P<0.05) between fluorescently-labeled C2Am binding and histological markers of cell death, including cleaved caspase-3, whereas there was no such correlation with a site-directed mutant of C2Am (iC2Am) that does not bind phosphatidylserine. 99mTc-C2Am and 111In-C2Am also showed favorable biodistribution profiles, with predominantly renal clearance and low non-specific retention in liver and spleen at 24 h after probe administration. 99mTc-C2Am and 111In-C2Am generated tumor-to-muscle ratios in drug-treated tumors of 4.3× and 2.2× respectively at two hours and 7.3× and 4.1× respectively at twenty-four hours after administration. Conclusion: Given the favorable biodistribution profile of 99mTc- and 111In-labelled C2Am, and their ability to produce rapid and cell death-specific image contrast, these agents have potential for clinical translation. This work was supported by a Cancer Research UK programme grant to K.M.B. S.F. was the recipient of a Ph.D. studentship from the Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre of the National Institute of Health Research with financial support from GlaxoSmithKline UK. T.B.R. was in receipt of Intra-European Marie Curie (FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IEF, Imaging Lymphoma) and Long-term EMBO (EMBO-ALT-1145-2009) fellowships.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Krämer, Nicole; Sobieraj, Sabrina; Feng, Dan; Trubina, Elisabeth; Marsella, Stacy;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Germany, Germany

    Bullying is a pressing societal problem. As such, it is important to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in bullying and of resilience factors which might protect victims. Moreover, it is necessary to provide tools that can train potential victims to strengthen their resilience. To facilitate both of these goals, the current study tests a recently developed virtual environment that puts participants in the role of a victim who is being oppressed by a superior. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment (N = 81), we measured the effects of gender of the oppressor and gender of the participant on psychophysiological reactions, subjective experiences and willingness to report the event. The results reveal that even when a male and a female bully show the exact same behavior, the male bully is perceived as more threatening. In terms of gender of the victim, the only difference that emerged was a more pronounced increase in heart rate in males. The results were moderated by the personality factors social gender, neuroticism, and need to belong, while self-esteem did not show any moderating influence. OA Förderung 2018

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