Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
13,769 Research products, page 1 of 1,377

  • Publications
  • Other research products
  • 2013-2022
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Rural Digital Europe

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giovanna Bucci;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    In the southern area of the Ferrara District, Italy, remote sensing investigations associated with geo-archaeological drilling in underwater archaeological studies, have helped to broad our understanding of the historical evolution and cultural heritage of inland waterways. In working on prototype sites, we have taken a multidisciplinary approach of surveillance and preventive archaeology, and have collaborated with archaeologists, geologists, hydro-biologists, and engineers. In this area of research, often lakes, lagoons, and rivers are characterized by low visibility. Some Quaternary events have deeply modified Ferrara’s landscape. Analysis of preserved samples from micro-drillings, underwater direct and indirect surveys, and the cataloguing of historical artefacts, are giving to the researchers a remarkable ancient chronology line. Recent studies confirmed anthropization sequences from the 1st Century B.C. to the 6th Century A.D. Waterscape archaeology, a multidisciplinary science devoted to the study of the human use of wetlands and anthropological connection with the water environment, testifies the ways in which people, in the past, constructed and used the water environment. In this article, we describe underwater cultural heritage research using 3D side scan sonar surveys and artifacts analysis, comparing data from direct diving investigations and stratigraphic data from micro-geological drillings on sites of Lago Tramonto, Gambulaga, Portomaggiore (Ferrara).

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Mahtab Ahmad; Sang Soo Lee; Sung-Eun Lee; Mohammad I. Al-Wabel; Daniel C.W. Tsang; Yong Sik Ok;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Remediation of metal contaminated soil with biochar is attracting extensive interest in recent years. Understanding the significance of variable biochar properties and soil types helps elucidating the meticulous roles of biochar in immobilizing/mobilizing metals/metalloids in contaminated soils. Six biochars were produced from widely available agricultural wastes (i.e., soybean stover, peanut shells and pine needles) at two pyrolysis temperatures of 300 and 700 °C, respectively. The Pb-, Cu-, and Sb-contaminated shooting range soils and Pb-, Zn-, and As-contaminated agricultural soils were amended with the produced biochars. The mobility of metals/metalloids was assessed by the standard batch leaching test, principal component analysis and speciation modeling. The changes in soil properties were correlated to feedstock types and pyrolysis temperatures of biochars based on the principal component analysis. Biochars produced at 300 °C were more efficient in decreasing Pb and Cu mobility (>93 %) in alkaline shooting range soil via surface complexation with carboxyl groups and Fe-/Al-minerals of biochars as well as metal-phosphates precipitation. By contrast, biochars produced at 700 °C outperformed their counterparts in decreasing Pb and Zn mobility (100 %) in acidic agricultural soil by metal-hydroxides precipitation due to biochar-induced pH increase. However, Sb and As mobility in both soils was unfavorably increased by biochar amendment, possibly due to the enhanced electrostatic repulsion and competition with phosphate. It is noteworthy that the application of biochars is not equally effective in immobilizing metals or mobilizing metalloids in different soils. We should apply biochar to multi-metal contaminated soil with great caution and tailor biochar production for achieving desired outcome and avoiding adverse impact on soil ecosystem.

  • Authors: 
    Daniel Benjamin Abramson;
    Publisher: Project Muse

    In the course of China’s rapid environmental change, the rebuilding of city centers has left few historic urban spaces and structures to conserve, while urbanization of the countryside has brought increasing numbers of small towns and villages onto the conservation lists. The collective governmental "eye" now sees an environment that was formerly invisible to it, and brings it into the orbit of its metropolitan concerns. On one hand, municipal leaders seek room for the city’s expanding functions; on the other hand, officials (and public discourse in general) perceive a loss of local and regional identity in the wake of rapid development. The recognition and value of rural built and natural environmental heritage in China is an integral part of the urbanization process. It is redefining "urban conservation" to encompass agricultural and other rural settlements, in addition to historic urban environments and communities.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Xinyi Liu; Martin K. Jones;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    Scholarly interest has been growing in an episode of Old World globalisation of food resources significantly predating the ‘Silk Road’. This process was characteristic of crosscontinental translocations of starch-based crops mostly during the third and second millennia BC but which might have been initiated in an earlier period (Jones et al. 2011). Among these translocations we can include a range of crops originally from Southwest Asia, notably bread wheat and barley, and others originally from northern China, such as broomcorn and foxtail millet (Hunt et al. 2008; Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute et al. 2013). Parallel patterns of crop movement between North Africa and South Asia have been observed and discussed in some depth (Boivin & Fuller 2009; Fuller et al. 2011; Boivin et al. 2013). The impetus behind this growth of interest has been the expansion of archaeobotanical research in South and East Asia over the past decade (Fuller 2002; Crawford 2006; Lee et al. 2007; Liu et al. 2008; Zhao 2010). This paper considers the agents responsible for the food globalisation process during the third and second millennia BC. A key aspect of trans-Eurasian starch-crop movement was that it constituted an addition to agricultural systems, rather than movement to regions devoid of existing starch-based agriculture. Other economic plants, such as grapes, dates and peas, also moved considerable distances in the archaeological record, often to areas previously devoid of those plants. However, the novel starchy crops held a particular significance. In both cases, Southwest Asian wheat and barley and East Asian millets went on to become important staple foods in many of their new destinations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Johannes Persson; Henrik Thorén; Lennart Olsson;
    Countries: Sweden, Finland

    Interdisciplinary research in the fields of forestry and sustainability studies often encounters seemingly incompatible ontological assumptions deriving from natural and social sciences. The perceived incompatibilities might emerge from the epistemological and ontological claims of the theories or models directly employed in the interdisciplinary collaboration, or they might be created by other epistemological and ontological assumptions that these interdisciplinary researchers find no reason to question. In this paper we discuss the benefits and risks of two possible approaches, Popperian optimism and Kuhnian pessimism, to interdisciplinary knowledge integration where epistemological and ontological differences between the sciences involved can be expected. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Andrea L. Balbo; Bernardo Rondelli; Francesc Cecilia Conesa; Carla Lancelotti; Marco Madella; P. Ajithprasad;
    Publisher: Pergamon Press
    Country: Spain

    The present work aims at setting the bases for the critical study of settlement patterns and resource management among Holocene hunteregatherer and agro-pastoral groups in arid margins. The case study is set on the SWmargin of the Thar Desert, in N Gujarat, an ecotone sensitive to the slightest shifts in precipitation patterns (Indian Summer Monsoon). The potential significance of published and newly acquired archaeological information is discussed in the light of physiographical data collected from satellite imagery and field exploration. The review of available and newly acquired records includes: (a) The integration of field and remote observation of regional traits and (b) The definition of active morphological processes that may bias archaeological preservation and visibility. A synthetic geoarchaeological map of the study area is proposed that integrates physiographical and archaeological evidence at the regional scale. The potential significance of the archaeological evidence in the region (i.e. presence/absence/concentration of archaeological materials in different physiographical units) is discussed in terms of preservation and visibility. At this stage, results are considered at the regional level of macroscopic units. The results constitute the first step towards the full multi-scalar integration of landscape architectures, stratified archaeological sites and surface sediments at regional and local levels This research was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN: I+D HAR2010-16052 and CONSOLIDER-Ingenio 2010-00034), the Spanish Ministry of Culture (Excavaciones Arqueológicas al Exterior) and the MS University of Baroda (India). AB was funded via JAEDoc program and FC by JAEPreDoc program (Spanish National Research Council and European Social Found), BR was funded by MICINN (SB2009-060). CL is a member of AGRIWESTMED Project. Archaeological data derive from research carried out at Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (MSBU Baroda), the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN Kyoto) and the Institució Milà i Fontanals (IMF-CSIC Barcelona). Access to Landsat, ASTER images and DEMs was granted by NASA-USGS servers (Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center – LP DAAC – United States Geological Survey – USGS – Earth Resources Observation and Science Center - EROS) (lpdaac.usgs.gov). Access to GoogleEarthPro was granted via the GoogleEarth Outreach Program (earth.google.com/outreach) Peer reviewed

  • Open Access Russian
    Publisher: TSNS "Interaktiv plus", LLC

    The author focuses on the traditional sectors of agriculture in the culture of the various ethnic groups of Crimea. At the beginning of the nineteenth century steppe regions Peninsula are starting to master German, Bulgarian, Czech farmers colonists (briefly describes the first German settlement). The article also provides some evidence of profitability of agricultural industries Crimea mid-nineteenth century. Автор акцентирует внимание на традиционные отрасли сельского хозяйства в культуре различных этносов Крыма. В начале ХIХ в. степные районы полуострова начинают осваивать немецкие, болгарские, чешские земледельцы-колонисты (кратко описаны первые немецкие поселения). В статье также приведены некоторые свидетельства доходности отраслей сельского хозяйства Крыма середины ХIХ в.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sean Fobbe; Natia Navrouzov; Kristen Hopper; Ahmed Khudida Burjus; Graham Philip; Maher G Nawaf; Dan Lawrence; Helen Walasek; Sara Birjandian; Majid Hassan Ali; +4 more
    Publisher: Brill
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract Discussions of the 2014 genocide committed by the Islamic State against the Êzidîs (also known as ‘Yazidis’ or ‘Yezidis’) have generally focused on murder, slavery and sexual exploitation. In this paper we analyze the destruction of Êzidî tangible and intangible cultural heritage as a significant facet of the Islamic State’s policy of ethnic cleansing and genocide. Evidence of destruction is collected and presented in context with other criminal acts. In international discourse the destruction of cultural heritage sites is most often placed under the heading of war crime. Several convictions by the ICTY and the conviction of Malian Islamist Al-Mahdi by the ICC are well-known. However, heritage destruction may also be prosecuted as the crime of persecution, a crime against humanity. Numerous indictments and convictions before international courts attest to the viability of this approach. Finally, as per explicit caselaw of the ICJ and ICTY, destruction of tangible heritage also serves as evidence of the special intent to destroy a protected group under the crime of genocide. The Êzidî are an endogamous community at home in northern Iraq for whom faith and ethnic belonging are inextricably linked. Belief in God and TawûsÊ Malek (the highest angel), and reverence for Lalish as the holiest place on earth are the defining features of the Êzidî faith. Historic and sacred places are an essential part of the Êzidî identity and are considered vital to life by the local population. The Islamic State made no secret of its intention to eradicate the Êzidî community and commenced a policy of ethnic cleansing and genocide on 3 August 2014. All victims were abused and tortured. Male Êzidîs above the age of 12 were killed. Female Êzidîs were enslaved and traded in a complex and public network of sexual slavery. Boys were trained in ISIS camps and militarized. Those who fled to Mount Sinjar were besieged in order to ensure death from starvation, thirst and the blazing sun. Bases of economic support, such as olive groves and irrigation wells, were systematically destroyed and many areas of the Êzidî homeland were sown with landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to prevent the population from returning. We provide original research, evidence and context on the destruction of Êzidî tangible cultural heritage in the Bahzani/Bashiqa and Sinjar areas of northern Iraq. We present satellite imagery analysis conducted by the EAMENA project, drawing on data provided by Êzidî representatives. According to the Department of Yazidi Affairs in the Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs in the Kurdistan Regional Government 68 Êzidî sites were destroyed by the Islamic State. We consider 16 sites in the Bahzani/Bashiqa area and 8 in the Sinjar area to which access was possible and which could be documented. We conclude that the destruction of the cultural heritage of the Êzidî people constituted a war crime, a crime against humanity (persecution) and compelling evidence of genocidal intent. We recommend the consideration of cultural heritage destruction in any prosecution of atrocity crimes, especially the crime of genocide. Context This article was published in the peer-reviewed Asian Yearbook of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (AYHR), Volume 5, pp 111-144, DOI: 10.1163/9789004466180_006. The AYHR is edited by Professor Javaid Rehman, the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The version provided here is the author manuscript, i.e. the text after peer-review, but before typesetting. The article is based on the 2019 report 'Destroying the Soul of the Yazidis: Cultural Heritage Destruction during the Islamic State's Genocide against the Yazidis', published by RASHID International, EAMENA and Yazda. About RASHID International RASHID International is a worldwide network of archaeologists and cultural heritage experts dedicated to safeguarding and promoting the cultural heritage of Iraq, ancient Mesopotamia. To assist our Iraqi colleagues, we collect and share information, research and expert knowledge, work to raise public awareness, and both develop and execute strategies to protect heritage sites and other cultural property through international cooperation, advocacy and technical assistance. RASHID International is registered as a non-profit organisation in Germany and enjoys charitable tax-exempt status under German law. We are an organisation in special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council since 2019. Learn more about our work at www.rashid-international.org About Yazda Yazda is a global community-led institution that protects and champions all religious and ethnic minority communities, including Assyrians, Chaldeans, Kakais, Shabak, Turkmen, and Yazidis in Iraq, Kurdistan Region, and Syria. Founded in 2014 at the onset of the genocide perpetuated by Da’esh, also known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Levant (ISIL), against the Yazidis, as well as war crimes and crimes against humanity against other minorities, Yazda leads advocacy and strategic projects in Dohuk, Sinjar, and the Nineveh Plains, as well as global diaspora hubs. We work hand-in-hand with our partners, including United Nations agencies, key donor governments, the Iraqi and Kurdistan Regional Governments, and instrumental community organizations to ensure justice, accountability, and a sustainable future for all is swiftly reached. We are fervently determined to ensure Never Again, so that no community and people ever face genocide. Learn more about our work at www.yazda.org. About EAMENA The EAMENA Project rapidly records and evaluates the status of the archaeological landscape of the MENA region in order to create an accessible body of data which can be used by national and international heritage professionals to target those sites most in danger and better plan and implement the preservation and protection of this heritage. The EAMENA project is a collaboration between the Universities of Oxford, Leicester and Durham in the United Kingdom and is supported by the Arcadia Fund and the British Council's Cultural Protection Fund. You can find out more about our work at our website www.eamena.org.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Olutosin A. Otekunrin; Siaka Momoh; Idris A. Ayinde;
    Publisher: Enviro Research Publishers

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on smallholder farmers’ market participation focusing on cash/food crops and livestock in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with special attention on the methodological approaches employed in this region in an attempt to x-ray these methods, identifying their advantages and limitations and possible means smallholder farmers would be able to transit from subsistence to commercialised agriculture capable of lifting them out of poverty trap that seems to have engulfed many rural SSA. This paper recommends interventions geared towards improving smallholder farmers’ organisation, producers’ association and ensuring appreciable reduction in transaction costs and also improving farmers’ access to productive assets and improved technologies capable of stimulating profitable smallholders’ market participation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rafael Serrano García;
    Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

    Resumen: Nuestra aportación está dirigida a estudiar la nue­va situación que la implantación de la Segunda República provocó en las áreas rurales y, concre­tamente, en las castellano-leonesas. Una situación definida por una amplia politización de los distin­tos componentes de las comunidades rurales y la abundancia de conflictos laborales que, con el paso del tiempo acabaron en violencia política que ex­presaba la polarización ideológica sufrida por el campesinado de la Meseta Norte. El uso de sumar­ios judiciales concernientes a la provincia de Valla­dolid se ha revelado extremadamente útil para el desarrollo de nuestra investigación.Palabras clave: Politización campesina, Segunda república es­pañola, violencia política, polarización ideoló­gica, conflictividad social.Abstract: This paper studies the situation stirred up by the opening of the Second Republic (1931–1936) in Spanish rural areas and specifically in Castile and León. It was characterised by a wide politicisation of the different components of the rural commu­nities amd by the profusion of labour disputes that, with the passing of time, ended in political violence and ultimately revealed the ideological polarisation of the local peasantry. Much of the documentary evidence presented here relies on court records from the province of Valladolid.Key words: Peasant politicisation, Spanish Second Repu­blic, political violence, ideological polarisation, labour conflicts.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
13,769 Research products, page 1 of 1,377
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giovanna Bucci;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    In the southern area of the Ferrara District, Italy, remote sensing investigations associated with geo-archaeological drilling in underwater archaeological studies, have helped to broad our understanding of the historical evolution and cultural heritage of inland waterways. In working on prototype sites, we have taken a multidisciplinary approach of surveillance and preventive archaeology, and have collaborated with archaeologists, geologists, hydro-biologists, and engineers. In this area of research, often lakes, lagoons, and rivers are characterized by low visibility. Some Quaternary events have deeply modified Ferrara’s landscape. Analysis of preserved samples from micro-drillings, underwater direct and indirect surveys, and the cataloguing of historical artefacts, are giving to the researchers a remarkable ancient chronology line. Recent studies confirmed anthropization sequences from the 1st Century B.C. to the 6th Century A.D. Waterscape archaeology, a multidisciplinary science devoted to the study of the human use of wetlands and anthropological connection with the water environment, testifies the ways in which people, in the past, constructed and used the water environment. In this article, we describe underwater cultural heritage research using 3D side scan sonar surveys and artifacts analysis, comparing data from direct diving investigations and stratigraphic data from micro-geological drillings on sites of Lago Tramonto, Gambulaga, Portomaggiore (Ferrara).

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Mahtab Ahmad; Sang Soo Lee; Sung-Eun Lee; Mohammad I. Al-Wabel; Daniel C.W. Tsang; Yong Sik Ok;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Remediation of metal contaminated soil with biochar is attracting extensive interest in recent years. Understanding the significance of variable biochar properties and soil types helps elucidating the meticulous roles of biochar in immobilizing/mobilizing metals/metalloids in contaminated soils. Six biochars were produced from widely available agricultural wastes (i.e., soybean stover, peanut shells and pine needles) at two pyrolysis temperatures of 300 and 700 °C, respectively. The Pb-, Cu-, and Sb-contaminated shooting range soils and Pb-, Zn-, and As-contaminated agricultural soils were amended with the produced biochars. The mobility of metals/metalloids was assessed by the standard batch leaching test, principal component analysis and speciation modeling. The changes in soil properties were correlated to feedstock types and pyrolysis temperatures of biochars based on the principal component analysis. Biochars produced at 300 °C were more efficient in decreasing Pb and Cu mobility (>93 %) in alkaline shooting range soil via surface complexation with carboxyl groups and Fe-/Al-minerals of biochars as well as metal-phosphates precipitation. By contrast, biochars produced at 700 °C outperformed their counterparts in decreasing Pb and Zn mobility (100 %) in acidic agricultural soil by metal-hydroxides precipitation due to biochar-induced pH increase. However, Sb and As mobility in both soils was unfavorably increased by biochar amendment, possibly due to the enhanced electrostatic repulsion and competition with phosphate. It is noteworthy that the application of biochars is not equally effective in immobilizing metals or mobilizing metalloids in different soils. We should apply biochar to multi-metal contaminated soil with great caution and tailor biochar production for achieving desired outcome and avoiding adverse impact on soil ecosystem.

  • Authors: 
    Daniel Benjamin Abramson;
    Publisher: Project Muse

    In the course of China’s rapid environmental change, the rebuilding of city centers has left few historic urban spaces and structures to conserve, while urbanization of the countryside has brought increasing numbers of small towns and villages onto the conservation lists. The collective governmental "eye" now sees an environment that was formerly invisible to it, and brings it into the orbit of its metropolitan concerns. On one hand, municipal leaders seek room for the city’s expanding functions; on the other hand, officials (and public discourse in general) perceive a loss of local and regional identity in the wake of rapid development. The recognition and value of rural built and natural environmental heritage in China is an integral part of the urbanization process. It is redefining "urban conservation" to encompass agricultural and other rural settlements, in addition to historic urban environments and communities.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Xinyi Liu; Martin K. Jones;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

    Scholarly interest has been growing in an episode of Old World globalisation of food resources significantly predating the ‘Silk Road’. This process was characteristic of crosscontinental translocations of starch-based crops mostly during the third and second millennia BC but which might have been initiated in an earlier period (Jones et al. 2011). Among these translocations we can include a range of crops originally from Southwest Asia, notably bread wheat and barley, and others originally from northern China, such as broomcorn and foxtail millet (Hunt et al. 2008; Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute et al. 2013). Parallel patterns of crop movement between North Africa and South Asia have been observed and discussed in some depth (Boivin & Fuller 2009; Fuller et al. 2011; Boivin et al. 2013). The impetus behind this growth of interest has been the expansion of archaeobotanical research in South and East Asia over the past decade (Fuller 2002; Crawford 2006; Lee et al. 2007; Liu et al. 2008; Zhao 2010). This paper considers the agents responsible for the food globalisation process during the third and second millennia BC. A key aspect of trans-Eurasian starch-crop movement was that it constituted an addition to agricultural systems, rather than movement to regions devoid of existing starch-based agriculture. Other economic plants, such as grapes, dates and peas, also moved considerable distances in the archaeological record, often to areas previously devoid of those plants. However, the novel starchy crops held a particular significance. In both cases, Southwest Asian wheat and barley and East Asian millets went on to become important staple foods in many of their new destinations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Johannes Persson; Henrik Thorén; Lennart Olsson;
    Countries: Sweden, Finland

    Interdisciplinary research in the fields of forestry and sustainability studies often encounters seemingly incompatible ontological assumptions deriving from natural and social sciences. The perceived incompatibilities might emerge from the epistemological and ontological claims of the theories or models directly employed in the interdisciplinary collaboration, or they might be created by other epistemological and ontological assumptions that these interdisciplinary researchers find no reason to question. In this paper we discuss the benefits and risks of two possible approaches, Popperian optimism and Kuhnian pessimism, to interdisciplinary knowledge integration where epistemological and ontological differences between the sciences involved can be expected. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Andrea L. Balbo; Bernardo Rondelli; Francesc Cecilia Conesa; Carla Lancelotti; Marco Madella; P. Ajithprasad;
    Publisher: Pergamon Press
    Country: Spain

    The present work aims at setting the bases for the critical study of settlement patterns and resource management among Holocene hunteregatherer and agro-pastoral groups in arid margins. The case study is set on the SWmargin of the Thar Desert, in N Gujarat, an ecotone sensitive to the slightest shifts in precipitation patterns (Indian Summer Monsoon). The potential significance of published and newly acquired archaeological information is discussed in the light of physiographical data collected from satellite imagery and field exploration. The review of available and newly acquired records includes: (a) The integration of field and remote observation of regional traits and (b) The definition of active morphological processes that may bias archaeological preservation and visibility. A synthetic geoarchaeological map of the study area is proposed that integrates physiographical and archaeological evidence at the regional scale. The potential significance of the archaeological evidence in the region (i.e. presence/absence/concentration of archaeological materials in different physiographical units) is discussed in terms of preservation and visibility. At this stage, results are considered at the regional level of macroscopic units. The results constitute the first step towards the full multi-scalar integration of landscape architectures, stratified archaeological sites and surface sediments at regional and local levels This research was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN: I+D HAR2010-16052 and CONSOLIDER-Ingenio 2010-00034), the Spanish Ministry of Culture (Excavaciones Arqueológicas al Exterior) and the MS University of Baroda (India). AB was funded via JAEDoc program and FC by JAEPreDoc program (Spanish National Research Council and European Social Found), BR was funded by MICINN (SB2009-060). CL is a member of AGRIWESTMED Project. Archaeological data derive from research carried out at Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (MSBU Baroda), the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN Kyoto) and the Institució Milà i Fontanals (IMF-CSIC Barcelona). Access to Landsat, ASTER images and DEMs was granted by NASA-USGS servers (Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center – LP DAAC – United States Geological Survey – USGS – Earth Resources Observation and Science Center - EROS) (lpdaac.usgs.gov). Access to GoogleEarthPro was granted via the GoogleEarth Outreach Program (earth.google.com/outreach) Peer reviewed

  • Open Access Russian
    Publisher: TSNS "Interaktiv plus", LLC

    The author focuses on the traditional sectors of agriculture in the culture of the various ethnic groups of Crimea. At the beginning of the nineteenth century steppe regions Peninsula are starting to master German, Bulgarian, Czech farmers colonists (briefly describes the first German settlement). The article also provides some evidence of profitability of agricultural industries Crimea mid-nineteenth century. Автор акцентирует внимание на традиционные отрасли сельского хозяйства в культуре различных этносов Крыма. В начале ХIХ в. степные районы полуострова начинают осваивать немецкие, болгарские, чешские земледельцы-колонисты (кратко описаны первые немецкие поселения). В статье также приведены некоторые свидетельства доходности отраслей сельского хозяйства Крыма середины ХIХ в.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sean Fobbe; Natia Navrouzov; Kristen Hopper; Ahmed Khudida Burjus; Graham Philip; Maher G Nawaf; Dan Lawrence; Helen Walasek; Sara Birjandian; Majid Hassan Ali; +4 more
    Publisher: Brill
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract Discussions of the 2014 genocide committed by the Islamic State against the Êzidîs (also known as ‘Yazidis’ or ‘Yezidis’) have generally focused on murder, slavery and sexual exploitation. In this paper we analyze the destruction of Êzidî tangible and intangible cultural heritage as a significant facet of the Islamic State’s policy of ethnic cleansing and genocide. Evidence of destruction is collected and presented in context with other criminal acts. In international discourse the destruction of cultural heritage sites is most often placed under the heading of war crime. Several convictions by the ICTY and the conviction of Malian Islamist Al-Mahdi by the ICC are well-known. However, heritage destruction may also be prosecuted as the crime of persecution, a crime against humanity. Numerous indictments and convictions before international courts attest to the viability of this approach. Finally, as per explicit caselaw of the ICJ and ICTY, destruction of tangible heritage also serves as evidence of the special intent to destroy a protected group under the crime of genocide. The Êzidî are an endogamous community at home in northern Iraq for whom faith and ethnic belonging are inextricably linked. Belief in God and TawûsÊ Malek (the highest angel), and reverence for Lalish as the holiest place on earth are the defining features of the Êzidî faith. Historic and sacred places are an essential part of the Êzidî identity and are considered vital to life by the local population. The Islamic State made no secret of its intention to eradicate the Êzidî community and commenced a policy of ethnic cleansing and genocide on 3 August 2014. All victims were abused and tortured. Male Êzidîs above the age of 12 were killed. Female Êzidîs were enslaved and traded in a complex and public network of sexual slavery. Boys were trained in ISIS camps and militarized. Those who fled to Mount Sinjar were besieged in order to ensure death from starvation, thirst and the blazing sun. Bases of economic support, such as olive groves and irrigation wells, were systematically destroyed and many areas of the Êzidî homeland were sown with landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to prevent the population from returning. We provide original research, evidence and context on the destruction of Êzidî tangible cultural heritage in the Bahzani/Bashiqa and Sinjar areas of northern Iraq. We present satellite imagery analysis conducted by the EAMENA project, drawing on data provided by Êzidî representatives. According to the Department of Yazidi Affairs in the Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs in the Kurdistan Regional Government 68 Êzidî sites were destroyed by the Islamic State. We consider 16 sites in the Bahzani/Bashiqa area and 8 in the Sinjar area to which access was possible and which could be documented. We conclude that the destruction of the cultural heritage of the Êzidî people constituted a war crime, a crime against humanity (persecution) and compelling evidence of genocidal intent. We recommend the consideration of cultural heritage destruction in any prosecution of atrocity crimes, especially the crime of genocide. Context This article was published in the peer-reviewed Asian Yearbook of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (AYHR), Volume 5, pp 111-144, DOI: 10.1163/9789004466180_006. The AYHR is edited by Professor Javaid Rehman, the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The version provided here is the author manuscript, i.e. the text after peer-review, but before typesetting. The article is based on the 2019 report 'Destroying the Soul of the Yazidis: Cultural Heritage Destruction during the Islamic State's Genocide against the Yazidis', published by RASHID International, EAMENA and Yazda. About RASHID International RASHID International is a worldwide network of archaeologists and cultural heritage experts dedicated to safeguarding and promoting the cultural heritage of Iraq, ancient Mesopotamia. To assist our Iraqi colleagues, we collect and share information, research and expert knowledge, work to raise public awareness, and both develop and execute strategies to protect heritage sites and other cultural property through international cooperation, advocacy and technical assistance. RASHID International is registered as a non-profit organisation in Germany and enjoys charitable tax-exempt status under German law. We are an organisation in special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council since 2019. Learn more about our work at www.rashid-international.org About Yazda Yazda is a global community-led institution that protects and champions all religious and ethnic minority communities, including Assyrians, Chaldeans, Kakais, Shabak, Turkmen, and Yazidis in Iraq, Kurdistan Region, and Syria. Founded in 2014 at the onset of the genocide perpetuated by Da’esh, also known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Levant (ISIL), against the Yazidis, as well as war crimes and crimes against humanity against other minorities, Yazda leads advocacy and strategic projects in Dohuk, Sinjar, and the Nineveh Plains, as well as global diaspora hubs. We work hand-in-hand with our partners, including United Nations agencies, key donor governments, the Iraqi and Kurdistan Regional Governments, and instrumental community organizations to ensure justice, accountability, and a sustainable future for all is swiftly reached. We are fervently determined to ensure Never Again, so that no community and people ever face genocide. Learn more about our work at www.yazda.org. About EAMENA The EAMENA Project rapidly records and evaluates the status of the archaeological landscape of the MENA region in order to create an accessible body of data which can be used by national and international heritage professionals to target those sites most in danger and better plan and implement the preservation and protection of this heritage. The EAMENA project is a collaboration between the Universities of Oxford, Leicester and Durham in the United Kingdom and is supported by the Arcadia Fund and the British Council's Cultural Protection Fund. You can find out more about our work at our website www.eamena.org.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Olutosin A. Otekunrin; Siaka Momoh; Idris A. Ayinde;
    Publisher: Enviro Research Publishers

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on smallholder farmers’ market participation focusing on cash/food crops and livestock in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with special attention on the methodological approaches employed in this region in an attempt to x-ray these methods, identifying their advantages and limitations and possible means smallholder farmers would be able to transit from subsistence to commercialised agriculture capable of lifting them out of poverty trap that seems to have engulfed many rural SSA. This paper recommends interventions geared towards improving smallholder farmers’ organisation, producers’ association and ensuring appreciable reduction in transaction costs and also improving farmers’ access to productive assets and improved technologies capable of stimulating profitable smallholders’ market participation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rafael Serrano García;
    Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

    Resumen: Nuestra aportación está dirigida a estudiar la nue­va situación que la implantación de la Segunda República provocó en las áreas rurales y, concre­tamente, en las castellano-leonesas. Una situación definida por una amplia politización de los distin­tos componentes de las comunidades rurales y la abundancia de conflictos laborales que, con el paso del tiempo acabaron en violencia política que ex­presaba la polarización ideológica sufrida por el campesinado de la Meseta Norte. El uso de sumar­ios judiciales concernientes a la provincia de Valla­dolid se ha revelado extremadamente útil para el desarrollo de nuestra investigación.Palabras clave: Politización campesina, Segunda república es­pañola, violencia política, polarización ideoló­gica, conflictividad social.Abstract: This paper studies the situation stirred up by the opening of the Second Republic (1931–1936) in Spanish rural areas and specifically in Castile and León. It was characterised by a wide politicisation of the different components of the rural commu­nities amd by the profusion of labour disputes that, with the passing of time, ended in political violence and ultimately revealed the ideological polarisation of the local peasantry. Much of the documentary evidence presented here relies on court records from the province of Valladolid.Key words: Peasant politicisation, Spanish Second Repu­blic, political violence, ideological polarisation, labour conflicts.

Send a message
How can we help?
We usually respond in a few hours.