Abstract Objectives As part of the multinational Burden of Lung Disease (BOLD) survey, this study investigated the flavonoid content and agreement levels of foods included in BOLD's food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), using four international flavonoid composition tables. Methods The USDA (American), BioActive Substances in Food Information System (eBASIS; European), Indian Food Composition (IFCT), and Phenol-Explorer (European) Tables were selected for their comparable data on five subclasses of flavonoids (flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones). Flavonoid estimates were derived for all foods available in each table (n = 117 USDA; n = 77 eBASIS; n = 69 IFCT; n = 90 Phenol-Explorer), and comparisons were carried out for foods common between tables. Percentage differences of flavonoid content were calculated, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI]) estimated. ICC reliability was categorized as low (<0.5), moderate (0.50–0.75), good (0.75–0.90), or excellent (>0.90). Results Compared to the USDA Table, total flavonoid content was overestimated by 181.5%, 14.1%, and 26.5%, in the eBASIS, IFCT, and Phenol-Explorer tables, respectively. Compared to Phenol-Explorer, total flavonoid content was overestimated by 53.0% in eBASIS and by 29.6% in IFCT. The reliability for total flavonoid content between the USDA and Phenol-Explorer tables was moderate (ICC 0.51; 95% CI 0.33, 0.65), low between Phenol-Explorer and eBASIS (ICC 0.27; 95% CI 0.02, 0.49), and low between Phenol-Explorer and IFCT (ICC 0.22, 95%CI −0.07, 0.48). There was good-to-excellent reliability between USDA and Phenol-Explorer for flavanones and flavones (ICC 0.93; 95%CI 0.82, 0.98; and ICC 0.86; 95%CI 0.73, 0.93, respectively). Phenol-Explorer and IFCT showed good reliability for flavanone and flavanol subclasses. ICCs for other subclasses was low across tables. Conclusions Flavonoid estimates varied considerably across international tables. These differences should be taken into consideration when deriving flavonoid content in population-based surveys. Funding Sources MAA is funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme (Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement). The UK's Medical Research Council (MR/R011192/1) funds the BOLD stud.
Abstract Agriculture, domestic users, and industry rely on water resources systems for fulfilling water demand, while water resources systems face both climate-induced extreme events and management and governance problems. These constraints lead to a mismatch between demand and supply of water for those sectors. This study applies central tendency and variability to analyze data and a mixed methods approach to interpret the result. From 1999 to 2019, the growth rates of population, gross domestic product, and urban population are 1.354, 6.084, and 3.70%, respectively, contributing to increased water demand. However, the average groundwater depletion increased from 2.455 km3 (1989–1990) to 4.9016 km3, while the average flood-affected areas enhanced by 8,644 km2 in 2014–2018 compared to 1987–1991. Furthermore, salt-affected areas incremented by 222,810 ha in 2009 contrasted to 1973, whereas the mean wind speed of cyclones increased by 30.02 km in 2015–2020 compared to 1988–1995. The mean sea-level rise increased by 16.8 and 169.2 cm in 1995–2000 compared to 1979–1983 in Cox's Bazar and the Char Changa station, respectively. The Mann–Kendall test was applied to detect the trend. This study urges policymakers, water experts, and academics to promote rainwater harvesting that is sustainable to govern rainwater and mitigate water and economic poverty.
Global environmental change affects the intensity and frequency of rainfall that increases the necessity for sustainable management of rainwater. It is more important for rain intensive country like Bangladesh otherwise it creates further problems like water logging, flood, soil erosion, and water borne diseases. Based on the survey of 80 rainwater harvesters in the Coastal Bangladesh in 2017, this paper evaluates whether rainwater harvesting is sustainable approach to govern rainwater or not by using social and ecological performance measures of Social Ecological System (SES) of Elinor Ostrom. This study found that rainwater harvesting does not affect environment, it is an acceptable approach in family and society, help to develop biodiversity condition, create resilience to climate change impact, improve equitable access to water, efficient use of rainwater, improve women performance regarding water supply to the family, contribute in achieving sustainable development goal, and do not overharvest of rainwater that could create environmental problem. Beyond these measures, it needs rainwater harvesting controlling mechanism like formal operation rule or policy to avoid overharvesting and ensure more sustainability in governing rainwater.Keywords: Accountability; Biodiversity; Efficiency; Resilience; Equity; Global environmental change; Rainwater harvesting; Sustainable approach; Sustainable development goals; Sustainable management of rainwater
Leukocyte migration into the central nervous system (CNS) represents a central process in the development of neurological diseases with a detrimental inflammatory component. Infiltrating neutrophils have been detected inside the brain of patients with several neuroinflammatory disorders, including stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. During inflammatory responses, these highly reactive innate immune cells can rapidly extravasate and release a plethora of pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic factors, potentially inducing significant collateral tissue damage. Indeed, several studies have shown that neutrophils promote blood-brain barrier damage and increased vascular permeability during neuroinflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that neutrophils migrate into the meninges and choroid plexus, suggesting these cells can also damage the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In this review, we discuss the emerging role of neutrophils in the dysfunction of brain barriers across different neuroinflammatory conditions and describe the molecular basis and cellular interplays involved in neutrophil-mediated injury of the CNS borders.