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  • Open Access

    Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is a tree species of significant ecological and economic importance that has suffered a devastating decline since the 1990s in Europe. Native ash species are being threatened by the alien invasive fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which causes ash dieback. The main goal of the study was to develop markers for traits related to tolerance to ash dieback and to investigate whether genotypes selected for tolerance were genetically different from susceptible wild populations. We phenotyped 326 ash trees from Sweden for disease severity and genotyped them using 63 amplicon-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from genes in 40 scaffolds spanning 8 MB in total, which represents approximately 1% of the ash genome. We used a mixed linear model to test for an association between genotypic variation at these loci and disease severity of ash. In total, two SNPs were found to have significant associations. One non-synonymous SNP associated with the disease severity of ash was found in a gene predicted to encode a subtilisin-related peptidase S8/S53 domain. A second marginally significant marker was associated with an LRR gene. Our results demonstrate an inexpensive time-effective method for generating genomic data that could have potential for use in future tree breeding programs and provide information for marker-assisted selection. Our study also showed a low differentiation between genotypes selected for disease tolerance and the wild population of ash representing a range of susceptibilities to ash dieback, indicating opportunities for further selection without significantly losing genetic diversity in the ash population.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Hakan Başak; K. Mesut Çimrin; Metin Turan; Adem Güneş; Ekrem Ozlu;
    Publisher: TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
    Country: Turkey

    Mycorrhiza has attracted interest as one of the microorganisms that increase a crop’s salt stress tolerance. This study was conducted to determine the impacts of mycorrhiza inoculation and applying salt at different ratios on the yield of peppers and amino acid concentrations. The study was conducted in greenhouse conditions on loamy soils with four salt treatments, two mycorrhiza inoculations and a control in a complete randomized block design. The present study indicated that salt treatment alone was significantly correlated with crop stem and root amino acid concentrations, RWC% and leaf sizes, whereas applying mycorrhiza showed a positive relationship to stem height, stem and root wet weight, and root amino acids but led to a decloine in root serine and glutamine, and stem amino acid and glutamine. In conclusion, inoculating with mycorrhiza was observed to make a positive contribution to salt stress tolerance at different levels in almost all the parameters examined. © 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Leslie Weston;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    The establishment and management of nine cover crops in Kentucky production systems were evaluated in field experiments over a 2.yr period. 'Wheeler' rye, 'Barsoy' barley, and 'Tyler' wheat cereal grains produced greater biomass (180 to 260 g/m2) than the pasture species tall fescue, creeping red fescue, and white clover (55 to 110 g/m2). 'Kentucky 31' tall fescue, creeping red fescue, and white clover proved most difficult to control, and significant regrowth occurred regardless of herbicide or rate applied. HOE-39866 (1.7 kg ai/ha) was effective in rapidly controlling all cover crops except tall fescue by 30 days after application. Sethoxydim and fluazifop (0.4 and 0.3 kg ai/ha, respec- tively) effectively controlled the cereals and two ryegrass species. Glyphosate applied at 1.1 and 2.2 kg ai/ha was also effective, while 0.6 kg ai/ha controlled only cereal grain growth adequately. After chemical control, pasture grass plots contained fewest weeds/m2 with some reduc- tions likely due to density and regrowth of the sods. Cover crops were effective in suppressing weed growth at 45 days after chemical control. However, significant weed growth existed in all cover crop plots by 60 days after kill. Row crop establishment increased linearly with increasing glyphosate rate. Cereal grain covers provided the most compatible planting situations for greatest seedling estab- lishment, with rye and wheat providing greatest weed suppression. Generally, increased weed suppression pro- vided by a cover crop was accompanied by reduced row crop establishment, with greatest reductions observed in pasture grass plots. Cucumber was most easily established while snap pea was most difficult. Nomenclature: Fluazi- fop, (?)-2-(4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinylloxy)phen- oxy)propanoic acid; HOE-39866, the ammonium salt of DL-homoalanin-4-yl-methyl phosphinic acid; glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine; sethoxydim, 2-(1-(ethoxyim- ino)butyl - 5 - (2-(ethylthio)propyl) - 3 - hydroxy - 2 - cyc- lohexen-l-one; tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb. 'Kentucky 31'; creeping red fescue, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata; Dutch white clover, Trifolium repens L.; cucumber, Cucumis sativus var. sativus 'Calypso'; snap pea, Pisum sativa L. 'Sparkle'; rye, Secale cereale L. 'Wheeler'; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L. 'Tyler'. Additional index words. Minimum tillage, germination, glyphosate, sethoxydim, fluazifop, HOE-39866, row crop.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ole Thomas Albert; Claudia Junge; Marlén Knutsen Myrlund;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Abstract Based on a sampling programme of spurdog (Squalus acanthias) from Norwegian fishery landing sites during 2014–2018, the spatio-temporal distribution, size, sex, and age composition of this previously heavily overfished shark is described and compared to the situation before the stock collapsed. Among those spurdog large enough to be caught in the fisheries, all size groups, both sexes, and all maturity stages were present in the 3948 individuals examined from the landing sites. This shows that spurdog utilizes Norwegian coastal waters year-round and for their whole life cycle. The age composition was similar for males and females, and both were observed from age 3 up to the mid-30s. Age at 50% maturity was 9.5 years for females, and near-term females were mostly found during August–January without any clear latitudinal difference. The stock is largely dominated by younger age groups, and the mean age of late gravid females was 15 years, with an interquartile range of 12–16 years. This compares to a generation time of 25 years used elsewhere and is considered to be indicative of sound recruitment of a rebuilding stock. Analyses across age groups indicate that the recent rate of increase in year-class size for adult age groups is much larger than estimated in the assessments. Possible reasons for this and the need for further studies are discussed.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Chengkang Gao; Shuaibing Zhang; Kaihui Song; Hongming Na; Fan Tian; Menghui Zhang; Wengang Gao;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The three types of elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and Sulfur (S) are inextricably linked from the source to the destination throughout the system. To analyze the environmental load caused by the three elements, this study established a material metabolism model to quantify the relationships among metabolic processes on the provincial scale and examined their environmental implications based on Substance Flow Analysis (SFA). The results show that the metabolic fluxes of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in the socioeconomic system of Liaoning Province in 2016 were 5.339 million tons, 0.582 million tons and 3.084 million tons, respectively. The agricultural sector caused the greatest environmental pressures on water bodies, in which nitrogen and phosphorus accounted for 61.8% and 80.2% of the total water body load. For atmospheric load, the nitrogen and sulfur elements in the industrial sector caused the largest atmospheric load, accounting for 37.8% and 91.4% of the total atmospheric load, respectively. The main source of phosphorus soil load in Liaoning Province is the agricultural production, accounting for 85.3% of the total soil load caused by phosphorus.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Majid Mohammady Oskouei; Solmaz Babakan;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    The study aims to detect alteration indicative minerals on a part of Hyperion scene in the Lahroud region using the image processing methods. However, it is rarely possible to find actually pure pixels in the mineralogical scale inside the study scenes. This implies the necessity of the identification of sub-pixel materials before classification and mineral mapping using the spectral unmixing algorithms. The Linear Mixture Model (LMM) based standardized hyperspectral processing methodology was employed for this purpose. The necessary pre-processing tasks including the atmospheric and topographic corrections and data quality assessment were also utilized to increase the classification accuracy. The mineralogical and alteration map of the study area was then extracted and evaluated quantitatively with respected to the geological setting of the study area. Despite of the presence of complex facies in the region, the possibility of the applied methodology in the alteration mapping by linear unmixing was proved on Hyperion datasets. The low signal to noise ratio of the Hyperion sensor caused some difficulties but, considering the high cost and consumed time of the field sampling and geochemical studies, the applied method is an advantageous tool for primary steps of the exploration.

  • Open Access Spanish; Castilian
    Authors: 
    Rodrigo Pérez, Laura;
    Publisher: Universitat Politècnica de València
    Country: Spain

    [ES] En el siguiente Trabajo Final de Grado se presenta el proyecto realizado para obtener un sistema automático de clasificación de zanahorias. La clasificación de las zanahorias se lleva a cabo empleando un brazo robótico y visión artificial. Las zanahorias se introducen y salen del sistema de clasificación mediante cintas transportadoras. Gracias al sistema de visión artificial se diferencian las zanahorias según su calibre y se clasifican con la ayuda de un robot industrial IRB 140 proporcionado por el promotor. [EN] The plancarried out to obtain an automatic carrot classification system is presentedin the following Final Degree Project. Carrots are graded using a robotic arm and machine vision. Carrots are fed into and out of the grading system using conveyor belts. Thanks to the artificial vision system, carrots are differentiated according to their calibreand classified with the help of an IRB 140 industrial robot provided by the developer.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westergren, Marjana; Kraigher, Hojka;
    Publisher: Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrew Taber; Alex Cheung;
    Publisher: California Digital Library (CDL)
    Country: United States

    Virotherapy: Finding New Utility in Nature’s Most Dangerous Killers Using Viruses to Combat Cancer Andrew Taber and Alex Cheung For centuries, viruses have been one of the greatest threats to human survival and propagation, and it has been one of medicine’s greatest challenges to create vaccines and methods to stall the onset of these viral diseases. That being said, it should come as a surprise that viruses are now being used as one of medicine’s most promising new methods to attack the next prominent threat to humanity: cancer. B S J H istory of V irotherapy Since the 1800’s, there have been case studies in which it was reported that cancer regression coincided significantly with viral infections. Dramatic reduction in the white blood cell count of patients (usually signifying an improving condition) was observed when the patients were infected by such viruses as influenza and chicken pox. Doctors and scientists at the time concluded that viruses, in certain environments, could temporarily improve a patient’s condition, especially in young children with compromised immune systems. After many years of animal and clinical research, it was found that viral infection is indeed a very potent method to treat cancer. But, at this point scientists had to use the very blunt instrument of naturally occurring viruses in their trials, which often led to subject death. (Kelly and Russel 2007) The solution was to design the viruses and delivery systems using genetic engineering so that the immune system would let the viruses through and so that the viruses would target the desired cell type. The tools needed to achieve this goal, however, were not developed until relatively recently. Until then, science used a method called targeted evolution to encourage the propagation of mutations that would result in viruses attacking cancer cells.When recombinant DNA technology was developed, the effectiveness of virotherapy could be even more directly controlled. Today, virotherapy is showing significant effectiveness in treating many cancers and diseases in mice, and trials have even shown improvements in treating advanced melanoma in humans (Nutting 2005). These results are too significant to be ignored, and scientists are wasting no time in developing new viruses to fight other diseases. One of the ways to solve the problems of cell targeting is to add cancer-specific binding proteins to the virus. Each type of cell has an outer membrane that acts as a selective barrier between the cell and its surroundings. All membranes are coated with proteins that are used to identify a cell and its purpose in the body. One way of thinking of these proteins is as nametags, and scientists’ job is to engineer these proteins so that viruses “know” where “Virotherapy can succeed where past methods have failed.” 16 • B erkeley S cientific J ournal • I nfectious D isease • F all 2010 • V olume 14 • I ssue 1

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Helbert, J.; Robinson, M. S.; Müller, N.; Prockter, L. M.; Head, J. W.; Izenberg, N. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Svedhem, H.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; +1 more
    Country: Germany
Advanced search in
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arrow_drop_down
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Include:
1,537,013 Research products, page 1 of 153,702
  • Open Access

    Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is a tree species of significant ecological and economic importance that has suffered a devastating decline since the 1990s in Europe. Native ash species are being threatened by the alien invasive fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which causes ash dieback. The main goal of the study was to develop markers for traits related to tolerance to ash dieback and to investigate whether genotypes selected for tolerance were genetically different from susceptible wild populations. We phenotyped 326 ash trees from Sweden for disease severity and genotyped them using 63 amplicon-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from genes in 40 scaffolds spanning 8 MB in total, which represents approximately 1% of the ash genome. We used a mixed linear model to test for an association between genotypic variation at these loci and disease severity of ash. In total, two SNPs were found to have significant associations. One non-synonymous SNP associated with the disease severity of ash was found in a gene predicted to encode a subtilisin-related peptidase S8/S53 domain. A second marginally significant marker was associated with an LRR gene. Our results demonstrate an inexpensive time-effective method for generating genomic data that could have potential for use in future tree breeding programs and provide information for marker-assisted selection. Our study also showed a low differentiation between genotypes selected for disease tolerance and the wild population of ash representing a range of susceptibilities to ash dieback, indicating opportunities for further selection without significantly losing genetic diversity in the ash population.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Hakan Başak; K. Mesut Çimrin; Metin Turan; Adem Güneş; Ekrem Ozlu;
    Publisher: TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
    Country: Turkey

    Mycorrhiza has attracted interest as one of the microorganisms that increase a crop’s salt stress tolerance. This study was conducted to determine the impacts of mycorrhiza inoculation and applying salt at different ratios on the yield of peppers and amino acid concentrations. The study was conducted in greenhouse conditions on loamy soils with four salt treatments, two mycorrhiza inoculations and a control in a complete randomized block design. The present study indicated that salt treatment alone was significantly correlated with crop stem and root amino acid concentrations, RWC% and leaf sizes, whereas applying mycorrhiza showed a positive relationship to stem height, stem and root wet weight, and root amino acids but led to a decloine in root serine and glutamine, and stem amino acid and glutamine. In conclusion, inoculating with mycorrhiza was observed to make a positive contribution to salt stress tolerance at different levels in almost all the parameters examined. © 2019, © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Leslie Weston;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    The establishment and management of nine cover crops in Kentucky production systems were evaluated in field experiments over a 2.yr period. 'Wheeler' rye, 'Barsoy' barley, and 'Tyler' wheat cereal grains produced greater biomass (180 to 260 g/m2) than the pasture species tall fescue, creeping red fescue, and white clover (55 to 110 g/m2). 'Kentucky 31' tall fescue, creeping red fescue, and white clover proved most difficult to control, and significant regrowth occurred regardless of herbicide or rate applied. HOE-39866 (1.7 kg ai/ha) was effective in rapidly controlling all cover crops except tall fescue by 30 days after application. Sethoxydim and fluazifop (0.4 and 0.3 kg ai/ha, respec- tively) effectively controlled the cereals and two ryegrass species. Glyphosate applied at 1.1 and 2.2 kg ai/ha was also effective, while 0.6 kg ai/ha controlled only cereal grain growth adequately. After chemical control, pasture grass plots contained fewest weeds/m2 with some reduc- tions likely due to density and regrowth of the sods. Cover crops were effective in suppressing weed growth at 45 days after chemical control. However, significant weed growth existed in all cover crop plots by 60 days after kill. Row crop establishment increased linearly with increasing glyphosate rate. Cereal grain covers provided the most compatible planting situations for greatest seedling estab- lishment, with rye and wheat providing greatest weed suppression. Generally, increased weed suppression pro- vided by a cover crop was accompanied by reduced row crop establishment, with greatest reductions observed in pasture grass plots. Cucumber was most easily established while snap pea was most difficult. Nomenclature: Fluazi- fop, (?)-2-(4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinylloxy)phen- oxy)propanoic acid; HOE-39866, the ammonium salt of DL-homoalanin-4-yl-methyl phosphinic acid; glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine; sethoxydim, 2-(1-(ethoxyim- ino)butyl - 5 - (2-(ethylthio)propyl) - 3 - hydroxy - 2 - cyc- lohexen-l-one; tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb. 'Kentucky 31'; creeping red fescue, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata; Dutch white clover, Trifolium repens L.; cucumber, Cucumis sativus var. sativus 'Calypso'; snap pea, Pisum sativa L. 'Sparkle'; rye, Secale cereale L. 'Wheeler'; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L. 'Tyler'. Additional index words. Minimum tillage, germination, glyphosate, sethoxydim, fluazifop, HOE-39866, row crop.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ole Thomas Albert; Claudia Junge; Marlén Knutsen Myrlund;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)

    Abstract Based on a sampling programme of spurdog (Squalus acanthias) from Norwegian fishery landing sites during 2014–2018, the spatio-temporal distribution, size, sex, and age composition of this previously heavily overfished shark is described and compared to the situation before the stock collapsed. Among those spurdog large enough to be caught in the fisheries, all size groups, both sexes, and all maturity stages were present in the 3948 individuals examined from the landing sites. This shows that spurdog utilizes Norwegian coastal waters year-round and for their whole life cycle. The age composition was similar for males and females, and both were observed from age 3 up to the mid-30s. Age at 50% maturity was 9.5 years for females, and near-term females were mostly found during August–January without any clear latitudinal difference. The stock is largely dominated by younger age groups, and the mean age of late gravid females was 15 years, with an interquartile range of 12–16 years. This compares to a generation time of 25 years used elsewhere and is considered to be indicative of sound recruitment of a rebuilding stock. Analyses across age groups indicate that the recent rate of increase in year-class size for adult age groups is much larger than estimated in the assessments. Possible reasons for this and the need for further studies are discussed.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Chengkang Gao; Shuaibing Zhang; Kaihui Song; Hongming Na; Fan Tian; Menghui Zhang; Wengang Gao;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The three types of elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and Sulfur (S) are inextricably linked from the source to the destination throughout the system. To analyze the environmental load caused by the three elements, this study established a material metabolism model to quantify the relationships among metabolic processes on the provincial scale and examined their environmental implications based on Substance Flow Analysis (SFA). The results show that the metabolic fluxes of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in the socioeconomic system of Liaoning Province in 2016 were 5.339 million tons, 0.582 million tons and 3.084 million tons, respectively. The agricultural sector caused the greatest environmental pressures on water bodies, in which nitrogen and phosphorus accounted for 61.8% and 80.2% of the total water body load. For atmospheric load, the nitrogen and sulfur elements in the industrial sector caused the largest atmospheric load, accounting for 37.8% and 91.4% of the total atmospheric load, respectively. The main source of phosphorus soil load in Liaoning Province is the agricultural production, accounting for 85.3% of the total soil load caused by phosphorus.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Majid Mohammady Oskouei; Solmaz Babakan;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    The study aims to detect alteration indicative minerals on a part of Hyperion scene in the Lahroud region using the image processing methods. However, it is rarely possible to find actually pure pixels in the mineralogical scale inside the study scenes. This implies the necessity of the identification of sub-pixel materials before classification and mineral mapping using the spectral unmixing algorithms. The Linear Mixture Model (LMM) based standardized hyperspectral processing methodology was employed for this purpose. The necessary pre-processing tasks including the atmospheric and topographic corrections and data quality assessment were also utilized to increase the classification accuracy. The mineralogical and alteration map of the study area was then extracted and evaluated quantitatively with respected to the geological setting of the study area. Despite of the presence of complex facies in the region, the possibility of the applied methodology in the alteration mapping by linear unmixing was proved on Hyperion datasets. The low signal to noise ratio of the Hyperion sensor caused some difficulties but, considering the high cost and consumed time of the field sampling and geochemical studies, the applied method is an advantageous tool for primary steps of the exploration.

  • Open Access Spanish; Castilian
    Authors: 
    Rodrigo Pérez, Laura;
    Publisher: Universitat Politècnica de València
    Country: Spain

    [ES] En el siguiente Trabajo Final de Grado se presenta el proyecto realizado para obtener un sistema automático de clasificación de zanahorias. La clasificación de las zanahorias se lleva a cabo empleando un brazo robótico y visión artificial. Las zanahorias se introducen y salen del sistema de clasificación mediante cintas transportadoras. Gracias al sistema de visión artificial se diferencian las zanahorias según su calibre y se clasifican con la ayuda de un robot industrial IRB 140 proporcionado por el promotor. [EN] The plancarried out to obtain an automatic carrot classification system is presentedin the following Final Degree Project. Carrots are graded using a robotic arm and machine vision. Carrots are fed into and out of the grading system using conveyor belts. Thanks to the artificial vision system, carrots are differentiated according to their calibreand classified with the help of an IRB 140 industrial robot provided by the developer.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Westergren, Marjana; Kraigher, Hojka;
    Publisher: Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrew Taber; Alex Cheung;
    Publisher: California Digital Library (CDL)
    Country: United States

    Virotherapy: Finding New Utility in Nature’s Most Dangerous Killers Using Viruses to Combat Cancer Andrew Taber and Alex Cheung For centuries, viruses have been one of the greatest threats to human survival and propagation, and it has been one of medicine’s greatest challenges to create vaccines and methods to stall the onset of these viral diseases. That being said, it should come as a surprise that viruses are now being used as one of medicine’s most promising new methods to attack the next prominent threat to humanity: cancer. B S J H istory of V irotherapy Since the 1800’s, there have been case studies in which it was reported that cancer regression coincided significantly with viral infections. Dramatic reduction in the white blood cell count of patients (usually signifying an improving condition) was observed when the patients were infected by such viruses as influenza and chicken pox. Doctors and scientists at the time concluded that viruses, in certain environments, could temporarily improve a patient’s condition, especially in young children with compromised immune systems. After many years of animal and clinical research, it was found that viral infection is indeed a very potent method to treat cancer. But, at this point scientists had to use the very blunt instrument of naturally occurring viruses in their trials, which often led to subject death. (Kelly and Russel 2007) The solution was to design the viruses and delivery systems using genetic engineering so that the immune system would let the viruses through and so that the viruses would target the desired cell type. The tools needed to achieve this goal, however, were not developed until relatively recently. Until then, science used a method called targeted evolution to encourage the propagation of mutations that would result in viruses attacking cancer cells.When recombinant DNA technology was developed, the effectiveness of virotherapy could be even more directly controlled. Today, virotherapy is showing significant effectiveness in treating many cancers and diseases in mice, and trials have even shown improvements in treating advanced melanoma in humans (Nutting 2005). These results are too significant to be ignored, and scientists are wasting no time in developing new viruses to fight other diseases. One of the ways to solve the problems of cell targeting is to add cancer-specific binding proteins to the virus. Each type of cell has an outer membrane that acts as a selective barrier between the cell and its surroundings. All membranes are coated with proteins that are used to identify a cell and its purpose in the body. One way of thinking of these proteins is as nametags, and scientists’ job is to engineer these proteins so that viruses “know” where “Virotherapy can succeed where past methods have failed.” 16 • B erkeley S cientific J ournal • I nfectious D isease • F all 2010 • V olume 14 • I ssue 1

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Helbert, J.; Robinson, M. S.; Müller, N.; Prockter, L. M.; Head, J. W.; Izenberg, N. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Svedhem, H.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.; +1 more
    Country: Germany
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