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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Teresa Valenti; Luca Dalle Carbonare; Donato Zipeto; Monica Mottes;
    Country: Italy

    Autophagy is involved in different degenerative diseases and it may control epigenetic modifications, metabolic processes, stem cells differentiation as well as apoptosis. Autophagy plays a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of cartilage, the tissue produced by chondrocytes; its impairment has been associated to cartilage dysfunctions such as osteoarthritis (OA). Due to their location in a reduced oxygen context, both differentiating and mature chondrocytes are at risk of premature apoptosis, which can be prevented by autophagy. AutophagomiRNAs, which regulate the autophagic process, have been found differentially expressed in OA. AutophagomiRNAs, as well as other regulatory molecules, may also be useful as therapeutic targets. In this review, we describe and discuss the role of autophagy in OA, focusing mainly on the control of autophagomiRNAs in OA pathogenesis and their potential therapeutic applications.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laura Bertolasi; Alessandra Danese; Salvatore Monaco; Mara Turri; K. Borg; L. Werhagen;
    Publisher: Bentham Open
    Country: Italy

    Background:Poliomyelitis was before the immunization an important medical problem. Nowadays polio prior patients (PP) suffer from polio sequelae or have developed post-polio-syndrome (PPS) with increasing paresis, pain and fatigue.Objectives:To analyze the medical situation 50 years after acute polio. The degree of paresis was compared between the recovery 1952-1961 and 2012.The prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for PPS was estimatedMethod:The study was performed in Italy. Included were PP with rehabilitation after acute polio 1952-1961 and in 2012. During the years PP underwent yearly evaluation. A thorough neurological examination was performed in 2012. A telephone interview with questions concerning pain, paresis, fatigue, walking aids and concomitant diseases was performed in 2012. The patients were divided in two groups, if they fulfilled the criteria for PPS or not.Results:Included were 67(94%) patients receiving rehabilitation after acute poliomyelitis and 2012. 78% were walkers, half of the PPS used wheelchair. Eight out of ten suffered from pain. Four out of ten fulfilled the PPS criteria. Pain was slightly more common in PPS.Conclusion:Female gender, fatigue and wheelchair dependency were significantly more common in PPS while pain was common in both groups.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Serena De Lucia; Ioannis Tsamesidis; Maria Carmina Pau; Kristina R. Kesely; Antonella Pantaleo; Francesco Michelangelo Turrini;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Country: Italy

    Artemisinin resistance is a major threat to malaria control efforts. Resistance is characterized by an increase in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance half-life following treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) and an increase in the percentage of surviving parasites. The remarkably short blood half-life of artemisinin derivatives may contribute to drug-resistance, possibly through factors including sub-lethal plasma concentrations and inadequate exposure. Here we selected for a new strain of artemisinin resistant parasites, termed the artemisinin resistant strain 1 (ARS1), by treating P. falciparum Palo Alto (PA) cultures with sub-lethal concentrations of dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The resistance phenotype was maintained for over 1 year through monthly maintenance treatments with low doses of 2.5 nM DHA. There was a moderate increase in the DHA IC50 in ARS1 when compared with parental strain PA after 72 h of drug exposure (from 0.68 nM to 2 nM DHA). In addition, ARS1 survived treatment physiologically relevant DHA concentrations (700 nM) observed in patients. Furthermore, we confirmed a lack of cross-resistance against a panel of antimalarials commonly used as partner drugs in ACTs. Finally, ARS1 did not contain Pfk13 propeller domain mutations associated with ART resistance in the Greater Mekong Region. With a stable growth rate, ARS1 represents a valuable tool for the development of new antimalarial compounds and studies to further elucidate the mechanisms of ART resistance.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pietro Ariani; Alice Regaiolo; Arianna Lovato; Alejandro Giorgetti; Andrea Porceddu; Salvatore Camiolo; Darren Wong; Simone D. Castellarin; Elodie Vandelle; Annalisa Polverari;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: Italy

    The Arabidopsis Toxicos en Levadura (ATL) protein family is a class of E3 ubiquitin ligases with a characteristic RING-H2 Zn-finger structure that mediates diverse physiological processes and stress responses in plants. We carried out a genome-wide survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) ATL genes and retrieved 96 sequences containing the canonical ATL RING-H2 domain. We analysed their genomic organisation, gene structure and evolution, protein domains and phylogenetic relationships. Clustering revealed several clades, as already reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), with an expanded subgroup of grapevine-specific genes. Most of the grapevine ATL genes lacked introns and were scattered among the 19 chromosomes, with a high level of duplication retention. Expression profiling revealed that some ATL genes are expressed specifically during early or late development and may participate in the juvenile to mature plant transition, whereas others may play a role in pathogen and/or abiotic stress responses, making them key candidates for further functional analysis. Our data offer the first genome-wide overview and annotation of the grapevine ATL family, and provide a basis for investigating the roles of specific family members in grapevine physiology and stress responses, as well as potential biotechnological applications.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jennifer Kube; Nicole Ebner; Ewa A. Jankowska; Piotr Rozentryt; Mariantonietta Cicoira; Gerasimos Filippatos; Piotr Ponikowski; Wolfram Doehner; Stefan D. Anker; Stephan von Haehling;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Italy

    Abstract Background Natriuretic peptides play an important role in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute and chronic heart failure. Multiple studies have shown that these peptides are liable to the influence of individual factors. For N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) some of these confounding factors have been evaluated over the years such as age, gender, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to establish confounding factors of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) assessment. Methods and results We studied 684 patients (94% male, age 61.2±11.2, left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] 2 , mean MR-proANP 296.0±281.0pmol/L, mean NT-proBNP 2792.0±5328.6pg/mL, mean creatinine level 110.2±38.0μmol/L and mean haemoglobin 13.9±1.5g/dL) with clinically stable chronic heart failure. MR-proANP levels increased with increasing NYHA class (p Conclusion MR-proANP is subject to the almost identical influencing factors like NT-proBNP. The effects of anaemia warrant further study.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antonio Nouvenne; Andrea Ticinesi; Giuseppina Folesani; Nicoletta Cerundolo; Beatrice Prati; Ilaria Morelli; Loredana Guida; Fulvio Lauretani; Marcello Maggio; Rosalia Aloe; +2 more
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Country: Italy

    Background Serum procalcitonin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) elevations have been associated with pneumonia in adults. Our aim was to establish their diagnostic usefulness in a cohort of hospitalized multimorbid patients ≥65 years old admitted to hospital with acute respiratory symptoms. Methods With a retrospective cohort study design, all multimorbid patients ≥65 years-old with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to an internal medicine hospital ward in Italy from January to August 2013 were evaluated. Pneumonia diagnosis, comorbidities expressed through Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS), setting of living, length of stay, serum hs-CRP and procalcitonin at admission were collected for each patient. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney’s U test and multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis. A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to verify each biomarker’s association with pneumonia diagnosis. Results Four hundred fifty five patients (227 M) were included in the study, of whom 239 with pneumonia (138 M, mean age 80 ± 13) and 216 without pneumonia (89 M, mean age 80 ± 14). After adjustment for age and sex, median levels of hs-CRP were significantly higher in patients with pneumonia (116 mg/L, IQR 46.5–179.0, vs 22.5 mg/dl, IQR 6.9–84.4, p 61 mg/L were independently associated with a 3.59-fold increased risk of pneumonia (OR 3.59, 95 % CI 2.35–5.48, p < 0.0001). Conclusion In elderly multimorbid patients who require hospital admission for respiratory symptoms, serum hs-CRP testing seems to be more useful than procalcitonin for guiding the diagnostic process when clinical suspicion of pneumonia is present. Procalcitonin testing might hence be not recommended in this setting.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Francesco De Sanctis; Sara Sandri; Giovanna Ferrarini; Irene Pagliarello; Silvia Sartoris; Stefano Ugel; Ilaria Marigo; Barbara Molon; Vincenzo Bronte;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Italy

    Under many inflammatory contexts, such as tumor progression, systemic and peripheral immune response is tailored by reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-dependent post-translational modifications, suggesting a biological function for these chemical alterations. RNS modify both soluble factors and receptors essential to induce and maintain a tumor-specific immune response, creating a “chemical barrier” that impairs effector T cell infiltration and functionality in tumor microenvironment and supports the escape phase of cancer. RNS generation during tumor growth mainly depends on nitric oxide production by both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells that constitutively activate essential metabolic pathways of l-arginine catabolism. This review provides an overview of the potential immunological and biological role of RNS-induced modifications and addresses new approaches targeting RNS either in search of novel biomarkers or to improve anti-cancer treatment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sohaib Ali Korai; Federico Ranieri; Vincenzo Di Lazzaro; Michele Papa; Michele Papa; Giovanni Cirillo; Giovanni Cirillo;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Italy

    Non-invasive low-intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) of the brain is an evolving field that has brought remarkable attention in the past few decades for its ability to directly modulate specific brain functions. Neurobiological after-effects of tES seems to be related to changes in neuronal and synaptic excitability and plasticity, however mechanisms are still far from being elucidated. We aim to review recent results from in vitro and in vivo studies that highlight molecular and cellular mechanisms of transcranial direct (tDCS) and alternating (tACS) current stimulation. Changes in membrane potential and neural synchronization explain the ongoing and short-lasting effects of tES, while changes induced in existing proteins and new protein synthesis is required for long-lasting plastic changes (LTP/LTD). Glial cells, for decades supporting elements, are now considered constitutive part of the synapse and might contribute to the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. This review brings into focus the neurobiological mechanisms and after-effects of tDCS and tACS from in vitro and in vivo studies, in both animals and humans, highlighting possible pathways for the development of targeted therapeutic applications.

  • Publication . Article . 2015
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Valentina Masola; Gianluigi Zaza; Maurizio Onisto; Antonio Lupo; Giovanni Gambaro;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Italy

    Tubulo-interstitial fibrosis has been recognized as the hallmark of progression of chronic kidney disease, but, despite intensive research studies, there are currently no biomarkers or effective treatments for this condition. In this context, a promising candidate could be heparanase-1 (HPSE), an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate chains and thus takes part in extracellular matrix remodeling. As largely described, it has a central role in the pathogenesis of cancer and inflammation, and it participates in the complex biological machinery involved in the onset of different renal proteinuric diseases (e.g., diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis). Additionally, HPSE may significantly influence the progression of chronic kidney damage trough its major role in the biological pathway of renal fibrogenesis. Here, we briefly summarize data supporting the role of HPSE in renal damage, focusing on recent evidences that demonstrate the capability of this enzyme to modulate the signaling of pro-fibrotic factors such as FGF-2 and TGF-β and consequently to control the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubular cells. We also emphasize the need of the research community to undertake studies and clinical trials to assess the potential clinical employment of this enzyme as diagnostic and prognostic tool and/or its role as therapeutic target for new pharmacological interventions.

  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cagliero, Roberto;
    Country: Italy
Advanced search in
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4,493 Research products, page 1 of 450
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maria Teresa Valenti; Luca Dalle Carbonare; Donato Zipeto; Monica Mottes;
    Country: Italy

    Autophagy is involved in different degenerative diseases and it may control epigenetic modifications, metabolic processes, stem cells differentiation as well as apoptosis. Autophagy plays a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of cartilage, the tissue produced by chondrocytes; its impairment has been associated to cartilage dysfunctions such as osteoarthritis (OA). Due to their location in a reduced oxygen context, both differentiating and mature chondrocytes are at risk of premature apoptosis, which can be prevented by autophagy. AutophagomiRNAs, which regulate the autophagic process, have been found differentially expressed in OA. AutophagomiRNAs, as well as other regulatory molecules, may also be useful as therapeutic targets. In this review, we describe and discuss the role of autophagy in OA, focusing mainly on the control of autophagomiRNAs in OA pathogenesis and their potential therapeutic applications.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laura Bertolasi; Alessandra Danese; Salvatore Monaco; Mara Turri; K. Borg; L. Werhagen;
    Publisher: Bentham Open
    Country: Italy

    Background:Poliomyelitis was before the immunization an important medical problem. Nowadays polio prior patients (PP) suffer from polio sequelae or have developed post-polio-syndrome (PPS) with increasing paresis, pain and fatigue.Objectives:To analyze the medical situation 50 years after acute polio. The degree of paresis was compared between the recovery 1952-1961 and 2012.The prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for PPS was estimatedMethod:The study was performed in Italy. Included were PP with rehabilitation after acute polio 1952-1961 and in 2012. During the years PP underwent yearly evaluation. A thorough neurological examination was performed in 2012. A telephone interview with questions concerning pain, paresis, fatigue, walking aids and concomitant diseases was performed in 2012. The patients were divided in two groups, if they fulfilled the criteria for PPS or not.Results:Included were 67(94%) patients receiving rehabilitation after acute poliomyelitis and 2012. 78% were walkers, half of the PPS used wheelchair. Eight out of ten suffered from pain. Four out of ten fulfilled the PPS criteria. Pain was slightly more common in PPS.Conclusion:Female gender, fatigue and wheelchair dependency were significantly more common in PPS while pain was common in both groups.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Serena De Lucia; Ioannis Tsamesidis; Maria Carmina Pau; Kristina R. Kesely; Antonella Pantaleo; Francesco Michelangelo Turrini;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Country: Italy

    Artemisinin resistance is a major threat to malaria control efforts. Resistance is characterized by an increase in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance half-life following treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) and an increase in the percentage of surviving parasites. The remarkably short blood half-life of artemisinin derivatives may contribute to drug-resistance, possibly through factors including sub-lethal plasma concentrations and inadequate exposure. Here we selected for a new strain of artemisinin resistant parasites, termed the artemisinin resistant strain 1 (ARS1), by treating P. falciparum Palo Alto (PA) cultures with sub-lethal concentrations of dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The resistance phenotype was maintained for over 1 year through monthly maintenance treatments with low doses of 2.5 nM DHA. There was a moderate increase in the DHA IC50 in ARS1 when compared with parental strain PA after 72 h of drug exposure (from 0.68 nM to 2 nM DHA). In addition, ARS1 survived treatment physiologically relevant DHA concentrations (700 nM) observed in patients. Furthermore, we confirmed a lack of cross-resistance against a panel of antimalarials commonly used as partner drugs in ACTs. Finally, ARS1 did not contain Pfk13 propeller domain mutations associated with ART resistance in the Greater Mekong Region. With a stable growth rate, ARS1 represents a valuable tool for the development of new antimalarial compounds and studies to further elucidate the mechanisms of ART resistance.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pietro Ariani; Alice Regaiolo; Arianna Lovato; Alejandro Giorgetti; Andrea Porceddu; Salvatore Camiolo; Darren Wong; Simone D. Castellarin; Elodie Vandelle; Annalisa Polverari;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: Italy

    The Arabidopsis Toxicos en Levadura (ATL) protein family is a class of E3 ubiquitin ligases with a characteristic RING-H2 Zn-finger structure that mediates diverse physiological processes and stress responses in plants. We carried out a genome-wide survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) ATL genes and retrieved 96 sequences containing the canonical ATL RING-H2 domain. We analysed their genomic organisation, gene structure and evolution, protein domains and phylogenetic relationships. Clustering revealed several clades, as already reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), with an expanded subgroup of grapevine-specific genes. Most of the grapevine ATL genes lacked introns and were scattered among the 19 chromosomes, with a high level of duplication retention. Expression profiling revealed that some ATL genes are expressed specifically during early or late development and may participate in the juvenile to mature plant transition, whereas others may play a role in pathogen and/or abiotic stress responses, making them key candidates for further functional analysis. Our data offer the first genome-wide overview and annotation of the grapevine ATL family, and provide a basis for investigating the roles of specific family members in grapevine physiology and stress responses, as well as potential biotechnological applications.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jennifer Kube; Nicole Ebner; Ewa A. Jankowska; Piotr Rozentryt; Mariantonietta Cicoira; Gerasimos Filippatos; Piotr Ponikowski; Wolfram Doehner; Stefan D. Anker; Stephan von Haehling;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Italy

    Abstract Background Natriuretic peptides play an important role in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute and chronic heart failure. Multiple studies have shown that these peptides are liable to the influence of individual factors. For N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) some of these confounding factors have been evaluated over the years such as age, gender, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to establish confounding factors of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) assessment. Methods and results We studied 684 patients (94% male, age 61.2±11.2, left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] 2 , mean MR-proANP 296.0±281.0pmol/L, mean NT-proBNP 2792.0±5328.6pg/mL, mean creatinine level 110.2±38.0μmol/L and mean haemoglobin 13.9±1.5g/dL) with clinically stable chronic heart failure. MR-proANP levels increased with increasing NYHA class (p Conclusion MR-proANP is subject to the almost identical influencing factors like NT-proBNP. The effects of anaemia warrant further study.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antonio Nouvenne; Andrea Ticinesi; Giuseppina Folesani; Nicoletta Cerundolo; Beatrice Prati; Ilaria Morelli; Loredana Guida; Fulvio Lauretani; Marcello Maggio; Rosalia Aloe; +2 more
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Country: Italy

    Background Serum procalcitonin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) elevations have been associated with pneumonia in adults. Our aim was to establish their diagnostic usefulness in a cohort of hospitalized multimorbid patients ≥65 years old admitted to hospital with acute respiratory symptoms. Methods With a retrospective cohort study design, all multimorbid patients ≥65 years-old with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to an internal medicine hospital ward in Italy from January to August 2013 were evaluated. Pneumonia diagnosis, comorbidities expressed through Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS), setting of living, length of stay, serum hs-CRP and procalcitonin at admission were collected for each patient. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney’s U test and multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis. A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to verify each biomarker’s association with pneumonia diagnosis. Results Four hundred fifty five patients (227 M) were included in the study, of whom 239 with pneumonia (138 M, mean age 80 ± 13) and 216 without pneumonia (89 M, mean age 80 ± 14). After adjustment for age and sex, median levels of hs-CRP were significantly higher in patients with pneumonia (116 mg/L, IQR 46.5–179.0, vs 22.5 mg/dl, IQR 6.9–84.4, p 61 mg/L were independently associated with a 3.59-fold increased risk of pneumonia (OR 3.59, 95 % CI 2.35–5.48, p < 0.0001). Conclusion In elderly multimorbid patients who require hospital admission for respiratory symptoms, serum hs-CRP testing seems to be more useful than procalcitonin for guiding the diagnostic process when clinical suspicion of pneumonia is present. Procalcitonin testing might hence be not recommended in this setting.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Francesco De Sanctis; Sara Sandri; Giovanna Ferrarini; Irene Pagliarello; Silvia Sartoris; Stefano Ugel; Ilaria Marigo; Barbara Molon; Vincenzo Bronte;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Italy

    Under many inflammatory contexts, such as tumor progression, systemic and peripheral immune response is tailored by reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-dependent post-translational modifications, suggesting a biological function for these chemical alterations. RNS modify both soluble factors and receptors essential to induce and maintain a tumor-specific immune response, creating a “chemical barrier” that impairs effector T cell infiltration and functionality in tumor microenvironment and supports the escape phase of cancer. RNS generation during tumor growth mainly depends on nitric oxide production by both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells that constitutively activate essential metabolic pathways of l-arginine catabolism. This review provides an overview of the potential immunological and biological role of RNS-induced modifications and addresses new approaches targeting RNS either in search of novel biomarkers or to improve anti-cancer treatment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sohaib Ali Korai; Federico Ranieri; Vincenzo Di Lazzaro; Michele Papa; Michele Papa; Giovanni Cirillo; Giovanni Cirillo;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Italy

    Non-invasive low-intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) of the brain is an evolving field that has brought remarkable attention in the past few decades for its ability to directly modulate specific brain functions. Neurobiological after-effects of tES seems to be related to changes in neuronal and synaptic excitability and plasticity, however mechanisms are still far from being elucidated. We aim to review recent results from in vitro and in vivo studies that highlight molecular and cellular mechanisms of transcranial direct (tDCS) and alternating (tACS) current stimulation. Changes in membrane potential and neural synchronization explain the ongoing and short-lasting effects of tES, while changes induced in existing proteins and new protein synthesis is required for long-lasting plastic changes (LTP/LTD). Glial cells, for decades supporting elements, are now considered constitutive part of the synapse and might contribute to the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. This review brings into focus the neurobiological mechanisms and after-effects of tDCS and tACS from in vitro and in vivo studies, in both animals and humans, highlighting possible pathways for the development of targeted therapeutic applications.

  • Publication . Article . 2015
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Valentina Masola; Gianluigi Zaza; Maurizio Onisto; Antonio Lupo; Giovanni Gambaro;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Italy

    Tubulo-interstitial fibrosis has been recognized as the hallmark of progression of chronic kidney disease, but, despite intensive research studies, there are currently no biomarkers or effective treatments for this condition. In this context, a promising candidate could be heparanase-1 (HPSE), an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate chains and thus takes part in extracellular matrix remodeling. As largely described, it has a central role in the pathogenesis of cancer and inflammation, and it participates in the complex biological machinery involved in the onset of different renal proteinuric diseases (e.g., diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis). Additionally, HPSE may significantly influence the progression of chronic kidney damage trough its major role in the biological pathway of renal fibrogenesis. Here, we briefly summarize data supporting the role of HPSE in renal damage, focusing on recent evidences that demonstrate the capability of this enzyme to modulate the signaling of pro-fibrotic factors such as FGF-2 and TGF-β and consequently to control the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubular cells. We also emphasize the need of the research community to undertake studies and clinical trials to assess the potential clinical employment of this enzyme as diagnostic and prognostic tool and/or its role as therapeutic target for new pharmacological interventions.

  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cagliero, Roberto;
    Country: Italy
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