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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ibolya Horváth; Gabriele Multhoff; Alois Sonnleitner; László Vígh;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | CARDIORISK (211403)

    AbstractThe protein- and/or lipid-mediated association of chaperone proteins to membranes is a widespread phenomenon and implicated in a number of physiological and pathological events that were earlier partially or completely overlooked. A temporary association of certain HSPs with membranes can re-establish the fluidity and bilayer stability and thereby restore the membrane functionality during stress conditions. The fluidity and microdomain organization of membranes are decisive factors in the perception and transduction of stresses into signals that trigger the activation of specific HS genes. Conversely, the membrane association of HSPs may result in the inactivation of membrane-perturbing signals, thereby switch off the heat shock response. Interactions between certain HSPs and specific lipid microdomains (“rafts”) might be a previously unrecognized means for the compartmentalization of HSPs to specific signaling platforms, where key signaling proteins are known to be concentrated. Any modulations of the membranes, especially the raft-lipid composition of the cells can alter the extracellular release and thus the immuno-stimulatory activity of certain HSPs. Reliable techniques, allowing mapping of the composition and dynamics of lipid microdomains and simultaneously the spatio-temporal localization of HSPs in and near the plasma membrane can provide suitable means with which to address fundamental questions, such as how HSPs are transported to and translocated through the plasma membrane. The possession of such information is critical if we are to target the membrane association principles of HSPs for successful drug development in most various diseases.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2011
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Péter Bai; Carles Cantó; Hugues Oudart; Attila Brunyanszki; Yana Cen; Charles Thomas; Hiroyasu Yamamoto; Aline Huber; Borbála Kiss; Riekelt H. Houtkooper; +5 more
    Countries: Netherlands, Switzerland, France
    Project: SNSF | A phenogenomic approach t... (133853), EC | SIRTUINS (231138), SNSF | Phenogenomics of the sirt... (124713)

    International audience; SIRT1 regulates energy homeostasis by controlling the acetylation status and activity of a number of enzymes and transcriptional regulators. The fact that NAD(+) levels control SIRT1 activity confers a hypothetical basis for the design of new strategies to activate SIRT1 by increasing NAD(+) availability. Here we show that the deletion of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) gene, encoding a major NAD(+)-consuming enzyme, increases NAD(+) content and SIRT1 activity in brown adipose tissue and muscle. PARP-1(-)(/-) mice phenocopied many aspects of SIRT1 activation, such as a higher mitochondrial content, increased energy expenditure, and protection against metabolic disease. Also, the pharmacologic inhibition of PARP in vitro and in vivo increased NAD(+) content and SIRT1 activity and enhanced oxidative metabolism. These data show how PARP-1 inhibition has strong metabolic implications through the modulation of SIRT1 activity, a property that could be useful in the management not only of metabolic diseases, but also of cancer.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Péter Bálint; Ian Melbourne;
    Publisher: Springer New York LLC
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | STOCHEXTHOMOG (320977), EC | STOCHEXTHOMOG (320977)

    For geometric Lorenz attractors (including the classical Lorenz attractor) we obtain a greatly simplified proof of the central limit theorem which applies also to the more general class of codimension two singular hyperbolic attractors. We also obtain the functional central limit theorem and moment estimates, as well as iterated versions of these results. A consequence is deterministic homogenisation (convergence to a stochastic differential equation) for fast-slow dynamical systems whenever the fast dynamics is singularly hyperbolic of codimension two. Minor corrections. Published online in J. Stat. Phys

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kathrin Wimmer; W. Korten; T. Arici; P. Doornenbal; P. Aguilera; Alejandro Algora; Toshiaki Ando; H. Baba; B. Blank; A. Boso; +23 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Germany
    Project: UKRI | Nuclear Physics Consolida... (ST/L005727/1), EC | MINOS (258567), UKRI | Nuclear Physics Consolida... (ST/P003885/1), UKRI | Nuclear Physics Consolida... (ST/L005727/1), EC | MINOS (258567), UKRI | Nuclear Physics Consolida... (ST/P003885/1)

    Excited states in the $T_z=-1$ nucleus $^{70}$Kr have been populated using inelastic scattering of a radioactive $^{70}$Kr beam as well as one- and two-neutron removal reactions from $^{71,72}$Kr at intermediate beam energies. The level scheme of $^{70}$Kr was constructed from the observed $\gamma$-ray transitions and coincidences. Tentative spin and parity assignments were made based on comparison with the mirror nucleus $^{70}$Se. A second $2^+$ state and a candidate for the corresponding $4^+_2$ state suggest shape coexistence in $^{70}$Kr. Comment: accepted Phys. Lett. B

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Dániel Gerbner; Balázs Keszegh; Dömötör Pálvölgyi; Balázs Patkós; Máté Vizer; Gábor Wiener;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | DISCONV (267165)

    Abstract Suppose we are given a set of n balls { b 1 , … , b n } each colored either red or blue in some way unknown to us. To find out some information about the colors, we can query any triple of balls { b i 1 , b i 2 , b i 3 } . As an answer to such a query we obtain (the index of) a majority ball, that is, a ball whose color is the same as the color of another ball from the triple. Our goal is to find a non-minority ball, that is, a ball whose color occurs at least n 2 times among the n balls. We show that the minimum number of queries needed to solve this problem is Θ ( n ) in the adaptive case and Θ ( n 3 ) in the non-adaptive case. We also consider some related problems.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Falk Bruckmann; Tamás G. Kovács; Sebastian Schierenberg;
    Project: EC | QCDTHERMO (208740)

    We investigate low-lying fermion modes in SU(2) gauge theory at temperatures above the phase transition. Both staggered and overlap spectra reveal transitions from chaotic (random matrix) to integrable (Poissonian) behavior accompanied by an increasing localization of the eigenmodes. We show that the latter are trapped by local Polyakov loop fluctuations. Islands of such "wrong" Polyakov loops can therefore be viewed as defects leading to Anderson localization in gauge theories. We find strong similarities in the spatial profile of these localized staggered and overlap eigenmodes. We discuss possible interpretations of this finding and present a sparse random matrix model that reproduces these features. 11 pages, 23 plots in 11 figures; some comments and references added, some axis labels corrected; journal version

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Müller, Márta;
    Publisher: ELTE Germanistisches Institut
    Country: Hungary
    Project: EC | COLLMOT (227878)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Henning Knoop; Ralf Steuer;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | INDUVIR (245808), EC | INDUVIR (245808)

    Cyanobacteria are a promising biological chassis for the synthesis of renewable fuels and chemical bulk commodities. Significant efforts have been devoted to improve the yields of cyanobacterial products. However, while the introduction and heterologous expression of product-forming pathways is often feasible, the interactions and incompatibilities of product synthesis with the host metabolism are still insufficiently understood. In this work, we investigate the stoichiometric properties and trade-offs that underlie cyanobacterial product formation using a computational reconstruction of cyanobacterial metabolism. First, we evaluate the synthesis requirements of a selection of cyanobacterial products of potential biotechnological interest. Second, the large-scale metabolic reconstruction allows us to perform in silico experiments that mimic and predict the metabolic changes that must occur in the transition from a growth-only phenotype to a production-only phenotype. Applied to the synthesis of ethanol, ethylene, and propane, these in silico transition experiments point to bottlenecks and potential modification targets in cyanobacterial metabolism. Our analysis reveals incompatibilities between biotechnological product synthesis and native host metabolism, such as shifts in ATP/NADPH demand and the requirement to reintegrate metabolic by-products. Similar strategies can be employed for a large class of cyanobacterial products to identify potential stoichiometric bottlenecks. Peer Reviewed

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    N. I. Shvetsov-Shilovski; Manfred Lein; Lars Bojer Madsen; Esa Räsänen; Christoph Lemell; Joachim Burgdörfer; Diego G. Arbó; K. Tőkési;
    Countries: Germany, Argentina, Argentina
    Project: EC | TDMET (277767), EC | CRONOS (280879), AKA | Science of Designer Elect... (267686), EC | TDMET (277767), EC | CRONOS (280879), AKA | Science of Designer Elect... (267686)

    We present a semiclassical two-step model for strong-field ionization that accounts for path interferences of tunnel-ionized electrons in the ionic potential beyond perturbation theory. Within the framework of a classical trajectory Monte-Carlo representation of the phase-space dynamics, the model employs the semiclassical approximation to the phase of the full quantum propagator in the exit channel. By comparison with the exact numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation for strong-field ionization of hydrogen, we show that for suitable choices of the momentum distribution after the first tunneling step, the model yields good quantitative agreement with the full quantum simulation. The two-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions, the energy spectra, and the angular distributions are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding quantum results. Specifically, the model quantitatively reproduces the fan-like interference patterns in the low-energy part of the two-dimensional momentum distributions as well as the modulations in the photoelectron angular distributions. Comment: 31 pages, 7 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ervin Rasztovits; Imre Berki; Csaba Mátyás; Kornél Czimber; Elisabeth Pötzelsberger; Norbert Móricz;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: France
    Project: EC | FORGER (289119)

    International audience; & Context Projections of species distribution models under future climate are usually based on long-term averages. However, singular extreme drought events presumably con-tribute to the shaping of distribution limits at the retreating low-elevation xeric limits. & Methods The objectives of this study were to set up a distribution model based on extreme drought events (EDM), which uses sanitary logging information as a proxy of vitality response of beech, and compare it with the results of classical species distribution models (SDMs). & Results Predictions of the EDM for 2025 were in agreement with those of the SDM, but EDM predicted a more serious decline in all regions of Hungary towards the end of the century. & Conclusion These results suggest that the predicted increase in frequency and severity of drought events may further limit the distribution of beech in the future.

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