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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Emilija Gjoshevska-Dashtevska; Natasha Trpevska-Shekerinov; Maja Ivanova;

    The epidemics of COVID-19 started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared a pandemic in March 2020. COVID-19 can also affect the eyes. Ophthalmic manifestations of the virus are not so frequent; the prevalence is about 3% up to now. Recognizing the possibility of ophthalmic transmission and manifestation of the virus is of significant importance for ophthalmologists and health workers. According to published studies, the most common ophthalmic manifestation is follicular conjunctivitis with all the symptoms and signs of viral conjunctivitis. It is usually bilateral, and patients present adenoviral-like symptoms, discomfort, foreign body sensation, redness, or they have no subjective symptoms. The symptoms are more pronounced in patients with a more severe clinical picture of the disease. One of the described non-specific manifestations of COVID-19 as an initial manifestation is keratoconjunctivitis. The effects of the virus on the retina and blood vessels have not been fully investigated, yet. It has been proven that COVID-19 can be isolated from tears and from ocular surface by PCR conjunctival swab. The most common mode of transmission is through direct contact and through aerosols. Through the nasolacrimal system, the eyes can be the entrance for respiratory infection and hematogenous spread of the virus can occur through the lacrimal gland. Early recognition of the ophthalmic symptoms by ophthalmologists as well as the other health workers during this pandemic is necessary because sometimes they can be the only manifestation of COVID-19, and on the other hand, it will lead to greater protection and prevention of the virus spreading. Prevention measures should be focused on the application of administrative protocols, personal protection and environmental control.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archives of Public H...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archives of Public H...arrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Gjoshevska-Dashtevska, Emilija; Trpevska-Shekerinov, Natasha; Ivanova, Maja;

    Епидемијата на COVID-19 започна во декември 2019 година во Вухан, Кина, а пандемија беше официјално прогласена од Светската здравствена организација (СЗО) во март 2020 година. COVID-19 може да ги афектира и очите. Офталмолошките манифестации на вирусот не се толку фреквентни; преваленцијата досега изнесува околу 3%. Препознавањето на можноста за офталмолошка трансмисија и манифестација на вирусот е од сигнификантно значење за офталмолозите и здравствените работници. Најчеста офталмолошка манифестација, според објавените студии, е фоликуларен конјунктивитис, со сите симптоми и знаци на вирусен конјунктивитис. Обично е билатерален, а пациентите пројавуваат симптоми слични на аденовирусен конјунктивитис, со дискомфорт, чувство на туѓо тело, црвенило или, пак, воопшто немаат субјективни симптоми. Симптомите се поизразени кај пациенти со потешка клиничка слика на болеста. Една од опишаните неспецифични манифестации на COVID-19, како иницијална манифестација, е и кератоконјунктивитис. Влијанието на вирусот врз ретината и крвните садови не се сè уште истражени целосно. Докажано е дека COVID-19 може да се изолира од солзите или од окуларната површина, преку брис од конјунктива со PCR.Најчестиот начин на трансмисија е преку директен контакт и преку аеросоли. Очите, преку назолакрималниот систем, може да бидат влез за респираторна инфекција, а преку лакрималната жлезда може да настане и хематогено ширење на вирусот. Неопходно е навремено препознавање на офталмолошките симптоми во време на оваа пандемија, како од страна на офталмолозите, така и од другите здравствени работници, затоа што понекогаш тие може да претставуваат единствена манифестација на COVID-19, а од друга страна, тоа ќе доведе до поголема заштита и спречување на ширење на вирусот. Мерките на превенција треба да се насочени кон применување административни протоколи, персонална заштита и контрола во средината. The epidemics of COVID-19 started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared a pandemic in March 2020. COVID-19 can also affect the eyes. Ophthalmic manifestations of the virus are not so frequent; the prevalence is about 3% up to now. Recognizing the possibility of ophthalmic transmission and manifestation of the virus is of significant importance for ophthalmologists and health workers. According to published studies, the most common ophthalmic manifestation is follicular conjunctivitis with all the symptoms and signs of viral conjunctivitis. It is usually bilateral, and patients present adenoviral-like symptoms, discomfort, foreign body sensation, redness, or they have no subjective symptoms. The symptoms are more pronounced in patients with a more severe clinical picture of the disease. One of the described non-specific manifestations of COVID-19 as an initial manifestation is keratoconjunctivitis. The effects of the virus on the retina and blood vessels have not been fully investigated, yet. It has been proven that COVID-19 can be isolated from tears and from ocular surface by PCR conjunctival swab. The most common mode of transmission is through direct contact and through aerosols. Through the nasolacrimal system, the eyes can be the entrance for respiratory infection and hematogenous spread of the virus can occur through the lacrimal gland. Early recognition of the ophthalmic symptoms by ophthalmologists as well as the other health workers during this pandemic is necessary because sometimes they can be the only manifestation of COVID-19, and on the other hand, it will lead to greater protection and prevention of the virus spreading. Prevention measures should be focused on the application of administrative protocols, personal protection and environmental control.

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  • Authors: Kocubovski, Mihail; Ristovska, Gordana; Petrova, Aleksandra; Bukovetz, Jansun; +3 Authors

    Светот се соочува со видливи и потенцијалнипоследици од климатскитепромени. Нема место на Земјатакое не езафатеноодовиепромени. Сегашната политика што се применуваширумсветотпредвидуваглобалнозатоплување од околу 2,7oC во споредба со прединдустрискотониво до крајот на векот. Со имплементација на националнитеодреденипридонеси (NDCs), затоплувањетоќе се одржи на 2,4oC. Доколку се вклучатдолгорочни цели или целите на ”net-zero”, тогашзатоплувањето би се задржало на околу 2,1oC над прединдустрискитенивоа. Проекциите за затоплување се намалија за 0,3oC по даденитеветувања и воспоставените цели од страна на САД и Народна РепубликаКина. Според „оптимистичкото“ сценарио, доколку 140-те анализираниземјигидостигнат целите за нултаемисија на штетнигасови, тогашпросечнотозатоплувањеќе биде 1,8oC или под 2oC. Постои значителен јаз помеѓуветувањатададени од страна на владите и вкупнотониво на активности штотиегипрезеледосега. Со новитеекономскипредизвици, јасно е дека сме на крстопат. Влијанието на КОВИД-19 пандемијата ќе биде клучно за иднината на политиката поврзана со климатските промени. Климатскитепромени нема да чекаат. Нивнатазакана е над нашитеглави и секојден се соочуваме со нив. Секојпоединецимаулога во справувањето со глобалнитеклиматскипромени и сите ниеможеме да придонесеме за отстранување на оваазаканаако сите работиме заедно на синхронизиран начин. Потребно е поголемо политичко вклучување како и колективни активности преземени од сите општествени чинители. Во текот на последните две години, Светската здравствена организација се залагаше за поголемо вклучување на здравствените власти и услуги во Национално одредени придонеси преку активности за намалување на импликациите врз здравјето од климатските промени. The world is facing the visible and potential consequences of climate change. No place on the Earth is immune to these changes. Current policy applied worldwide anticipates global warming of about 2.7oC compared to pre-industrial level by the end of the century. By implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), warming will be kept to 2.4oC. If long-term commitment targets or net-zero targets are included, then warming would be kept to about 2.1oC above the pre-industrial levels. The warming projections dropped by 0.3oC after the made pledges and established targets by the USA and Peoples’ Republic of China. According to the “optimistic” scenario, if the 140 analysed countries reach the zero emission targets, then the average warming will be 1.8oC, or below 2oC. There is a significant gap between the pledges made by the governments and the total level of actions they have undertaken so far.With the new economic challenges, it is clear that we are at a crossroads. The impact of COVID-19 crisis will be crucial for the future of the climate policy. Climate changes will not wait. Their threat is over our heads and each and every day we face them. Every individual has a role to play in dealing with global climate change and we all can contribute to this threat if we all work together in a synchronous way. A greater political involvement is needed along with collective actions taken by all social actors. Over the last two years, the World Health Organization has advocated for greater inclusion of health authorities and services in Nationally determined contributions through activities to reduce the implications on health by climate change.

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  • Authors: Jakovska Mareti, Таtjana; Andonovski, Angelcho; Stojanova, Eli; Kakaraskoska-Boceska, Biljana;

    Цел на трудот беше да се евалуираат клиничките карактеристики на COVID -19 и успехот на терапијата кај децата. Материјал и методи: Во студијата беа вклучени 218 педијатриски пациенти суспектни за COVID-19 инфекција, хоспитализирани во Институтот по белодробни заболувања кај децата-Козле, во период од 16-ти март до 19-ти јуни 2020 година. Сите пациенти беа тестирани за SARS-CoV-2 вирус во назофарингеален брис со real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) во Институтот за јавно здравје на Република Северна Македонија. Клинички симптоми, рендгенграфии и лабораториски параметри беа вклучени во студијата. Резултати: Од вкупно 218 хоспитализирани пациенти, само 9 (4,13% ) беа со позитивен резултат за COVID -19. Од испитаните пациенти 59% беа машки. Доенчиња под една година со потешка клиничка слика беа 44,4%. Сите позитивни пациенти беа со средно тешки симптоми. 66,6% од хоспитализираните деца беа со покачена температура и пулмонални симптоми и 22,2% манифестираа гастроинтестинални симптоми. Макролидите беа лек на избор кај 88%, а 77% примаа интравенска терапија и 33% инхалирачки бронходилататор. Заклучок: Мал број деца беа инфицирани со COVID -19. Сите позитивни пациенти беа со средно тешки симптоми, и дадоа добар одговор на спроведениот третман. Сепак, влијанието на овој вирус врз понатамошното здравје на децата како и улогата на децата во пренесување на вирусот останува недоволно познато. The aim of the paper was to evaluate clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and the success of the treatment. Material and methods: The study included 218 pediatric patients suspected for COVID-19 hospitalized at the Institute for Pulmonary Diseases in Children-Skopje, during the period from 16th of March to 19th of June 2020. All patients were tested for presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus in nasopharyngeal swab with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the Institute of Public Health of Republic of North Macedonia. Clinical symptoms, X-ray and laboratory findings were included in the study. Results: From 218 hospitalized patients, only 9 (4.13%) were positive for COVID-19 and 59% of them were males. Infants, with moderate pulmonary disease were 44.4% of the patients. Fever and gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 66.6% and 22.2% of the children, respectively. Macrolides were therapy of choice in 88% of the treated patients, 77% received intravenous therapy, 33% were on inhaled bronchodilator. Conclusions: A small number of children had COVID-19. All infected children were with mild to moderate pulmonary symptoms and reacted satisfactory to the treatment. However, the importance of transmitting the virus and influence over children’s health remains uncertain.

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  • Authors: Dimitrov, Ivica; Sazdov, Darko;

    COVID-19 како инфективно заболување за првпат се појави во декември 2019 година, а првите заразени беа во градот Вухан, област Хубеи во Н.Р.Кина. Болеста доби пандемиски карактер и за брзо доведе до 48.539.872 заразени луѓе и предизвика 1.232.791 смртни случаи во 215 земји во светот, доведувајќи до глобален здравствен и економски колапс на светското население. На 11 март 2020 година Светската здравствена организација прогласи COVID-19 пандемија. SARS-CoV-2 (тешка форма наакутен респираторен синдром коронавирус 2) како предизвикувач на COVID-19 претставува корона вирус кој што исто како и останатите два корона вируси MERS-CoV и SARS-CoV-1 се одговорни за предизвикување на акутни респираторни инфекции кои се многу контагиозни по природа и доведуваат до висок морталитет. Пандемискиот карактер на болеста, високиот морбидитет, морталитет и долгата рехабилитација доведоа до масовно производство на вакцини со цел превенирање и спречување на инфекција со SARS-CoV-2 вирусот,намалување на морбидитетот и морталитетот, особено кај ранливата популација со имунокомпромитираност и имунодефицит. Целта на оваа студија беше да се испита поврзаноста помеѓу вакциналниот статус и бројот на примени дози против COVID-19 и тежината на болеста, должината на болничкиот престој и смртноста. Материјали и методи: Во оваа студија беа вклучени 230 пациенти од машки и женски пол, кои беа третирани во Covid центарот при Инфективниот оддел на Клиничката болница Аџибадем Систина во периодот од март 2021 година до февруари 2022 година. Пациентите беа поделени во две групи според вакциналниот статус. Податоци за демографските карактеристики, коморбидитетите, вакцинацијата, бројот на примени дози, типот на кислородна и вентилаторна поддршка, должината на престој во болница, исходот од лекувањето беа следени и забележани. Резултати: Во студијата учествуваа 230 хоспитализирани COVID-19 позитивни пациенти. Вакцинирани беа50,4% од хоспитализираните, од кои 86,2% примиле две дози, 11,2% примиле една и 2,6% примиле три дози вакцини. Беше регистрирана значајна поврзаност помеѓу смртоносниот исход и вакцинацијата (PearsonChi-square: 5.32523, p=.0210), поврзаноста со бројот на дози на вакцинацијата (PearsonChi-square: 7.66262, p=.0435), поврзаноста со типот на вентилација (PearsonChi-square: 177.399, df=3, p=0.000), и поврзаноста со присуството на коморбидитети (3.90770, p=.0480). Заклучок: Вакциналниот статус и бројот на примени дози во нашата студија покажа значителен заштитен ефект за развој на тежок облик на болеста и летален исход. The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, started in December 2019 in the city Wuhan, province Hubei in the Republic of China. The disease quickly became pandemic and infected 48.539.872 people and had a mortality of 1.232.791 in 215 countries all over the world resulting in economic and healthcare collapse. On 11-th of March the World Health Organisation declared COVID 19 as pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 (severe form of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) as the cause of COVID 19 is the member of the coronavirus family along with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1which cause severe respiratory infections that are highly contagious and have very high mortality. The pandemic character, the high morbidity and mortality and rehabilitation resulted in a massive vaccine production as an attempt to control the spread of the SARS CoV-2 virus and reduce the morbidity and mortality, especially in the most vulnerable population groups. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between vaccination status, number of doses and disease severity, length of hospital stay and mortality. Material and Methods: In this case-control study we included 230 male and female patients admitted in the Covid Centre in Acibadem Clinical Hospital in Skopje from March 2021 to February 2022. Patients were divided in two groups according to their vaccination status. Data about patients demographics, comorbidities, vaccination, number of doses received, type of oxygen and ventilation support, length of stay and patient outcome were collected. Results: A total of 230 COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients participated in the study. 50.4% of them were vaccinated, of which 86.2% received two doses, 11.2% received one and 2.6% received three doses of vaccines. A significant association was registered between lethal outcome and vaccination (PearsonChi-square: 5.32523, p=.0210), association with number of doses of vaccination (PearsonChi-square: 7.66262, p=.043524), association with type of ventilation - NIV, HFO, IMV (PearsonChi-square: 177.399, df=3, p=0.000), associationwithcomorbidity (3.90770, p=.0480). Conclusion: Vaccination against Covid-19 and number of doses have a significant impact on disease severity, progression and outcome of the disease.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lidushka Vasilevska; Elena Kjosevska; Tanja Lekovska-Stoicovska;

    The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global crisis in public health. Professionals in dental institutions, dental associations and regulatory bodies face various challenges in providing dental care and prevention of oral health of the population, as well as protection of patients and practitioners from the health threat of SARS-CoV-2 virus. The aim of this paper is to present the current findings and views regarding the information on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the need to implement protocols to protect patients and dental practitioners from the health threat posed by the virus, in compliance with medically relevant regulations.Material and methods: References from WHO, FDI and published papers in international scientific journals in this relatively short period were consulted and they presented: updated epidemiological and seroepidemiological information, review of response measures implemented in EU countries / EEA, UK and countries around the world and response options to minimize the risk of recurrence of COVID-19. Results: Viral pneumonia that appeared on February 11, 2020, was named "Coronavirus (COVID 19)" by the WHO, while the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) proposed the name "SARS-CoV-2" for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis of this corona virus. Dentists/doctors of dental medicine should be familiar with transmission of SARS-CoV-2, how to identify patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and what measures should be taken for protection during the intervention in order to prevent its transmission. There are recommendations for infection control measures that should be followed by the dentists/doctors of dental medicine. The fact that aerosols and drops have been considered for major SARS-CoV-2 propagation routes has been emphasized. If these measures are not undertaken, then the dental office can potentially expose patients to cross-infection. Conclusion: The epidemiological situation around the world is changing dynamically, but patients should not be left without urgent medical help. Oral health team members are required to update their knowledge and skills regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of communicable diseases that can be transmitted in a clinical setting and to stick to the standard precautions to protect patients from infections as well as protect themselves.

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    Authors: Aneta Peshnachka; Golubinka Boshevska; Nevenka Velichkova; Elizabeta Jancheska; +5 Authors

    The first human cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by the new coronavirus, was reported on December 31, 2019 in China for the first time. Тhe virus was named temporarily as 2019 new coronavirus (2019 novel coronavirus-2019 -nCoV), or finally as SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the laboratory detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus with reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in real time, as well as detection of viral mutations in the Laboratory for virology at the Institute of Public Health. The samples used in the study were taken from all geographical regions in North Macedonia, including the 10 regional Centers for Public Health throughout the country, from hospital patients, from COVID19 hospitals across the country and from the COVID19 checkpoint at the Institute of Public Health. All samples were tested using RT-PCR in real time. Additional assays were applied for identification of the circulating variants. The continuous surveillance of the variants of concern (VOC), as well as the newly emerged variants can allow the public health officials to modify their approach to disease control and management and intervene more effectively as well as in a timely manner in order to prevent major morbidity and mortality from COVID-19.

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    Authors: Stefan Pandilov; Suzana Klenkoski; Elena Jovanovska Janeva; Gazmend Mehmeti; +4 Authors

    COVID-19 is an infectious disease that can manifest quite differently. In this study we examined the relationship between the value of serum CRP(C-reactive protein) andneutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as predictor factors for the development of a severe clinical manifestation in COVID19 patients. Materials and methods: We followed 95 COVID-19 positive patients who were hospitalized at the University Clinic for Eye Diseases - COVID Center. We analyzed the initial laboratory parameters of white blood cells and CRP on admission of the patients and the results of laboratory analyses performed before they left the Clinic, or the last parameters before the lethal outcome in those patients who died. Several models of logistic regression were tested to analyze the predictive value of these markers of inflammation for lethal outcome in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Results: Bivariate analysis demonstrated that the length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in patients with lethal outcome (p=0.001). The NLR was significantly higher in patients with lethal outcome at both times (p=0.005; and p=0.017). Leukocyte’s count (p=0.046, and p<0.001) and CRP (p=0.013,and p=0.005) were also significantly higher in patients with lethal outcome at both times. The increase on the NLR scale both at hospitalization and at discharge (or the last analysis before death) leads to increase in the odds of lethal outcome (T1:40.4% increased odds; T2:36% increased odds). Conclusion: CRP and NLR are laboratory parameters that can predict the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with COVID-19.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Aferdita Kurti-Karameta; Fimka Tozija;

    The current pandemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Global COVID-19 burden is characterized by a high variability in death rate across countries. Several possible explanations have been proposed, but it is not clear whether this variability is due to a single predominant factor or instead to multiple causes. The aim of this paper was to present and analyze the epidemiological situation and burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kosovo compared to other countries in Europe and the world. Material and methods: Public health approach and desk review were applied to present and analyze the trends over time of selected epidemiological indicators for COVID-19 based on multiple sources of data as well as WHO epidata and literature review. The assessment of the epidemiological situation in EU/EEA member states was done using the surveillance data routinely collected by ECDC. Official medical records from the National Institute of Public Health, other relevant health institutions; State Statistical Office and Ministry of Health in Kosovo were used. Results: According to ECDC as of 11 February 2021, 106,472,660 cases of COVID-19 (in accordance with the applied case definitions and testing strategies in the affected countries) have been reported, including 2,323,103 deaths. COVID-19 cases have been reported from: Africa: 3,673,181 cases, Asia: 20,438,608 cases, Europe: 34,681,426 cases, America: 47,620,931 cases; Oceania: 57,809 cases, Others: 705 cases. Deaths have been reported from: Africa 95,128 deaths, Asia 343,886, America 1,107,066, Europe 775,883, Oceania 1,210 and Other 6 deaths. In Kosovo from 13 March 2020 until 15th February 2021 there have been 64,298 cases of COVID- 19 with 1534 deaths. Absolute values of the indicators remain high in all countries in Europe, including those with stable or decreasing trends in these indicators, suggesting that transmission is still wide spread. The epidemic trajectory over the next months will be determined by the balance of four factors, with many different outcomes possible: the continued scale-up of vaccination, declining seasonality, the spread of new variants and increased behaviors that favor COVID-19 transmission. Conclusion: Findings from this paper can help to develop evidence-based policy interventions in Kosovo for risk assessment of COVID-19 and protection of general population and especially vulnerable groups with higher risk from COVID 19.

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  • Authors: Kurti-Karameta, Aferdita; Tozija, Fimka;

    Тековната пандемија со корона вирус од 2019г.(COVID-19) е инфективно заболување предизвикано од новооткриениот корона вирус 2 кој предизвикува тежок акутен респираторен синдром (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Глобалниата оптовареност со COVID-19 се карактеризира со голема варијабилност во стапката на смртност во државите. Предложени се неколку можни објаснувања, но не е јасно дали оваа варијабилност се должи на единствен доминантен фактор или на повеќе причини. Целта на овој труд беше да се презентира и анализира епидемиолошката состојба и оптовареноста со пандемијата COVID-19 во Косово и да се спореди со другите земји во Европа и светот. Материјал и методи: Јавноздравствен пристап и прегледот на документи се применети за да се презентира и анализира трендот на избраните епидемиолошки индикатори за COVID-19 врз основа на податоци од повеќе извори, како и епидата на СЗО и преглед на литература. Проценката на епидемиолошката состојба во земјите-членки на ЕУ/ЕЕА беше направена со користење на податоците за следење, рутински собрани од ECDC. Беа користени официјални медицински извештаи од Националниот институт за јавно здравје, други релевантни здравствени институции; Државниот завод за статистика и Министерството за здравство на Косово. Резултати: Според ECDC заклучно со 11 февруари 2021 година, во светот пријавени се 106.472.660 случаи на COVID-19 (во согласност со применетите дефиниции на случаи и стратегии за тестирање во погодените земји), вклучително и 2.323.103 смртни случаи. Пријавени се случаи со COVID-19 од: Африка: 3.673.181 случаи, Азија: 20.438.608 случаи, Европа: 34.681.426 случаи, Америка: 47.620.931 случаи; Океанија: 57 809 случаи, други: 705 случаи. Пријавени се смртни случаи од: Африка 95.128 смртни случаи, Азија 343.886, Америка 1.107.066, Европа 775.883, Океанија 1.210 и други 6 смртни случаи. Во Косово од 13 март 2020 година до 15 февруари 2021 година пријавени се 64.298 случаи на COVID-19 и 1.534 смртни случаи. Апсолутните вредности на индикаторите остануваат високи во сите земји во Европа, вклучително и оние со стабилни или трендови на опаѓање, што укажува дека трансмисијата е сè уште широко распространета. Текот на епидемијата во следните месеци ќе биде одреден од рамнотежата помеѓу четири фактори, со можни различни исходи: континуирано зголемување на вакцинацијата, сезонско намалување, ширење на новите варијанти на вирусот и зголемено однесување што придонесува за преносот на COVID-19. Заклучок: Наодите од овој труд можат да помогнат да се развијат политики и интервенции засновани на докази во Косово, за проценка на ризик за COVID-19 и заштита на општата популација и особено на ранливите групи со поголем ризик од COVID 19. The current pandemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Global COVID-19 burden is characterized by a high variability in death rate across countries. Several possible explanations have been proposed, but it is not clear whether this variability is due to a single predominant factor or instead to multiple causes. The aim of this paper was to present and analyze the epidemiological situation and burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in Kosovo compared to other countries in Europe and the world. Material and methods: Public health approach and desk review were applied to present and analyze the trends over time of selected epidemiological indicators for COVID-19 based on multiple sources of data as well as WHO epidata and literature review. The assessment of the epidemiological situation in EU/EEA member states was done using the surveillance data routinely collected by ECDC. Official medical records from the National Institute of Public Health, other relevant health institutions; State Statistical Office and Ministry of Health in Kosovo were used. Results: According to ECDC as of 11 February 2021, 106,472,660 cases of COVID-19 (in accordance with the applied case definitions and testing strategies in the affected countries) have been reported, including 2,323,103 deaths. COVID-19 cases have been reported from: Africa: 3,673,181 cases, Asia: 20,438,608 cases, Europe: 34,681,426 cases, America: 47,620,931 cases; Oceania: 57,809 cases, Others: 705 cases. Deaths have been reported from: Africa 95,128 deaths, Asia 343,886, America 1,107,066, Europe 775,883, Oceania 1,210 and Other 6 deaths. In Kosovo from 13 March 2020 until 15th February 2021 there have been 64,298 cases of COVID- 19 with 1534 deaths. Absolute values of the indicators remain high in all countries in Europe, including those with stable or decreasing trends in these indicators, suggesting that transmission is still wide spread. The epidemic trajectory over the next months will be determined by the balance of four factors, with many different outcomes possible: the continued scale-up of vaccination, declining seasonality, the spread of new variants and increased behaviors that favor COVID-19 transmission. Conclusion: Findings from this paper can help to develop evidence-based policy interventions in Kosovo for risk assessment of COVID-19 and protection of general population and especially vulnerable groups with higher risk from COVID 19.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Emilija Gjoshevska-Dashtevska; Natasha Trpevska-Shekerinov; Maja Ivanova;

    The epidemics of COVID-19 started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared a pandemic in March 2020. COVID-19 can also affect the eyes. Ophthalmic manifestations of the virus are not so frequent; the prevalence is about 3% up to now. Recognizing the possibility of ophthalmic transmission and manifestation of the virus is of significant importance for ophthalmologists and health workers. According to published studies, the most common ophthalmic manifestation is follicular conjunctivitis with all the symptoms and signs of viral conjunctivitis. It is usually bilateral, and patients present adenoviral-like symptoms, discomfort, foreign body sensation, redness, or they have no subjective symptoms. The symptoms are more pronounced in patients with a more severe clinical picture of the disease. One of the described non-specific manifestations of COVID-19 as an initial manifestation is keratoconjunctivitis. The effects of the virus on the retina and blood vessels have not been fully investigated, yet. It has been proven that COVID-19 can be isolated from tears and from ocular surface by PCR conjunctival swab. The most common mode of transmission is through direct contact and through aerosols. Through the nasolacrimal system, the eyes can be the entrance for respiratory infection and hematogenous spread of the virus can occur through the lacrimal gland. Early recognition of the ophthalmic symptoms by ophthalmologists as well as the other health workers during this pandemic is necessary because sometimes they can be the only manifestation of COVID-19, and on the other hand, it will lead to greater protection and prevention of the virus spreading. Prevention measures should be focused on the application of administrative protocols, personal protection and environmental control.

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  • Authors: Gjoshevska-Dashtevska, Emilija; Trpevska-Shekerinov, Natasha; Ivanova, Maja;

    Епидемијата на COVID-19 започна во декември 2019 година во Вухан, Кина, а пандемија беше официјално прогласена од Светската здравствена организација (СЗО) во март 2020 година. COVID-19 може да ги афектира и очите. Офталмолошките манифестации на вирусот не се толку фреквентни; преваленцијата досега изнесува околу 3%. Препознавањето на можноста за офталмолошка трансмисија и манифестација на вирусот е од сигнификантно значење за офталмолозите и здравствените работници. Најчеста офталмолошка манифестација, според објавените студии, е фоликуларен конјунктивитис, со сите симптоми и знаци на вирусен конјунктивитис. Обично е билатерален, а пациентите пројавуваат симптоми слични на аденовирусен конјунктивитис, со дискомфорт, чувство на туѓо тело, црвенило или, пак, воопшто немаат субјективни симптоми. Симптомите се поизразени кај пациенти со потешка клиничка слика на болеста. Една од опишаните неспецифични манифестации на COVID-19, како иницијална манифестација, е и кератоконјунктивитис. Влијанието на вирусот врз ретината и крвните садови не се сè уште истражени целосно. Докажано е дека COVID-19 може да се изолира од солзите или од окуларната површина, преку брис од конјунктива со PCR.Најчестиот начин на трансмисија е преку директен контакт и преку аеросоли. Очите, преку назолакрималниот систем, може да бидат влез за респираторна инфекција, а преку лакрималната жлезда може да настане и хематогено ширење на вирусот. Неопходно е навремено препознавање на офталмолошките симптоми во време на оваа пандемија, како од страна на офталмолозите, така и од другите здравствени работници, затоа што понекогаш тие може да претставуваат единствена манифестација на COVID-19, а од друга страна, тоа ќе доведе до поголема заштита и спречување на ширење на вирусот. Мерките на превенција треба да се насочени кон применување административни протоколи, персонална заштита и контрола во средината. The epidemics of COVID-19 started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared a pandemic in March 2020. COVID-19 can also affect the eyes. Ophthalmic manifestations of the virus are not so frequent; the prevalence is about 3% up to now. Recognizing the possibility of ophthalmic transmission and manifestation of the virus is of significant importance for ophthalmologists and health workers. According to published studies, the most common ophthalmic manifestation is follicular conjunctivitis with all the symptoms and signs of viral conjunctivitis. It is usually bilateral, and patients present adenoviral-like symptoms, discomfort, foreign body sensation, redness, or they have no subjective symptoms. The symptoms are more pronounced in patients with a more severe clinical picture of the disease. One of the described non-specific manifestations of COVID-19 as an initial manifestation is keratoconjunctivitis. The effects of the virus on the retina and blood vessels have not been fully investigated, yet. It has been proven that COVID-19 can be isolated from tears and from ocular surface by PCR conjunctival swab. The most common mode of transmission is through direct contact and through aerosols. Through the nasolacrimal system, the eyes can be the entrance for respiratory infection and hematogenous spread of the virus can occur through the lacrimal gland. Early recognition of the ophthalmic symptoms by ophthalmologists as well as the other health workers during this pandemic is necessary because sometimes they can be the only manifestation of COVID-19, and on the other hand, it will lead to greater protection and prevention of the virus spreading. Prevention measures should be focused on the application of administrative protocols, personal protection and environmental control.

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  • Authors: Kocubovski, Mihail; Ristovska, Gordana; Petrova, Aleksandra; Bukovetz, Jansun; +3 Authors

    Светот се соочува со видливи и потенцијалнипоследици од климатскитепромени. Нема место на Земјатакое не езафатеноодовиепромени. Сегашната политика што се применуваширумсветотпредвидуваглобалнозатоплување од околу 2,7oC во споредба со прединдустрискотониво до крајот на векот. Со имплементација на националнитеодреденипридонеси (NDCs), затоплувањетоќе се одржи на 2,4oC. Доколку се вклучатдолгорочни цели или целите на ”net-zero”, тогашзатоплувањето би се задржало на околу 2,1oC над прединдустрискитенивоа. Проекциите за затоплување се намалија за 0,3oC по даденитеветувања и воспоставените цели од страна на САД и Народна РепубликаКина. Според „оптимистичкото“ сценарио, доколку 140-те анализираниземјигидостигнат целите за нултаемисија на штетнигасови, тогашпросечнотозатоплувањеќе биде 1,8oC или под 2oC. Постои значителен јаз помеѓуветувањатададени од страна на владите и вкупнотониво на активности штотиегипрезеледосега. Со новитеекономскипредизвици, јасно е дека сме на крстопат. Влијанието на КОВИД-19 пандемијата ќе биде клучно за иднината на политиката поврзана со климатските промени. Климатскитепромени нема да чекаат. Нивнатазакана е над нашитеглави и секојден се соочуваме со нив. Секојпоединецимаулога во справувањето со глобалнитеклиматскипромени и сите ниеможеме да придонесеме за отстранување на оваазаканаако сите работиме заедно на синхронизиран начин. Потребно е поголемо политичко вклучување како и колективни активности преземени од сите општествени чинители. Во текот на последните две години, Светската здравствена организација се залагаше за поголемо вклучување на здравствените власти и услуги во Национално одредени придонеси преку активности за намалување на импликациите врз здравјето од климатските промени. The world is facing the visible and potential consequences of climate change. No place on the Earth is immune to these changes. Current policy applied worldwide anticipates global warming of about 2.7oC compared to pre-industrial level by the end of the century. By implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), warming will be kept to 2.4oC. If long-term commitment targets or net-zero targets are included, then warming would be kept to about 2.1oC above the pre-industrial levels. The warming projections dropped by 0.3oC after the made pledges and established targets by the USA and Peoples’ Republic of China. According to the “optimistic” scenario, if the 140 analysed countries reach the zero emission targets, then the average warming will be 1.8oC, or below 2oC. There is a significant gap between the pledges made by the governments and the total level of actions they have undertaken so far.With the new economic challenges, it is clear that we are at a crossroads. The impact of COVID-19 crisis will be crucial for the future of the climate policy. Climate changes will not wait. Their threat is over our heads and each and every day we face them. Every individual has a role to play in dealing with global climate change and we all can contribute to this threat if we all work together in a synchronous way. A greater political involvement is needed along with collective actions taken by all social actors. Over the last two years, the World Health Organization has advocated for greater inclusion of health authorities and services in Nationally determined contributions through activities to reduce the implications on health by climate change.

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  • Authors: Jakovska Mareti, Таtjana; Andonovski, Angelcho; Stojanova, Eli; Kakaraskoska-Boceska, Biljana;

    Цел на трудот беше да се евалуираат клиничките карактеристики на COVID -19 и успехот на терапијата кај децата. Материјал и методи: Во студијата беа вклучени 218 педијатриски пациенти суспектни за COVID-19 инфекција, хоспитализирани во Институтот по белодробни заболувања кај децата-Козле, во период од 16-ти март до 19-ти јуни 2020 година. Сите пациенти беа тестирани за SARS-CoV-2 вирус во назофарингеален брис со real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) во Институтот за јавно здравје на Република Северна Македонија. Клинички симптоми, рендгенграфии и лабораториски параметри беа вклучени во студијата. Резултати: Од вкупно 218 хоспитализирани пациенти, само 9 (4,13% ) беа со позитивен резултат за COVID -19. Од испитаните пациенти 59% беа машки. Доенчиња под една година со потешка клиничка слика беа 44,4%. Сите позитивни пациенти беа со средно тешки симптоми. 66,6% од хоспитализираните деца беа со покачена температура и пулмонални симптоми и 22,2% манифестираа гастроинтестинални симптоми. Макролидите беа лек на избор кај 88%, а 77% примаа интравенска терапија и 33% инхалирачки бронходилататор. Заклучок: Мал број деца беа инфицирани со COVID -19. Сите позитивни пациенти беа со средно тешки симптоми, и дадоа добар одговор на спроведениот третман. Сепак, влијанието на овој вирус врз понатамошното здравје на децата како и улогата на децата во пренесување на вирусот останува недоволно познато. The aim of the paper was to evaluate clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and the success of the treatment. Material and methods: The study included 218 pediatric patients suspected for COVID-19 hospitalized at the Institute for Pulmonary Diseases in Children-Skopje, during the period from 16th of March to 19th of June 2020. All patients were tested for presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus in nasopharyngeal swab with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the Institute of Public Health of Republic of North Macedonia. Clinical symptoms, X-ray and laboratory findings were included in the study. Results: From 218 hospitalized patients, only 9 (4.13%) were positive for COVID-19 and 59% of them were males. Infants, with moderate pulmonary disease were 44.4% of the patients. Fever and gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 66.6% and 22.2% of the children, respectively. Macrolides were therapy of choice in 88% of the treated patients, 77% received intravenous therapy, 33% were on inhaled bronchodilator. Conclusions: A small number of children had COVID-19. All infected children were with mild to moderate pulmonary symptoms and reacted satisfactory to the treatment. However, the importance of transmitting the virus and influence over children’s health remains uncertain.

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  • Authors: Dimitrov, Ivica; Sazdov, Darko;

    COVID-19 како инфективно заболување за првпат се појави во декември 2019 година, а првите заразени беа во градот Вухан, област Хубеи во Н.Р.Кина. Болеста доби пандемиски карактер и за брзо доведе до 48.539.872 заразени луѓе и предизвика 1.232.791 смртни случаи во 215 земји во светот, доведувајќи до глобален здравствен и економски колапс на светското население. На 11 март 2020 година Светската здравствена организација прогласи COVID-19 пандемија. SARS-CoV-2 (тешка форма наакутен респираторен синдром коронавирус 2) како предизвикувач на COVID-19 претставува корона вирус кој што исто како и останатите два корона вируси MERS-CoV и SARS-CoV-1 се одговорни за предизвикување на акутни респираторни инфекции кои се многу контагиозни по природа и доведуваат до висок морталитет. Пандемискиот карактер на болеста, високиот морбидитет, морталитет и долгата рехабилитација доведоа до масовно производство на вакцини со цел превенирање и спречување на инфекција со SARS-CoV-2 вирусот,намалување на морбидитетот и морталитетот, особено кај ранливата популација со имунокомпромитираност и имунодефицит. Целта на оваа студија беше да се испита поврзаноста помеѓу вакциналниот статус и бројот на примени дози против COVID-19 и тежината на болеста, должината на болничкиот престој и смртноста. Материјали и методи: Во оваа студија беа вклучени 230 пациенти од машки и женски пол, кои беа третирани во Covid центарот при Инфективниот оддел на Клиничката болница Аџибадем Систина во периодот од март 2021 година до февруари 2022 година. Пациентите беа поделени во две групи според вакциналниот статус. Податоци за демографските карактеристики, коморбидитетите, вакцинацијата, бројот на примени дози, типот на кислородна и вентилаторна поддршка, должината на престој во болница, исходот од лекувањето беа следени и забележани. Резултати: Во студијата учествуваа 230 хоспитализирани COVID-19 позитивни пациенти. Вакцинирани беа50,4% од хоспитализираните, од кои 86,2% примиле две дози, 11,2% примиле една и 2,6% примиле три дози вакцини. Беше регистрирана значајна поврзаност помеѓу смртоносниот исход и вакцинацијата (PearsonChi-square: 5.32523, p=.0210), поврзаноста со бројот на дози на вакцинацијата (PearsonChi-square: 7.66262, p=.0435), поврзаноста со типот на вентилација (PearsonChi-square: 177.399, df=3, p=0.000), и поврзаноста со присуството на коморбидитети (3.90770, p=.0480). Заклучок: Вакциналниот статус и бројот на примени дози во нашата студија покажа значителен заштитен ефект за развој на тежок облик на болеста и летален исход. The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, started in December 2019 in the city Wuhan, province Hubei in the Republic of China. The disease quickly became pandemic and infected 48.539.872 people and had a mortality of 1.232.791 in 215 countries all over the world resulting in economic and healthcare collapse. On 11-th of March the World Health Organisation declared COVID 19 as pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 (severe form of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) as the cause of COVID 19 is the member of the coronavirus family along with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1which cause severe respiratory infections that are highly contagious and have very high mortality. The pandemic character, the high morbidity and mortality and rehabilitation resulted in a massive vaccine production as an attempt to control the spread of the SARS CoV-2 virus and reduce the morbidity and mortality, especially in the most vulnerable population groups. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between vaccination status, number of doses and disease severity, length of hospital stay and mortality. Material and Methods: In this case-control study we included 230 male and female patients admitted in the Covid Centre in Acibadem Clinical Hospital in Skopje from March 2021 to February 2022. Patients were divided in two groups according to their vaccination status. Data about patients demographics, comorbidities, vaccination, number of doses received, type of oxygen and ventilation support, length of stay and patient outcome were collected. Results: A total of 230 COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients participated in the study. 50.4% of them were vaccinated, of which 86.2% received two doses, 11.2% received one and 2.6% received three doses of vaccines. A significant association was registered between lethal outcome and vaccination (PearsonChi-square: 5.32523, p=.0210), association with number of doses of vaccination (PearsonChi-square: 7.66262, p=.043524), association with type of ventilation - NIV, HFO, IMV (PearsonChi-square: 177.399, df=3, p=0.000), associationwithcomorbidity (3.90770, p=.0480). Conclusion: Vaccination against Covid-19 and number of doses have a significant impact on disease severity, progression and outcome of the disease.

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    Authors: Lidushka Vasilevska; Elena Kjosevska; Tanja Lekovska-Stoicovska;

    The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global crisis in public health. Professionals in dental institutions, dental associations and regulatory bodies face various challenges in providing dental care and prevention of oral health of the population, as well as protection of patients and practitioners from the health threat of SARS-CoV-2 virus. The aim of this paper is to present the current findings and views regarding the information on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the need to implement protocols to protect patients and dental practitioners from the health threat posed by the virus, in compliance with medically relevant regulations.Material and methods: References from WHO, FDI and published papers in international scientific journals in this relatively short period were consulted and they presented: updated epidemiological and seroepidemiological information, review of response measures implemented in EU countries / EEA, UK and countries around the world and response options to minimize the risk of recurrence of COVID-19. Results: Viral pneumonia that appeared on February 11, 2020, was named "Coronavirus (COVID 19)" by the WHO, while the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) proposed the name "SARS-CoV-2" for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis of this corona virus. Dentists/doctors of dental medicine should be familiar with transmission of SARS-CoV-2, how to identify patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and what measures should be taken for protection during the intervention in order to prevent its transmission. There are recommendations for infection control measures that should be followed by the dentists/doctors of dental medicine. The fact that aerosols and drops have been considered for major SARS-CoV-2 propagation routes has been emphasized. If these measures are not undertaken, then the dental office can potentially expose patients to cross-infection. Conclusion: The epidemiological situation around the world is changing dynamically, but patients should not be left without urgent medical help. Oral health team members are required to update their knowledge and skills regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of communicable diseases that can be transmitted in a clinical setting and to stick to the standard precautions to protect patients from infections as well as protect themselves.

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    Authors: Aneta Peshnachka; Golubinka Boshevska; Nevenka Velichkova; Elizabeta Jancheska; +5 Authors

    The first human cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by the new coronavirus, was reported on December 31, 2019 in China for the first time. Тhe virus was named temporarily as 2019 new coronavirus (2019 novel coronavirus-2019 -nCoV), or finally as SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the laboratory detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus with reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in real time, as well as detection of viral mutations in the Laboratory for virology at the Institute of Public Health. The samples used in the study were taken from all geographical regions in North Macedonia, including the 10 regional Centers for Public Health throughout the country, from hospital patients, from COVID19 hospitals across the country and from the COVID19 checkpoint at the Institute of Public Health. All samples were tested using RT-PCR in real time. Additional assays were applied for identification of the circulating variants. The continuous surveillance of the variants of concern (VOC), as well as the newly emerged variants can allow the public health officials to modify their approach to disease control and management and intervene more effectively as well as in a timely manner in order to prevent major morbidity and mortality from COVID-19.

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      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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