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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tartu Ülikool;

    http://tartu.ester.ee/record=b1025951~S1*est

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Õunapuu, Piret;

    The aim of this research is, above all, to investigate the formation story of the Estonians’ own museum, with the emphasis on the relations between the museum and people. The evolution of the idea of the Estonian National Museum (ENM) and its realization reflects the maturing story of Estonian people into a nation. After the official foundation of the ENM in 1909, during the first decade of its existence, the museum underwent a change in its paradigm, growing from a national-romantic idea generated by a few intellectuals into a memory institution with extensive membership and clear visions. The museum constructed a valued past narrative, through which it was possible to find in the past the things to be proud of and to prove that Estonians are also a cultured nation. The strategies and practices of the ENM in pursuing its objectives were directed both inside and outside the museum. During the initial years of the museum the primary course of action constituted heritage collection and shaping the essence of the museum, which in European context yielded a remarkable result. The museum statutes had stipulated broad-based objectives and although as early as during the initial years of its existence the museum had theoretically developed into a versatile institution, in practice the identity was based on material heritage. There was still no wider intellectual potential for elaborating the results: however, the unique collections presented a great opportunity for the future specialists. Käesoleva uurimistöö eesmärgiks on eelkõige selgitada välja eesti rahva oma muuseumi kujunemise lugu rõhuasetusega muuseumi ja rahva vahelisel suhtel. Eesti Rahva Muuseumi (ERM) mõtte areng ja teoks saamine peegeldab eesti rahva rahvuseks küpsemise lugu. 1909. aastal ametlikult eluõiguse saanud muuseumi esimese kümnendi jooksul toimus paradigma muutus, kus üksikute haritlaste idealistlikust rahvusromantilisest ideest kujunes välja rahvaga aktiivselt suhtlev laiaulatusliku liikmeskonnaga ja selgete sihtidega mäluasutus. Muuseum konstrueeris väärtustatud mineviku narratiivi, mille kaudu oli võimalik leida oma minevikust seda, mille üle uhke olla ja mille kaudu tõestada, et ka eestlased on kultuurrahvas. ERMi strateegiad ja praktikad eesmärkide elluviimisel olid suunatud nii muuseumi sisse- kui väljapoole. Esmaoluline tegevussuund muuseumi esimeste aastate jooksul vanavara korjamise ja muuseumile sisu moodustamise näol andis kogu Euroopa kontekstis tähelepanuväärse tulemuse. Muuseumi põhikiri oli sätestanud laiapõhjalised eesmärgid ja kuigi muuseumist kujunes teoreetiliselt juba esimestel aastatel mitmekülgne institutsioon, sai aga praktikas identiteedi alus vanavarast. Tulemuste teaduslikuks läbitöötamiseks puudus veel laiem vaimne potentsiaal, see-eest oli loodud võimalus tulevastele erialateadlastele suurepäraste ja unikaalsete kollektsioonide näol.

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    Authors: Arutyunyan, David;

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate Estonian history textbooks published in the Republic of Estonia in Estonian as well as in Russian languages and used in the gymnasium during the period from 1991-2012. The thesis is focused on the following landmarks in the history of Estonia: The World War II, the Stalin's repressions, the time under the Soviet rule, the collapse of the Soviet union and the sovereignty of Estonia stemming from it. It is these periods and landmarks which may originate different theoretical interpretations of history in terms of the framework of Estonian Republic. Estonian as well as Russian textbooks of history for gymnasium can serve as sources and media for interpretations. Topicality and actual value of the thesis today is certain and evident owing to the reasons. Since it is perfectly possible to influence and shape the worldviews and perspectives of a personality especially during one's reaching the age of puberty. History textbooks or as in the case Estonian textbooks on history in particular are the means enabling to create certain viewpoints and perspectives. School plays the role of institution with its curricula realizing the mentioned function. The young among the local Estonians as well as Russian-speaking minorities may have different perspectives and viewpoints. Besides that, the Estonian textbooks used do not necessarily reflect the historical facts the same way, neither give similar understanding of the same landmarks of significance. Given the mentioned assumptions it is important to learn whether the history textbooks published in this particular time lapse in Estonia have possibly influenced in certain way and shaped different understandings of the past events or on the contrary, suggest the same identical worldview and perspective or imply several alternative possible interpretations. There have been made certain conclusions with the help of analysis made on the basis of comparisons and juxtaposing. The conclusions found are that Estonian textbooks can shape and create different viewpoints being in stark contrast with one another. There are differences between the Estonians textbooks written in Russian and Estonian as well as numerous differences between the textbooks written in Estonian. It is worth mentioning that the difference between the textbooks written in Russian language are negligible and minor.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tolonen, Mikko; Mäkelä, Eetu; Marjanen, Jani; Tahko, Tuuli;

    Peer reviewed

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kask, Arnold;

    http://tartu.ester.ee/record=b1276397~S1*est

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    Authors: Tammisto, Ilmar;

    Anyone that has studied Estonian history has at least some sort of a perception of both the Baltic German nobility and the time period when the territory of modern-day Estonia was a part of the Swedish empire. The expression “good old Swedish time” is well known to most Estonians, even if one is not entirely certain of what is meant by the expression. Similarly, the stereotype of a cruel and greedy landlord who only seeks personal gain is a familiar one. The goal of my dissertation was to offer additional interpretations about the aspirations and attitudes of the Swedish state authorities and the Baltic German nobility. I focused on Swedish Livland (an administrative unit on the territory of modern-day Southern-Estonia and Northern-Latvia) in the years 1634 to 1680. During this time there was a significant increase in the influence of the Livonian nobility and a network of institutions run by the local nobility developed in Livland, which in many respects formed a parallel governance structure to that of the state. Among other things, I wanted to find out why the Swedish state authorities allowed these developments to occur and what was the Livonian nobility trying to achieve with the help of their strengthened position. I reached the conclusion that the aforementioned developments were largely influenced by the expectation of mutual benefits. Swedish state authorities hoped that in return for certain favours, they could acquire additional resources from the Livonian nobility and affirm their allegiance to the Swedish crown. It became evident that besides collecting taxes and protecting the province, the state had very limited capacities to deal with other issues. Although there were problems with public violence, conditions of roads and bridges, efficiency of the courts and many other issues, the representatives of the state showed little initiative to deal with them. Here, the local nobility stepped in. In return for giving up resources, the Livonian nobility sought the permission of the state to deal with the issues troubling the land. For this end, proposals were made to state officials for the issuing of regulations and the founding of new institutions, the offices of which were in most cases without any kind of remuneration. To conclude, it can be said that the expectation of mutual benefits was largely met for both sides – the nobility generally acceded to the demands of the state and in return had the opportunity to influence local governance in a way that was suitable to them. Igaühel, kes on õppinud Eesti ajalugu, on vähemalt mingisugune ettekujutus nii baltisaksa aadlist kui ka ajast, mil tänapäevase Eesti territoorium kuulus Rootsi riigi koosseisu. Väljend „vana hea Rootsi aeg“ on enamikele tuttav, isegi kui ei olda päris kindlad, et milles siis ikkagi see Rootsi aja headus seisnes. Samamoodi kangastub hõlpsasti kujutelm julmast ja ahnest mõisnikust, kes üksnes enda kitsaste erahuvide eest seisis. Seadsin enda doktoritöös eesmärgiks pakkuda täiendavaid tõlgendusi Rootsi riigivõimu ja baltisaksa aadli püüdlustele ja hoiakutele. Keskendusin Rootsi riigi koosseisu kuulunud Liivimaale (tänapäevase Lõuna-Eesti ja Põhja-Läti aladel asunud haldusüksus) aastatel 1634—1680. Kõnealusel ajavahemikul kasvas Liivimaal märgatavalt kohaliku aadli mõjuvõim ning kujunes välja aadli hallatud institutsioonide võrgustik, mis moodustas mitmes mõttes paralleelse haldusstruktuuri riikliku oma kõrval. Soovisin töös muu hulgas teada saada, miks lasi Rootsi riigivõim sellisel olukorral tekkida ning mida üritasid Liivimaa aadlikud tugevnenud positsiooni abil saavutada. Jõudsin järeldusele, et kirjeldatud arenguid tõukas suuresti tagant vastastikuse kasu ootus. Rootsi riigivõim lootis Liivimaa aadlile järeleandmisi tehes hankida neilt vastutasuks täiendavaid ressursse ning kindlustada kohaliku aadli lojaalsus Rootsi riigi ees. Töös ilmnes, et peale maksude kogumise ja Liivimaa kaitsmise jagus riigivõimul vähe võimekust muude teemadega tegelemiseks. Olgugi et probleeme oli maal lokkava vägivalla, teede seisukorra, kohtute efektiivsuse ja palju muuga, näitasid riigivõimu esindajad üles vähest initsiatiivi nendega tegelemiseks. Siin astus mängu kohalik aadel, kes soovis vastutasuks ressursside loovutamise eest riigivõimu luba maad vaevanud probleeme lahendada. Selleks tehti riigivõimule ettepanekuid kõikvõimalike korralduste väljaandmiseks ning uute institutsioonide asutamiseks, kusjuures loodud ametikohad olid enamasti tasustamata. Kokkuvõtteks võib öelda, et kirjeldatud vastastikuse kasu ootus suuresti realiseerus – aadel üldjuhul nõustus riigivõimu nõudmistega ning sai vastutasuks kujundada kohalikku haldust neile sobivas suunas. https://www.ester.ee/record=b5553406

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    Authors: Tark, Triin;

    Siinne doktoritöö käsitleb rahvuskuuluvuse tähendust inimeste ja riigi vahelistes suhetes 20. sajandi esimesel poolel, kasutades näidisvalimina 1941. aastal Eestist Saksamaale ümber asunud inimeste andmeid. Uurimuse eesmärk on selgitada, kas ja kuidas riiklik rahvuspoliitika mõjutas inimeste käitumist ja vastupidi – mil määral mõjutasid inimeste valikud riikide tegevust. Valimisse hõlmatud inimestest suurem osa puutus uuritaval perioodil kokku nelja riigi – Venemaa keisririigi, Eesti Vabariigi, Nõukogude Liidu ja Saksamaa – rahvuspoliitikaga. Nende põhimõtteliselt erineva rahvuspoliitikaga riikide käsitlemine võimaldab tuvastada rahvuse ühiskondliku tähenduse universaalseid jooni. Eesmärgi täitmiseks analüüsiti inimeste eluloolisi andmeid, seadusandlust ja rahvuspoliitikat puudutavat dokumentatsiooni ning ühiskondlikke olusid puudutavaid allikaid. Doktoritööst selgus, et üksikisikute rahvuskuuluvuse formaalne määramine osutus 20. sajandi esimesel poolel keeruliseks nii riikide kui ka inimeste jaoks, sest puudusid selged kriteeriumid viimaste rahvuspõhiseks kategoriseerimiseks, ühtsed arusaamad rahvuste olemusest ning takistav tegur oli ka mõlema poole pragmaatiliste kaalutluste domineerimine rahvuse määramisel. Mida suurem oli rahvuskuuluvuse formaalne tähtsus, seda enam olid üksikisikute valikud tingitud olukorrast ning märksa vähem nende harjumuspärasest keele- ja kultuurikeskkonnast. Seetõttu ei õnnestunud riikidel peaaegu kunagi soovitud määral rakendada essentsialistlikke ja objektiivsusele pretendeerinud rahvuse määramise kriteeriume, isegi kui see oli eesmärk ja taolisi põhimõtteid seadustega kehtestada püüti. Samuti ei olnud riigid objektiivsuse rakendamisel põhimõttelised ja järjekindlad, vaid kohandasid seisukohti vastavalt pragmaatilistele huvidele ning inimeste käitumisele. Üksikisikute valikutel oli riiklikele poliitikatele märkimisväärne mõju, ehkki arvuliselt oli muutliku ja ebamäärase rahvuskuuluvusega inimesi ühiskonnas marginaalselt. This dissertation focuses on the meaning of ethnicity in the relations between individuals and states in the first half of the 20th century using the biographical data of people who resettled from Estonia to Germany in 1941 as a sample. The aim of this study is to explain whether and how ethnopolitics of the states influenced the behaviour of individuals and vice versa – to what extent individual choices influenced state policy. Most people in the sample were affected by the ethnopolitics of four states: Russian Empire, Estonian Republic, Soviet Union, and Germany. Analysing the states with fundamentally different ethnopolitics enables to identify universal characteristics of the role of ethnicity in the society. To fulfil the aim, biographical data, legislation, and documentation about ethnopolitics as well as sources about the social conditions were analysed. The dissertation shows that fixing individuals’ ethnicity turned out to be difficult for both parties – the states and individuals – since there were no clear criteria for ethnic categorisation and no common understanding about the nature of ethnicity. Pragmatic considerations of both parties also turned out to be an obstacle. The more formal importance ethnicity had, the more individuals made choices dependent on the situation and not so much on their customary lingual and cultural environment. Therefore, the states almost always failed to implement essentialist and objective criteria in fixing individuals’ ethnicity in a desired manner, even if such criteria were their aim and established by law. Furthermore, the authorities of the states were neither principled nor consistent in applying objective criteria. The states had to adapt their stances to their own pragmatic interests and according to the behaviour of individuals instead. Thus, individual choices had a remarkable impact on ethnopolitics, although people with dynamic and vague ethnic identity formed a marginal group in the society. https://www.ester.ee/record=b5450809

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  • The database consists of three sets: - Many Talker Set: 30 males, 30 females; each to read 50 numbers, 1-2 connected passages, 1 block of "filler" sentences, and 1 block of syllables. - Few Talker Set: 4 males, 4 females; each to read 50 numbers, 10 connected passages, 1 block of "filler" sentences, and 2-3 blocks of syllables. - Very Few Talker Set: 1 male, 1 female; each to read 2 blocks of 50 numbers, 40 connected passages, 4 blocks of "filler" sentences, and 9 blocks of syllables. Total amount ca 12 hours of speech.

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  • Authors: Hints, Olle; Aren, Mariliis; Hang, Tiit; Kaljo, Dimitri; +8 Authors

    Geoloogiline ajaskaala 2023 on IUGSi Rahvusvahelise Stratigraafia Komisjoni poolt kinnitatud kronostratigraafilise skeemi (versioon 2023/09) eestindatud väljaanne. Stratigraafiliste üksuste nimed on kinnitanud Eesti Stratigraafia Komisjon ning need on soovituslikuks kasutamiseks kõigis eestikeelsetes vastavaid termineid kasutavates väljaannetes. Võrreldes eestindatud ajaskaala eelmise versiooniga (https://doi.org/10.23679/513) on GSSP-ga fikseeritud Langhe, Barreme'i ja Campania lademe (ea) alumised piirid ning täpsustatud nende numbrilised vanused. Ühtlasi on kaasajastatud kõigi Juura ajastu lademete (igade) numbrilised vanused. Hadaikumi algus on uues versioonis defineeritud GSSA-ga, mille numbriline vanus on 4567.3 ±0.16 mln. Arhaikumi alumise piiri vanuseks loetakse nüüd 4031 ±3 mln (seni 4000 mln).

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    Authors: Sirts, Kairit;

    Uurimistöö eesmärgiks oli välja töötada meetod tekstilise andmestiku kogumiseks, mille alusel saaks hiljem arendada masinõppel põhinevaid meetodeid depressiooni ja ärevuse riski automaatseks hindamiseks. Töö käigus koostati ankeet, mille abil koguti tekstilist materjali ligi 300-st vabatahtlikust koosnevalt mugavusvalimilt. Kogutud tekstid sisaldasid nii etteantud pildi kirjeldust kui ka vabalt valitud sündmuse või mälestuse kirjeldust. Valimis osalenute emotsionaalset seisundit mõõdeti EEK-2 skriiningtesti abil. Ligi 42% isikutest ületas depressiooni ning ligi 30% isikutest ärevuse alaskaala riskilävendi. Esialgsed eksperimendid masinõppe mudelitega, mis püüdsid ennustada, kas inimese EEK-2 skoor ületab depressiooni ja/või ärevuse riskilävendi, edukaid tulemusi ei andnud. Kokkuvõttes tundub, et etteantud pildi kirjeldamine ei ole sobivaim viis soovitud andmestiku kogumiseks ja pigem peaks kasutama selliseid kirjutamise ülesandeid, mis oleks inimese endaga rohkem seotud.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tartu Ülikool;

    http://tartu.ester.ee/record=b1025951~S1*est

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    Authors: Õunapuu, Piret;

    The aim of this research is, above all, to investigate the formation story of the Estonians’ own museum, with the emphasis on the relations between the museum and people. The evolution of the idea of the Estonian National Museum (ENM) and its realization reflects the maturing story of Estonian people into a nation. After the official foundation of the ENM in 1909, during the first decade of its existence, the museum underwent a change in its paradigm, growing from a national-romantic idea generated by a few intellectuals into a memory institution with extensive membership and clear visions. The museum constructed a valued past narrative, through which it was possible to find in the past the things to be proud of and to prove that Estonians are also a cultured nation. The strategies and practices of the ENM in pursuing its objectives were directed both inside and outside the museum. During the initial years of the museum the primary course of action constituted heritage collection and shaping the essence of the museum, which in European context yielded a remarkable result. The museum statutes had stipulated broad-based objectives and although as early as during the initial years of its existence the museum had theoretically developed into a versatile institution, in practice the identity was based on material heritage. There was still no wider intellectual potential for elaborating the results: however, the unique collections presented a great opportunity for the future specialists. Käesoleva uurimistöö eesmärgiks on eelkõige selgitada välja eesti rahva oma muuseumi kujunemise lugu rõhuasetusega muuseumi ja rahva vahelisel suhtel. Eesti Rahva Muuseumi (ERM) mõtte areng ja teoks saamine peegeldab eesti rahva rahvuseks küpsemise lugu. 1909. aastal ametlikult eluõiguse saanud muuseumi esimese kümnendi jooksul toimus paradigma muutus, kus üksikute haritlaste idealistlikust rahvusromantilisest ideest kujunes välja rahvaga aktiivselt suhtlev laiaulatusliku liikmeskonnaga ja selgete sihtidega mäluasutus. Muuseum konstrueeris väärtustatud mineviku narratiivi, mille kaudu oli võimalik leida oma minevikust seda, mille üle uhke olla ja mille kaudu tõestada, et ka eestlased on kultuurrahvas. ERMi strateegiad ja praktikad eesmärkide elluviimisel olid suunatud nii muuseumi sisse- kui väljapoole. Esmaoluline tegevussuund muuseumi esimeste aastate jooksul vanavara korjamise ja muuseumile sisu moodustamise näol andis kogu Euroopa kontekstis tähelepanuväärse tulemuse. Muuseumi põhikiri oli sätestanud laiapõhjalised eesmärgid ja kuigi muuseumist kujunes teoreetiliselt juba esimestel aastatel mitmekülgne institutsioon, sai aga praktikas identiteedi alus vanavarast. Tulemuste teaduslikuks läbitöötamiseks puudus veel laiem vaimne potentsiaal, see-eest oli loodud võimalus tulevastele erialateadlastele suurepäraste ja unikaalsete kollektsioonide näol.

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    Authors: Arutyunyan, David;

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate Estonian history textbooks published in the Republic of Estonia in Estonian as well as in Russian languages and used in the gymnasium during the period from 1991-2012. The thesis is focused on the following landmarks in the history of Estonia: The World War II, the Stalin's repressions, the time under the Soviet rule, the collapse of the Soviet union and the sovereignty of Estonia stemming from it. It is these periods and landmarks which may originate different theoretical interpretations of history in terms of the framework of Estonian Republic. Estonian as well as Russian textbooks of history for gymnasium can serve as sources and media for interpretations. Topicality and actual value of the thesis today is certain and evident owing to the reasons. Since it is perfectly possible to influence and shape the worldviews and perspectives of a personality especially during one's reaching the age of puberty. History textbooks or as in the case Estonian textbooks on history in particular are the means enabling to create certain viewpoints and perspectives. School plays the role of institution with its curricula realizing the mentioned function. The young among the local Estonians as well as Russian-speaking minorities may have different perspectives and viewpoints. Besides that, the Estonian textbooks used do not necessarily reflect the historical facts the same way, neither give similar understanding of the same landmarks of significance. Given the mentioned assumptions it is important to learn whether the history textbooks published in this particular time lapse in Estonia have possibly influenced in certain way and shaped different understandings of the past events or on the contrary, suggest the same identical worldview and perspective or imply several alternative possible interpretations. There have been made certain conclusions with the help of analysis made on the basis of comparisons and juxtaposing. The conclusions found are that Estonian textbooks can shape and create different viewpoints being in stark contrast with one another. There are differences between the Estonians textbooks written in Russian and Estonian as well as numerous differences between the textbooks written in Estonian. It is worth mentioning that the difference between the textbooks written in Russian language are negligible and minor.

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    Authors: Tolonen, Mikko; Mäkelä, Eetu; Marjanen, Jani; Tahko, Tuuli;

    Peer reviewed

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    Authors: Kask, Arnold;

    http://tartu.ester.ee/record=b1276397~S1*est

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    Authors: Tammisto, Ilmar;

    Anyone that has studied Estonian history has at least some sort of a perception of both the Baltic German nobility and the time period when the territory of modern-day Estonia was a part of the Swedish empire. The expression “good old Swedish time” is well known to most Estonians, even if one is not entirely certain of what is meant by the expression. Similarly, the stereotype of a cruel and greedy landlord who only seeks personal gain is a familiar one. The goal of my dissertation was to offer additional interpretations about the aspirations and attitudes of the Swedish state authorities and the Baltic German nobility. I focused on Swedish Livland (an administrative unit on the territory of modern-day Southern-Estonia and Northern-Latvia) in the years 1634 to 1680. During this time there was a significant increase in the influence of the Livonian nobility and a network of institutions run by the local nobility developed in Livland, which in many respects formed a parallel governance structure to that of the state. Among other things, I wanted to find out why the Swedish state authorities allowed these developments to occur and what was the Livonian nobility trying to achieve with the help of their strengthened position. I reached the conclusion that the aforementioned developments were largely influenced by the expectation of mutual benefits. Swedish state authorities hoped that in return for certain favours, they could acquire additional resources from the Livonian nobility and affirm their allegiance to the Swedish crown. It became evident that besides collecting taxes and protecting the province, the state had very limited capacities to deal with other issues. Although there were problems with public violence, conditions of roads and bridges, efficiency of the courts and many other issues, the representatives of the state showed little initiative to deal with them. Here, the local nobility stepped in. In return for giving up resources, the Livonian nobility sought the permission of the state to deal with the issues troubling the land. For this end, proposals were made to state officials for the issuing of regulations and the founding of new institutions, the offices of which were in most cases without any kind of remuneration. To conclude, it can be said that the expectation of mutual benefits was largely met for both sides – the nobility generally acceded to the demands of the state and in return had the opportunity to influence local governance in a way that was suitable to them. Igaühel, kes on õppinud Eesti ajalugu, on vähemalt mingisugune ettekujutus nii baltisaksa aadlist kui ka ajast, mil tänapäevase Eesti territoorium kuulus Rootsi riigi koosseisu. Väljend „vana hea Rootsi aeg“ on enamikele tuttav, isegi kui ei olda päris kindlad, et milles siis ikkagi see Rootsi aja headus seisnes. Samamoodi kangastub hõlpsasti kujutelm julmast ja ahnest mõisnikust, kes üksnes enda kitsaste erahuvide eest seisis. Seadsin enda doktoritöös eesmärgiks pakkuda täiendavaid tõlgendusi Rootsi riigivõimu ja baltisaksa aadli püüdlustele ja hoiakutele. Keskendusin Rootsi riigi koosseisu kuulunud Liivimaale (tänapäevase Lõuna-Eesti ja Põhja-Läti aladel asunud haldusüksus) aastatel 1634—1680. Kõnealusel ajavahemikul kasvas Liivimaal märgatavalt kohaliku aadli mõjuvõim ning kujunes välja aadli hallatud institutsioonide võrgustik, mis moodustas mitmes mõttes paralleelse haldusstruktuuri riikliku oma kõrval. Soovisin töös muu hulgas teada saada, miks lasi Rootsi riigivõim sellisel olukorral tekkida ning mida üritasid Liivimaa aadlikud tugevnenud positsiooni abil saavutada. Jõudsin järeldusele, et kirjeldatud arenguid tõukas suuresti tagant vastastikuse kasu ootus. Rootsi riigivõim lootis Liivimaa aadlile järeleandmisi tehes hankida neilt vastutasuks täiendavaid ressursse ning kindlustada kohaliku aadli lojaalsus Rootsi riigi ees. Töös ilmnes, et peale maksude kogumise ja Liivimaa kaitsmise jagus riigivõimul vähe võimekust muude teemadega tegelemiseks. Olgugi et probleeme oli maal lokkava vägivalla, teede seisukorra, kohtute efektiivsuse ja palju muuga, näitasid riigivõimu esindajad üles vähest initsiatiivi nendega tegelemiseks. Siin astus mängu kohalik aadel, kes soovis vastutasuks ressursside loovutamise eest riigivõimu luba maad vaevanud probleeme lahendada. Selleks tehti riigivõimule ettepanekuid kõikvõimalike korralduste väljaandmiseks ning uute institutsioonide asutamiseks, kusjuures loodud ametikohad olid enamasti tasustamata. Kokkuvõtteks võib öelda, et kirjeldatud vastastikuse kasu ootus suuresti realiseerus – aadel üldjuhul nõustus riigivõimu nõudmistega ning sai vastutasuks kujundada kohalikku haldust neile sobivas suunas. https://www.ester.ee/record=b5553406

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    Authors: Tark, Triin;

    Siinne doktoritöö käsitleb rahvuskuuluvuse tähendust inimeste ja riigi vahelistes suhetes 20. sajandi esimesel poolel, kasutades näidisvalimina 1941. aastal Eestist Saksamaale ümber asunud inimeste andmeid. Uurimuse eesmärk on selgitada, kas ja kuidas riiklik rahvuspoliitika mõjutas inimeste käitumist ja vastupidi – mil määral mõjutasid inimeste valikud riikide tegevust. Valimisse hõlmatud inimestest suurem osa puutus uuritaval perioodil kokku nelja riigi – Venemaa keisririigi, Eesti Vabariigi, Nõukogude Liidu ja Saksamaa – rahvuspoliitikaga. Nende põhimõtteliselt erineva rahvuspoliitikaga riikide käsitlemine võimaldab tuvastada rahvuse ühiskondliku tähenduse universaalseid jooni. Eesmärgi täitmiseks analüüsiti inimeste eluloolisi andmeid, seadusandlust ja rahvuspoliitikat puudutavat dokumentatsiooni ning ühiskondlikke olusid puudutavaid allikaid. Doktoritööst selgus, et üksikisikute rahvuskuuluvuse formaalne määramine osutus 20. sajandi esimesel poolel keeruliseks nii riikide kui ka inimeste jaoks, sest puudusid selged kriteeriumid viimaste rahvuspõhiseks kategoriseerimiseks, ühtsed arusaamad rahvuste olemusest ning takistav tegur oli ka mõlema poole pragmaatiliste kaalutluste domineerimine rahvuse määramisel. Mida suurem oli rahvuskuuluvuse formaalne tähtsus, seda enam olid üksikisikute valikud tingitud olukorrast ning märksa vähem nende harjumuspärasest keele- ja kultuurikeskkonnast. Seetõttu ei õnnestunud riikidel peaaegu kunagi soovitud määral rakendada essentsialistlikke ja objektiivsusele pretendeerinud rahvuse määramise kriteeriume, isegi kui see oli eesmärk ja taolisi põhimõtteid seadustega kehtestada püüti. Samuti ei olnud riigid objektiivsuse rakendamisel põhimõttelised ja järjekindlad, vaid kohandasid seisukohti vastavalt pragmaatilistele huvidele ning inimeste käitumisele. Üksikisikute valikutel oli riiklikele poliitikatele märkimisväärne mõju, ehkki arvuliselt oli muutliku ja ebamäärase rahvuskuuluvusega inimesi ühiskonnas marginaalselt. This dissertation focuses on the meaning of ethnicity in the relations between individuals and states in the first half of the 20th century using the biographical data of people who resettled from Estonia to Germany in 1941 as a sample. The aim of this study is to explain whether and how ethnopolitics of the states influenced the behaviour of individuals and vice versa – to what extent individual choices influenced state policy. Most people in the sample were affected by the ethnopolitics of four states: Russian Empire, Estonian Republic, Soviet Union, and Germany. Analysing the states with fundamentally different ethnopolitics enables to identify universal characteristics of the role of ethnicity in the society. To fulfil the aim, biographical data, legislation, and documentation about ethnopolitics as well as sources about the social conditions were analysed. The dissertation shows that fixing individuals’ ethnicity turned out to be difficult for both parties – the states and individuals – since there were no clear criteria for ethnic categorisation and no common understanding about the nature of ethnicity. Pragmatic considerations of both parties also turned out to be an obstacle. The more formal importance ethnicity had, the more individuals made choices dependent on the situation and not so much on their customary lingual and cultural environment. Therefore, the states almost always failed to implement essentialist and objective criteria in fixing individuals’ ethnicity in a desired manner, even if such criteria were their aim and established by law. Furthermore, the authorities of the states were neither principled nor consistent in applying objective criteria. The states had to adapt their stances to their own pragmatic interests and according to the behaviour of individuals instead. Thus, individual choices had a remarkable impact on ethnopolitics, although people with dynamic and vague ethnic identity formed a marginal group in the society. https://www.ester.ee/record=b5450809

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  • The database consists of three sets: - Many Talker Set: 30 males, 30 females; each to read 50 numbers, 1-2 connected passages, 1 block of "filler" sentences, and 1 block of syllables. - Few Talker Set: 4 males, 4 females; each to read 50 numbers, 10 connected passages, 1 block of "filler" sentences, and 2-3 blocks of syllables. - Very Few Talker Set: 1 male, 1 female; each to read 2 blocks of 50 numbers, 40 connected passages, 4 blocks of "filler" sentences, and 9 blocks of syllables. Total amount ca 12 hours of speech.

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  • Authors: Hints, Olle; Aren, Mariliis; Hang, Tiit; Kaljo, Dimitri; +8 Authors

    Geoloogiline ajaskaala 2023 on IUGSi Rahvusvahelise Stratigraafia Komisjoni poolt kinnitatud kronostratigraafilise skeemi (versioon 2023/09) eestindatud väljaanne. Stratigraafiliste üksuste nimed on kinnitanud Eesti Stratigraafia Komisjon ning need on soovituslikuks kasutamiseks kõigis eestikeelsetes vastavaid termineid kasutavates väljaannetes. Võrreldes eestindatud ajaskaala eelmise versiooniga (https://doi.org/10.23679/513) on GSSP-ga fikseeritud Langhe, Barreme'i ja Campania lademe (ea) alumised piirid ning täpsustatud nende numbrilised vanused. Ühtlasi on kaasajastatud kõigi Juura ajastu lademete (igade) numbrilised vanused. Hadaikumi algus on uues versioonis defineeritud GSSA-ga, mille numbriline vanus on 4567.3 ±0.16 mln. Arhaikumi alumise piiri vanuseks loetakse nüüd 4031 ±3 mln (seni 4000 mln).

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