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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lawrence W. Barsalou;
    Publisher: Springer-Verlag
    Country: United Kingdom

    The 15 articles in this special issue on The Representation of Concepts illustrate the rich variety of theoretical positions and supporting research that characterize the area. Although much agreement exists among contributors, much disagreement exists as well, especially about the roles of grounding and abstraction in conceptual processing. I first review theoretical approaches raised in these articles that I believe are Quixotic dead ends, namely, approaches that are principled and inspired but likely to fail. In the process, I review various theories of amodal symbols, their distortions of grounded theories, and fallacies in the evidence used to support them. Incorporating further contributions across articles, I then sketch a theoretical approach that I believe is likely to be successful, which includes grounding, abstraction, flexibility, explaining classic conceptual phenomena, and making contact with real-world situations. This account further proposes that (1) a key element of grounding is neural reuse, (2) abstraction takes the forms of multimodal compression, distilled abstraction, and distributed linguistic representation (but not amodal symbols), and (3) flexible context-dependent representations are a hallmark of conceptual processing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abreu, Henso; Araujo Pereira, Rodrigo; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; +1,033 more
    Publisher: SpringerOpen
    Countries: France, France, Turkey, Poland, Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, France ...

    A search for a chargino-neutralino pair decaying via the 125 GeV Higgs boson into photons is presented. The study is based on the data collected between 2015 and 2018 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb(-1) of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. No significant excess over the expected background is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level for a massless (chi) over tilde (0)(1) are set on several electroweakino production cross-sections and the visible cross-section for beyond the Standard Model processes. In the context of simplified supersymmetric models, 95% confidence-level limits of up to 310 GeV in m((chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)/(chi) over tilde (0)(2)), where m((chi) over tilde (0)(1)) = 0.5 GeV, are set. Limits at 95% confidence level are also set on the (chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)(chi) over tilde (0)(2) cross-section in the mass plane of m((chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)/(chi) over tilde (0)(2)) and m((chi) over tilde (0)(1)), and on scenarios with gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle. Upper limits at the 95% confidence-level are set on the higgsino production cross-section. Higgsino masses below 380 GeV are excluded for the case of the higgsino fully decaying into a Higgs boson and a gravitino. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Ministry of Education, Youth & Sports - Czech Republic Czech Republic Government Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) Netherlands Government Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Colciencias Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP) Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada European Union (EU) European Research Council (ERC) National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology PROMETEO Programme Generalitat Valenciana, Spain Ministry of Energy & Natural Resources - Turkey CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain Federal Ministry of Education & Research (BMBF) Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology, China United States Department of Energy (DOE) Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) Danish Natural Science Research Council French National Research Agency (ANR) Herakleitos program - EU-ESF, Greece Slovenian Research Agency - Slovenia Goran Gustafssons Stiftelse, Sweden Greek Ministry of Development-GSRT National Science Foundation (NSF) Aristeia program - EU-ESF, Greece German Research Foundation (DFG) Canada Foundation for Innovation MES of Russia, Russia Federation Thales program - EU-ESF, Greece Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden Canton of Geneva, Switzerland Horizon 2020, European Union Canton of Bern, Switzerland Australian Research Council Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Chinese Academy of Sciences Israel Science Foundation NRC KI, Russia Federation Czech Republic Government Royal Society of London Benoziyo Center, Israel Compute Canada, Canada DST/NRF, South Africa Hong Kong SAR, China COST, European Union CEA-DRF/IRFU, France Greek NSRF, Greece Max Planck Society SERI, Switzerland Leverhulme Trust MNE/IFA, Romania SRNSFG, Georgia BSF-NSF, Israel CANARIE, Canada YerPhI, Armenia MSSR, Slovakia BMWFW, Austria CNRST, Morocco MIZS, Slovenia BCKDF, Canada DNRF, Denmark MESTD, Serbia SSTC, Belarus MINECO, Spain HGF, Germany RCN, Norway NCN, Poland NRC, Canada CRC, Canada SRC, Sweden RGC, China ANPCyT CERN JINR

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bjorn Heile;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: United Kingdom

    Mapping is proposed as a method to overcome universalist and Eurocentric assumptions in music historiography and arrive at more cosmopolitan conceptions. The chapter is accompanied by two maps produced with GIS (Geographic Information System) software, showing membership (by entry date) of the International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM), the diffusion of dodecaphony (by the date of the first verified dodecaphonic composition by country) and the founding of conservatoires across the globe. The maps’ creation further involved the use of crowdsourcing. The opportunities and limitations of mapping are discussed both in relation to the concrete examples and the method in general.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jethro Browell; Matteo Fasiolo;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | System-wide Probabilistic... (EP/R023484/1)

    The increasing penetration of embedded renewables makes forecasting net-load, consumption less embedded generation, a significant and growing challenge. Here a framework for producing probabilistic forecasts of net-load is proposed with particular attention given to the tails of predictive distributions, which are required for managing risk associated with low-probability events. Only small volumes of data are available in the tails, by definition, so estimation of predictive models and forecast evaluation requires special attention. We propose a solution based on a best-in-class load forecasting methodology adapted for net-load, and model the tails of predictive distributions with the Generalised Pareto Distribution, allowing its parameters to vary smoothly as functions of covariates. The resulting forecasts are shown to be calibrated and sharper than those produced with unconditional tail distributions. In a use-case inspired evaluation exercise based on reserve setting, the conditional tails are shown to reduce the overall volume of reserve required to manage a given risk. Furthermore, they identify periods of high risk not captured by other methods. The proposed method therefore enables user to both reduce costs and avoid excess risk.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Krämer, Nicole; Sobieraj, Sabrina; Feng, Dan; Trubina, Elisabeth; Marsella, Stacy;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom, Germany

    Bullying is a pressing societal problem. As such, it is important to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in bullying and of resilience factors which might protect victims. Moreover, it is necessary to provide tools that can train potential victims to strengthen their resilience. To facilitate both of these goals, the current study tests a recently developed virtual environment that puts participants in the role of a victim who is being oppressed by a superior. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment (N = 81), we measured the effects of gender of the oppressor and gender of the participant on psychophysiological reactions, subjective experiences and willingness to report the event. The results reveal that even when a male and a female bully show the exact same behavior, the male bully is perceived as more threatening. In terms of gender of the victim, the only difference that emerged was a more pronounced increase in heart rate in males. The results were moderated by the personality factors social gender, neuroticism, and need to belong, while self-esteem did not show any moderating influence. OA Förderung 2018

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Petar M. Seferovic; Andrew J.S. Coats; Piotr Ponikowski; Gerasimos Filippatos; Martin Huelsmann; Pardeep S. Jhund; Marija Polovina; Michel Komajda; Jelena P. Seferovic; Ibrahim Sari; +17 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have recently occurred in the treatment of T2DM, with evidence of several new glucose‐lowering medications showing either neutral or beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, some of these agents have safety characteristics with strong practical implications in HF [i.e. dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 (DPP‐4) inhibitors, glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonists (GLP‐1 RA), and sodium–glucose co‐transporter type 2 (SGLT‐2) inhibitors].\ud \ud Regarding safety of DPP‐4 inhibitors, saxagliptin is not recommended in HF because of a greater risk of HF hospitalisation. There is no compelling evidence of excess HF risk with the other DPP‐4 inhibitors. GLP‐1 RAs have an overall neutral effect on HF outcomes. However, a signal of harm suggested in two small trials of liraglutide in patients with reduced ejection fraction indicates that their role remains to be defined in established HF. SGLT‐2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) have shown a consistent reduction in the risk of HF hospitalisation regardless of baseline cardiovascular risk or history of HF. Accordingly, SGLT‐2 inhibitors could be recommended to prevent HF hospitalisation in patients with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease or with multiple risk factors. The recently completed trial with dapagliflozin has shown a significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality and HF events in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, with or without T2DM. Several ongoing trials will assess whether the results observed with dapagliflozin could be extended to other SGLT‐2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, with either preserved or reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence of T2DM. This position paper aims to summarise relevant clinical trial evidence concerning the role and safety of new glucose‐lowering therapies in patients with HF.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qiufang Deng; Junjie Xu; Lu Guo; Song Liang; Lianping Hou; Hongliang Zhu;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    We report a dual-mode semiconductor laser that has two gratings with different periods below and above the active layer. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), which is integrated with the dual-mode laser, plays an important role in balancing the optical power and reducing the linewidths of the emission modes. A stable two mode emission with the 13.92-nm spacing can be obtained over a wide range of distributed feedback and SOA injection currents. Compared with other types of dual-mode lasers, our device has the advantages of simple structure, compact size, and low fabrication cost.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aaboud, Morad; Aad, Georges; Abreu, Henso; Armstrong, Alexander III; Hadef, Asma; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; +190 more
    Countries: Spain, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, United Kingdom, Italy
    Project: EC | DARKJETS (679305)

    The response of the ATLAS detector to large-radius jets is measured in situ using 36.2 fb$^{-1}$ of $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV proton-proton collisions provided by the LHC and recorded by the ATLAS experiment during 2015 and 2016. The jet energy scale is measured in events where the jet recoils against a reference object, which can be either a calibrated photon, a reconstructed $Z$ boson, or a system of well-measured small-radius jets. The jet energy resolution and a calibration of forward jets are derived using dijet balance measurements. The jet mass response is measured with two methods: using mass peaks formed by $W$ bosons and top quarks with large transverse momenta and by comparing the jet mass measured using the energy deposited in the calorimeter with that using the momenta of charged-particle tracks. The transverse momentum and mass responses in simulations are found to be about 2-3% higher than in data. This difference is adjusted for with a correction factor. The results of the different methods are combined to yield a calibration over a large range of transverse momenta ($p_{\rm T}$). The precision of the relative jet energy scale is 1-2% for $200~{\rm GeV} < p_{\rm T} < 2~{\rm TeV}$, while that of the mass scale is 2-10%. The ratio of the energy resolutions in data and simulation is measured to a precision of 10-15% over the same $p_{\rm T}$ range. 70 pages in total, author list starting page 54, 32 figures, 5 tables, final version published in EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/JETM-2018-02/

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Philip, Nisha; Waters, Andrew P.;
    Publisher: Cell Press
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | EVIMALAR (242095), WT | Conditional Translational... (083811)

    Summary Functional analysis of essential genes in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium, is hindered by lack of efficient strategies for conditional protein regulation. We report the development of a rapid, specific, and inducible chemical-genetic tool in the rodent malaria parasite, P. berghei, in which endogenous proteins engineered to contain the auxin-inducible degron (AID) are selectively degraded upon adding auxin. Application of AID to the calcium-regulated protein phosphatase, calcineurin, revealed functions in host and vector stages of parasite development. Whereas depletion of calcineurin in late-stage schizonts demonstrated its critical role in erythrocyte attachment and invasion in vivo, stage-specific depletion uncovered roles in gamete development, fertilization, and ookinete-to-oocyst and sporozoite-to-liver stage transitions. Furthermore, AID technology facilitated concurrent generation and phenotyping of transgenic lines, allowing multiple lines to be assessed simultaneously with significant reductions in animal use. This study highlights the broad applicability of AID for functional analysis of proteins across the Plasmodium life cycle. Limited conditional regulation technologies in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium, hinder functional examination of parasite proteins operating at multiple stages. Philip and Waters report the application of a rapid and specific conditional protein degradation tool to study parasite Calcineurin function in both host and vector stages of the parasite life cycle. Highlights • Calcineurin regulates colonization of host cells across the Plasmodium life cycle • Calcineurin regulates male gametogenesis • AID technology is broadly applicable to study protein function in Plasmodium • Multiplexing of AID technology results in substantially reduced animal use Graphical Abstract

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Junlong Shang; S. R. Hencher; L. J. West;
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Country: United Kingdom

    Geological discontinuities have a controlling influence for many rock-engineering projects in terms of strength, deformability and permeability, but their characterisation is often very difficult. Whilst discontinuities are often modelled as lacking any strength, in many rock masses visible rock discontinuities are only incipient and have tensile strength that may approach and can even exceed that of the parent rock. This fact is of high importance for realistic rock mass characterisation but is generally ignored. It is argued that current ISRM and other standards for rock mass characterisation, as well as rock mass classification schemes such as RMR and Q, do not allow adequately for the incipient nature of many rock fractures or their geological variability and need to be revised, at least conceptually. This paper addresses the issue of the tensile strength of incipient discontinuities in rock and presents results from a laboratory test programme to quantify this parameter. Rock samples containing visible, natural incipient discontinuities including joints, bedding, and mineral veins have been tested in direct tension. It has been confirmed that such discontinuities can have high tensile strength, approaching that of the parent rock. Others are, of course, far weaker. The tested geological discontinuities all exhibited brittle failure at axial strain less than 0.5 % under direct tension conditions. Three factors contributing to the tensile strength of incipient rock discontinuities have been investigated and characterised. A distinction is made between sections of discontinuity that are only partially developed, sections of discontinuity that have been locally weathered leaving localised residual rock bridges and sections that have been ‘healed’ through secondary cementation. Tests on bedding surfaces within sandstone showed that tensile strength of adjacent incipient bedding can vary considerably. In this particular series of tests, values of tensile strength for bedding planes ranged from 32 to 88 % of the parent rock strength (intact without visible discontinuities), and this variability could be attributed to geological factors. Tests on incipient mineral veins also showed considerable scatter, the strength depending upon the geological nature of vein development as well as the presence of rock bridges. As might be anticipated, tensile strength of incipient rock joints decreases with degree of weathering as expressed in colour changes adjacent to rock bridges. Tensile strengths of rock bridges (lacking marked discolouration) were found to be similar to that of the parent rock. It is concluded that the degree of incipiency of rock discontinuities needs to be differentiated in the process of rock mass classification and engineering design and that this can best be done with reference to the tensile strength relative to that of the parent rock. It is argued that the science of rock mass characterisation may be advanced through better appreciation of geological history at a site thereby improving the process of prediction and extrapolating properties.

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Include:
32,240 Research products, page 1 of 3,224
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lawrence W. Barsalou;
    Publisher: Springer-Verlag
    Country: United Kingdom

    The 15 articles in this special issue on The Representation of Concepts illustrate the rich variety of theoretical positions and supporting research that characterize the area. Although much agreement exists among contributors, much disagreement exists as well, especially about the roles of grounding and abstraction in conceptual processing. I first review theoretical approaches raised in these articles that I believe are Quixotic dead ends, namely, approaches that are principled and inspired but likely to fail. In the process, I review various theories of amodal symbols, their distortions of grounded theories, and fallacies in the evidence used to support them. Incorporating further contributions across articles, I then sketch a theoretical approach that I believe is likely to be successful, which includes grounding, abstraction, flexibility, explaining classic conceptual phenomena, and making contact with real-world situations. This account further proposes that (1) a key element of grounding is neural reuse, (2) abstraction takes the forms of multimodal compression, distilled abstraction, and distributed linguistic representation (but not amodal symbols), and (3) flexible context-dependent representations are a hallmark of conceptual processing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abreu, Henso; Araujo Pereira, Rodrigo; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; +1,033 more
    Publisher: SpringerOpen
    Countries: France, France, Turkey, Poland, Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, France ...

    A search for a chargino-neutralino pair decaying via the 125 GeV Higgs boson into photons is presented. The study is based on the data collected between 2015 and 2018 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb(-1) of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. No significant excess over the expected background is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level for a massless (chi) over tilde (0)(1) are set on several electroweakino production cross-sections and the visible cross-section for beyond the Standard Model processes. In the context of simplified supersymmetric models, 95% confidence-level limits of up to 310 GeV in m((chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)/(chi) over tilde (0)(2)), where m((chi) over tilde (0)(1)) = 0.5 GeV, are set. Limits at 95% confidence level are also set on the (chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)(chi) over tilde (0)(2) cross-section in the mass plane of m((chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)/(chi) over tilde (0)(2)) and m((chi) over tilde (0)(1)), and on scenarios with gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle. Upper limits at the 95% confidence-level are set on the higgsino production cross-section. Higgsino masses below 380 GeV are excluded for the case of the higgsino fully decaying into a Higgs boson and a gravitino. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Ministry of Education, Youth & Sports - Czech Republic Czech Republic Government Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) Netherlands Government Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Colciencias Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP) Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada European Union (EU) European Research Council (ERC) National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology PROMETEO Programme Generalitat Valenciana, Spain Ministry of Energy & Natural Resources - Turkey CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain Federal Ministry of Education & Research (BMBF) Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology, China United States Department of Energy (DOE) Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) Danish Natural Science Research Council French National Research Agency (ANR) Herakleitos program - EU-ESF, Greece Slovenian Research Agency - Slovenia Goran Gustafssons Stiftelse, Sweden Greek Ministry of Development-GSRT National Science Foundation (NSF) Aristeia program - EU-ESF, Greece German Research Foundation (DFG) Canada Foundation for Innovation MES of Russia, Russia Federation Thales program - EU-ESF, Greece Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden Canton of Geneva, Switzerland Horizon 2020, European Union Canton of Bern, Switzerland Australian Research Council Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Chinese Academy of Sciences Israel Science Foundation NRC KI, Russia Federation Czech Republic Government Royal Society of London Benoziyo Center, Israel Compute Canada, Canada DST/NRF, South Africa Hong Kong SAR, China COST, European Union CEA-DRF/IRFU, France Greek NSRF, Greece Max Planck Society SERI, Switzerland Leverhulme Trust MNE/IFA, Romania SRNSFG, Georgia BSF-NSF, Israel CANARIE, Canada YerPhI, Armenia MSSR, Slovakia BMWFW, Austria CNRST, Morocco MIZS, Slovenia BCKDF, Canada DNRF, Denmark MESTD, Serbia SSTC, Belarus MINECO, Spain HGF, Germany RCN, Norway NCN, Poland NRC, Canada CRC, Canada SRC, Sweden RGC, China ANPCyT CERN JINR

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bjorn Heile;
    Publisher: Routledge
    Country: United Kingdom

    Mapping is proposed as a method to overcome universalist and Eurocentric assumptions in music historiography and arrive at more cosmopolitan conceptions. The chapter is accompanied by two maps produced with GIS (Geographic Information System) software, showing membership (by entry date) of the International Society for Contemporary Music (ISCM), the diffusion of dodecaphony (by the date of the first verified dodecaphonic composition by country) and the founding of conservatoires across the globe. The maps’ creation further involved the use of crowdsourcing. The opportunities and limitations of mapping are discussed both in relation to the concrete examples and the method in general.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jethro Browell; Matteo Fasiolo;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | System-wide Probabilistic... (EP/R023484/1)

    The increasing penetration of embedded renewables makes forecasting net-load, consumption less embedded generation, a significant and growing challenge. Here a framework for producing probabilistic forecasts of net-load is proposed with particular attention given to the tails of predictive distributions, which are required for managing risk associated with low-probability events. Only small volumes of data are available in the tails, by definition, so estimation of predictive models and forecast evaluation requires special attention. We propose a solution based on a best-in-class load forecasting methodology adapted for net-load, and model the tails of predictive distributions with the Generalised Pareto Distribution, allowing its parameters to vary smoothly as functions of covariates. The resulting forecasts are shown to be calibrated and sharper than those produced with unconditional tail distributions. In a use-case inspired evaluation exercise based on reserve setting, the conditional tails are shown to reduce the overall volume of reserve required to manage a given risk. Furthermore, they identify periods of high risk not captured by other methods. The proposed method therefore enables user to both reduce costs and avoid excess risk.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Krämer, Nicole; Sobieraj, Sabrina; Feng, Dan; Trubina, Elisabeth; Marsella, Stacy;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom, Germany

    Bullying is a pressing societal problem. As such, it is important to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in bullying and of resilience factors which might protect victims. Moreover, it is necessary to provide tools that can train potential victims to strengthen their resilience. To facilitate both of these goals, the current study tests a recently developed virtual environment that puts participants in the role of a victim who is being oppressed by a superior. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment (N = 81), we measured the effects of gender of the oppressor and gender of the participant on psychophysiological reactions, subjective experiences and willingness to report the event. The results reveal that even when a male and a female bully show the exact same behavior, the male bully is perceived as more threatening. In terms of gender of the victim, the only difference that emerged was a more pronounced increase in heart rate in males. The results were moderated by the personality factors social gender, neuroticism, and need to belong, while self-esteem did not show any moderating influence. OA Förderung 2018

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Petar M. Seferovic; Andrew J.S. Coats; Piotr Ponikowski; Gerasimos Filippatos; Martin Huelsmann; Pardeep S. Jhund; Marija Polovina; Michel Komajda; Jelena P. Seferovic; Ibrahim Sari; +17 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: Netherlands, United Kingdom, United Kingdom

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have recently occurred in the treatment of T2DM, with evidence of several new glucose‐lowering medications showing either neutral or beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, some of these agents have safety characteristics with strong practical implications in HF [i.e. dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 (DPP‐4) inhibitors, glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonists (GLP‐1 RA), and sodium–glucose co‐transporter type 2 (SGLT‐2) inhibitors].\ud \ud Regarding safety of DPP‐4 inhibitors, saxagliptin is not recommended in HF because of a greater risk of HF hospitalisation. There is no compelling evidence of excess HF risk with the other DPP‐4 inhibitors. GLP‐1 RAs have an overall neutral effect on HF outcomes. However, a signal of harm suggested in two small trials of liraglutide in patients with reduced ejection fraction indicates that their role remains to be defined in established HF. SGLT‐2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) have shown a consistent reduction in the risk of HF hospitalisation regardless of baseline cardiovascular risk or history of HF. Accordingly, SGLT‐2 inhibitors could be recommended to prevent HF hospitalisation in patients with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease or with multiple risk factors. The recently completed trial with dapagliflozin has shown a significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality and HF events in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, with or without T2DM. Several ongoing trials will assess whether the results observed with dapagliflozin could be extended to other SGLT‐2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, with either preserved or reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence of T2DM. This position paper aims to summarise relevant clinical trial evidence concerning the role and safety of new glucose‐lowering therapies in patients with HF.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qiufang Deng; Junjie Xu; Lu Guo; Song Liang; Lianping Hou; Hongliang Zhu;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: United Kingdom

    We report a dual-mode semiconductor laser that has two gratings with different periods below and above the active layer. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), which is integrated with the dual-mode laser, plays an important role in balancing the optical power and reducing the linewidths of the emission modes. A stable two mode emission with the 13.92-nm spacing can be obtained over a wide range of distributed feedback and SOA injection currents. Compared with other types of dual-mode lasers, our device has the advantages of simple structure, compact size, and low fabrication cost.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aaboud, Morad; Aad, Georges; Abreu, Henso; Armstrong, Alexander III; Hadef, Asma; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; +190 more
    Countries: Spain, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, United Kingdom, Italy
    Project: EC | DARKJETS (679305)

    The response of the ATLAS detector to large-radius jets is measured in situ using 36.2 fb$^{-1}$ of $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV proton-proton collisions provided by the LHC and recorded by the ATLAS experiment during 2015 and 2016. The jet energy scale is measured in events where the jet recoils against a reference object, which can be either a calibrated photon, a reconstructed $Z$ boson, or a system of well-measured small-radius jets. The jet energy resolution and a calibration of forward jets are derived using dijet balance measurements. The jet mass response is measured with two methods: using mass peaks formed by $W$ bosons and top quarks with large transverse momenta and by comparing the jet mass measured using the energy deposited in the calorimeter with that using the momenta of charged-particle tracks. The transverse momentum and mass responses in simulations are found to be about 2-3% higher than in data. This difference is adjusted for with a correction factor. The results of the different methods are combined to yield a calibration over a large range of transverse momenta ($p_{\rm T}$). The precision of the relative jet energy scale is 1-2% for $200~{\rm GeV} < p_{\rm T} < 2~{\rm TeV}$, while that of the mass scale is 2-10%. The ratio of the energy resolutions in data and simulation is measured to a precision of 10-15% over the same $p_{\rm T}$ range. 70 pages in total, author list starting page 54, 32 figures, 5 tables, final version published in EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/JETM-2018-02/

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Philip, Nisha; Waters, Andrew P.;
    Publisher: Cell Press
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | EVIMALAR (242095), WT | Conditional Translational... (083811)

    Summary Functional analysis of essential genes in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium, is hindered by lack of efficient strategies for conditional protein regulation. We report the development of a rapid, specific, and inducible chemical-genetic tool in the rodent malaria parasite, P. berghei, in which endogenous proteins engineered to contain the auxin-inducible degron (AID) are selectively degraded upon adding auxin. Application of AID to the calcium-regulated protein phosphatase, calcineurin, revealed functions in host and vector stages of parasite development. Whereas depletion of calcineurin in late-stage schizonts demonstrated its critical role in erythrocyte attachment and invasion in vivo, stage-specific depletion uncovered roles in gamete development, fertilization, and ookinete-to-oocyst and sporozoite-to-liver stage transitions. Furthermore, AID technology facilitated concurrent generation and phenotyping of transgenic lines, allowing multiple lines to be assessed simultaneously with significant reductions in animal use. This study highlights the broad applicability of AID for functional analysis of proteins across the Plasmodium life cycle. Limited conditional regulation technologies in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium, hinder functional examination of parasite proteins operating at multiple stages. Philip and Waters report the application of a rapid and specific conditional protein degradation tool to study parasite Calcineurin function in both host and vector stages of the parasite life cycle. Highlights • Calcineurin regulates colonization of host cells across the Plasmodium life cycle • Calcineurin regulates male gametogenesis • AID technology is broadly applicable to study protein function in Plasmodium • Multiplexing of AID technology results in substantially reduced animal use Graphical Abstract

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Junlong Shang; S. R. Hencher; L. J. West;
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Country: United Kingdom

    Geological discontinuities have a controlling influence for many rock-engineering projects in terms of strength, deformability and permeability, but their characterisation is often very difficult. Whilst discontinuities are often modelled as lacking any strength, in many rock masses visible rock discontinuities are only incipient and have tensile strength that may approach and can even exceed that of the parent rock. This fact is of high importance for realistic rock mass characterisation but is generally ignored. It is argued that current ISRM and other standards for rock mass characterisation, as well as rock mass classification schemes such as RMR and Q, do not allow adequately for the incipient nature of many rock fractures or their geological variability and need to be revised, at least conceptually. This paper addresses the issue of the tensile strength of incipient discontinuities in rock and presents results from a laboratory test programme to quantify this parameter. Rock samples containing visible, natural incipient discontinuities including joints, bedding, and mineral veins have been tested in direct tension. It has been confirmed that such discontinuities can have high tensile strength, approaching that of the parent rock. Others are, of course, far weaker. The tested geological discontinuities all exhibited brittle failure at axial strain less than 0.5 % under direct tension conditions. Three factors contributing to the tensile strength of incipient rock discontinuities have been investigated and characterised. A distinction is made between sections of discontinuity that are only partially developed, sections of discontinuity that have been locally weathered leaving localised residual rock bridges and sections that have been ‘healed’ through secondary cementation. Tests on bedding surfaces within sandstone showed that tensile strength of adjacent incipient bedding can vary considerably. In this particular series of tests, values of tensile strength for bedding planes ranged from 32 to 88 % of the parent rock strength (intact without visible discontinuities), and this variability could be attributed to geological factors. Tests on incipient mineral veins also showed considerable scatter, the strength depending upon the geological nature of vein development as well as the presence of rock bridges. As might be anticipated, tensile strength of incipient rock joints decreases with degree of weathering as expressed in colour changes adjacent to rock bridges. Tensile strengths of rock bridges (lacking marked discolouration) were found to be similar to that of the parent rock. It is concluded that the degree of incipiency of rock discontinuities needs to be differentiated in the process of rock mass classification and engineering design and that this can best be done with reference to the tensile strength relative to that of the parent rock. It is argued that the science of rock mass characterisation may be advanced through better appreciation of geological history at a site thereby improving the process of prediction and extrapolating properties.

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