We examined vowel-initial irregular phonation in real words as a function of vowel quality, backness and height, and speech rate in Hungarian. We analyzed two types of irregular phonation: glottalization and glottal stop. We found that open vowels elicited more irregular phonation than mid and close ones, but we found no effect of the backness. The frequency of irregular phonation was lower in fast than in slow speech. Inconsistently with the claims of earlier studies, the relative frequency of glottalization to glottal stops was not influenced by speech rate in general. However, while /i/ was produced with a relatively higher ratio of glottal stops in fast speech, the open vowels showed the widely documented tendency of being realized with relatively less glottal stops under the same conditions.
Sexual violence against children in sports receives little research attention. The aim of this Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-based systematic literature review was to synthesize the up-to-date knowledge and identify the already known and the still unknown information in this area. The literature search yielded seven eligible studies for inclusion. Their key outcomes suggest that sexual violence against children in sports is prevalent. Girls are more often the victims than boys, but gender appears to mediate the disclosure. Minority groups are at higher risk for sexual violence, and athletes at higher levels of competition seem to be more vulnerable for grooming. While the coach is often seen as the perpetrator, new research suggests that peer-athletes may precede the coach. Disclosure is a problem, due to personal and interpersonal concerns, which deters scholastic research in this area. In the final section of the review, a "what we know" and "what we need to know" list of highlights is offered as the concluding summary of the review. These factual points could raise the awareness of parents and/or guardians about the vulnerability of their children to sexual abuse if they are involved in sports. They could also attract the attention of the policy makers to the urgent need of developing and implementing preventive measures to make sports and exercise environments pleasurable and safe for children.
Publisher: Society of Hungarian Linguistics; Institute of Hungarian Linguistics and Finno-Ugric Studies of ELTE University
Project: EC | COLLMOT (227878)
Aspects and methods for examining the connection between personal names and ethnicity
It is a difficult task to determine the value of proper names in ethnic reconstruction. This can be considered a dubious area of onomastic/linguistic and historical research. Even the explanation of the basic concepts seems to be problematic; still, defining ethnicity and identifying the nature of the connection between ethnicity and language cannot be avoided. It is also important to define the value of the different types of personal names as sources: what can and cannot the research into the etymology of surnames be used for, what are the factors that have an impact on linguistic recon-struction, how can individual names help ethnic reconstruction, etc. After summarizing the back-ground research of name analysis in Hungary, the author presents a multi-level method of ethnic reconstruction based on personal names. The procedure tries to separate the determination of the name’s etymology from that of the ethnic affiliation, placing the examination objectives at separate levels. On the first level, the etymology of the surnames is determined and the linguistic background of the name is explored by considering linguistic aspects only, paying attention to the rules of ety-mological and onomastic research. The author separates two levels of the examination of ethnic reconstruction that are built upon each other. On the one hand, the linguistic features of the indi-vidual names are observed, and then other information on name sociology (e.g. social status, majority population), referring directly or indirectly to ethnic background, is taken into consideration.