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  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Other literature type . Preprint . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mirko Severi; Roberto Udisti; Silvia Becagli; Barbara Stenni; Rita Traversi;
    Country: Italy

    Abstract. The age scale synchronisation between the Talos Dome and the EPICA Dome C ice cores was carried on through the identification of several common volcanic signatures. This paper describes the rigorous method, using the signature of volcanic sulphate, which was employed for the last 42 kyr of the record. Using this tight stratigraphic link, we transferred the EDC age scale to the Talos Dome ice core, producing a new age scale for the last 12 kyr. We estimated the discrepancies between the modelled TALDICE-1 age scale and the new scale during the studied period, by evaluating the ratio R of the apparent duration of temporal intervals between pairs of isochrones. Except for a very few cases, R ranges between 0.8 and 1.2, corresponding to an uncertainty of up to 20% in the estimate of the time duration in at least one of the two ice cores. At this stage our approach does not allow us to unequivocally identify which of the models is affected by errors, but, taking into account only the historically known volcanic events, we found that discrepancies up to 200 yr appear in the last two millennia in the TALDICE-1 model, while our new age scale shows a much better agreement with the volcanic absolute horizons. Thus, we propose for the Talos Dome ice core a new age scale (covering the whole Holocene) obtained by a direct transfer, via our stratigraphic link, from the EDC modelled age scale by Lemieux-Dudon et al. (2010).

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . Conference object . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pietro Bongini; Federico Becattini; Andrew D. Bagdanov; Alberto Del Bimbo;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing
    Country: Italy

    Technology and the fruition of cultural heritage are becoming increasingly more entwined, especially with the advent of smart audio guides, virtual and augmented reality, and interactive installations. Machine learning and computer vision are important components of this ongoing integration, enabling new interaction modalities between user and museum. Nonetheless, the most frequent way of interacting with paintings and statues still remains taking pictures. Yet images alone can only convey the aesthetics of the artwork, lacking is information which is often required to fully understand and appreciate it. Usually this additional knowledge comes both from the artwork itself (and therefore the image depicting it) and from an external source of knowledge, such as an information sheet. While the former can be inferred by computer vision algorithms, the latter needs more structured data to pair visual content with relevant information. Regardless of its source, this information still must be be effectively transmitted to the user. A popular emerging trend in computer vision is Visual Question Answering (VQA), in which users can interact with a neural network by posing questions in natural language and receiving answers about the visual content. We believe that this will be the evolution of smart audio guides for museum visits and simple image browsing on personal smartphones. This will turn the classic audio guide into a smart personal instructor with which the visitor can interact by asking for explanations focused on specific interests. The advantages are twofold: on the one hand the cognitive burden of the visitor will decrease, limiting the flow of information to what the user actually wants to hear; and on the other hand it proposes the most natural way of interacting with a guide, favoring engagement. accepted at FlorenceHeritech 2020

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefano Bertocci; Monica Bercigli; Matteo Bigongiari; Vincenzo Moschetti;
    Country: Italy

    The contribution concerns the possibilities of utilization of the digital technologies focused on the documentation of the historical centers. The aim of the project is to evaluate the conservation status of the Heritage and the possibilities and opportunities of valorization and requalification of the historical urban core through projects that show a high level of compatibility with the environment. In relation to these methodologies grows the need to take the inhabitants back to live again the historical center creating spots of complete requalification through the instruments of the architecture. The reading of the places in complete or partial decay and abandon status wants, hence, to get the basis for the preservation of them through precise interventions so that they can create significant synergies in which the inhabitants – through the architecture and their life – come back to inhabit that is to live again those places that, otherwise, time would take away letting forget and lose to the world extraordinary parties of landscape.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irene Calloud; Paola Zamperlin;
    Publisher: Ligue des Bibliotheques Europeennes de Recherche
    Country: Italy

    ArcCEs is a study for developing a digital archive on Italian scientific expeditions in Northern and Eastern Africa and the former Italian colonies (19th–20th centuries). The aim of the project is to assess, protect and enhance an important corpus of documents (historical cartographies, photographs, scientific papers and archive documents) distributed among public archives and private collections. The database structure is based on the Dublin Core metadata standard. The information system is designed to integrate and make interoperable digital resources, to ensure standardized and complex indexing, and to support advanced retrieval, according to the standards in use. The geolocation of the resources in a GIS environment can display query results in the Google Earth environment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jenny Roselli; Tommaso Innocenti; E.N. Lynch; L. Parisio; Giuseppe Macrì; Monica Milla; Tommaso Mello; Andrea Galli; Stefano Milani; Mirko Tarocchi;
    Publisher: Hindawi
    Country: Italy

    Azathioprine is a cornerstone of the therapy of Crohn’s disease. Unfortunately, infections and malignancies are relatively common adverse effects related to this drug; however, cirrhosis is exceptionally reported as a side effect. We report the case of a 49-year-old male patient with ileocolonic steno-penetrating Crohn’s disease who developed hepatic cirrhosis while treated with azathioprine. After taking azathioprine for 3 years with regular follow-up, he developed pancytopenia, and liver cirrhosis was diagnosed with ultrasound, abdomen computed tomography scan, transient elastography, and liver biopsy. As all other causes of liver damage were excluded, azathioprine was believed to be the cause of liver injury and therefore was interrupted.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Teresa Nolesini; William Frodella; Silvia Bianchini; Nicola Casagli;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Italy

    Volterra (Central Italy) is a town of great historical interest, due to its vast and well-preserved cultural heritage, including a 2.6 km long Etruscan-medieval wall enclosure representing one of the most important elements. Volterra is located on a clayey hilltop prone to landsliding, soil erosion, therefore the town is subject to structural deterioration. During 2014, two impressive collapses occurred on the wall enclosure in the southwestern urban sector. Following these events, a monitoring campaign was carried out by means of remote sensing techniques, such as space-borne (PS-InSAR) and ground-based (GB-InSAR) radar interferometry, in order to analyze the displacements occurring both in the urban area and the surrounding slopes, and therefore to detect possible critical sectors with respect to instability phenomena. Infrared thermography (IRT) was also applied with the aim of detecting possible criticalities on the wall-enclosure, with special regards to moisture and seepage areas. PS-InSAR data allowed a stability back-monitoring on the area, revealing 19 active clusters displaying ground velocity higher than 10 mm/year in the period 2011–2015. The GB-InSAR system detected an acceleration up to 1.7 mm/h in near-real time as the March 2014 failure precursor. The IRT technique, employed on a double survey campaign, in both dry and rainy conditions, permitted to acquire 65 thermograms covering 23 sectors of the town wall, highlighting four thermal anomalies. The outcomes of this work demonstrate the usefulness of different remote sensing technologies for deriving information in risk prevention and management, and the importance of choosing the appropriate technology depending on the target, time sampling and investigation scale. In this paper, the use of a multi-platform remote sensing system permitted technical support of the local authorities and conservators, providing a comprehensive overview of the Volterra site, its cultural heritage and landscape, both in near-real time and back-analysis and at different scales of investigation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Manuela Bordiga; Jorijntje Henderiks; Flavia Tori; Simonetta Monechi; R. Fenero; A. Legarda-Lisarri; Ellen Thomas;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Countries: Sweden, Spain, Italy

    The biotic response of calcareous nannoplankton to environmental and climatic changes during the Eocene–Oligocene transition was investigated at a high resolution at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge, southeast Atlantic Ocean) and compared with a lower-resolution benthic foraminiferal record. During this time interval, global climate, which had been warm under high levels of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) during the Eocene, transitioned into the cooler climate of the Oligocene, at overall lower pCO2. At Site 1263, the absolute nannofossil abundance (coccoliths per gram of sediment; N g−1) and the mean coccolith size decreased distinctly after the E–O boundary (EOB; 33.89 Ma), mainly due to a sharp decline in abundance of large-sized Reticulofenestra and Dictyococcites, occurring within a time span of ~ 47 kyr. Carbonate dissolution did not vary much across the EOB; thus, the decrease in abundance and size of nannofossils may reflect an overall decrease in their export production, which could have led to variations in the food availability for benthic foraminifers. The benthic foraminiferal assemblage data are consistent with a global decline in abundance of rectilinear species with complex apertures in the latest Eocene (~ 34.5 Ma), potentially reflecting changes in the food source, i.e., phytoplankton. This was followed by a transient increased abundance of species indicative of seasonal delivery of food to the sea floor (Epistominella spp.; ~ 33.9–33.4 Ma), with a short peak in overall food delivery at the EOB (buliminid taxa; ~ 33.8 Ma). Increased abundance of Nuttallides umbonifera (at ~ 33.3 Ma) indicates the presence of more corrosive bottom waters and possibly the combined arrival of less food at the sea floor after the second step of cooling (Step 2). The most important changes in the calcareous nannofossil and benthic communities occurred ~ 120 kyr after the EOB. There was no major change in nannofossil abundance or assemblage composition at Site 1263 after Step 2 although benthic foraminifera indicate more corrosive bottom waters during this time. During the onset of latest-Eocene–earliest-Oligocene climate change, marine phytoplankton thus showed high sensitivity to fast-changing conditions as well as to a possibly enhanced, pulsed nutrient supply and to the crossing of a climatic threshold (e.g., pCO2 decline, high-latitude cooling and changes in ocean circulation).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ahmadreza Shirvani Dastgerdi; Giuseppe De Luca;
    Country: Italy

    The inscription of historic urban quarters on the World Heritage List can be considered as a double-edged sword. On the one hand, UNESCO's Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention has been introduced as the most effective international instrument for the conservation and sustainable development of cultural heritage. On the other hand, many researchers have been discussing the many problems faced by the World Heritage Sites. This descriptive-analytic study aims to examine the effects of the inscription of historic urban quarters on the World Heritage List on the conservation and sustainable development of these sites. The research population consisted of 36 university professors, experts of cultural heritage and UNESCO experts. The measurement tool was a questionnaire with 34 questions that examined the factors affecting inscription on the World Heritage List by four indicators, including conservation, facilities, cultural sustainability and economic sustainability, in the form of a SWOT model using the Delphi method. Data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed protection of the cultural heritage against unnatural hazards as the most important positive point; the threat to the local community life due to tourist crowds as the most important disadvantage; increased investment in the historical context as the best opportunity; and a weak recognition of the tastes of foreign tourists as the most important threat. Also, in prioritization of the indicators, indicators of conservation and cultural sustainability were more effective than others.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pamela Ferrari; David Chelazzi; Nicole Bonelli; Antonio Mirabile; Rodorico Giorgi; Piero Baglioni;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | NANORESTART (646063)

    Abstract The removal of aged pressure sensitive tapes (PSTs) from contemporary drawings is a frequent and challenging task for paper conservators: in this work, an innovative method to overcome this issue is presented. Aged PSTs are largely found on paper artworks due to their use for mending, mounting and framing operations. Nevertheless, they may provoke several drawbacks on artworks (e.g. media bleeding and adhesive mass migration): the necessity of their removal promoted the development of several methodologies, but they all pose risks to both artefacts and conservation professionals. We propose a method involving polymeric gels able to load a “green” solvent, pertaining to the class of alkyl carbonates, which efficiently interacts with PSTs components; the embedment of the solvent into the gel network allows a feasible and effective intervention where the gel is directly applied on the top surface of the PST: the solvent gradually penetrates through the plastic layer of the PST (as proved by laser scanning confocal microscopy measures), swelling the underlying adhesive. In this way, the solvent-artwork contact is controlled. In order to optimize the processing costs and final properties of the gels, three formulations of poly (ethyl methacrylate)-diethyl carbonate (PEMA-DEC) organogels were synthesized, using different diluents and additives. A thorough physicochemical investigation of the systems was performed by means of rheology, gravimetric analysis, thermogravimetry, and IR Spectroscopy. After assessment on representative mock-up samples, the developed systems were successfully used for the removal of six aged PSTs from a drawing on paper by Keith Haring.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zaroui Pogossian;
    Country: Italy

    Research for this article had the purpose of exploring medieval Armenian–Ethiopian connections. The investigations revealed three main contexts where Ethiopia and Ethiopians feature in the Armenian sources of the first millennium, without necessarily implying real-life encounters. Firstly, the earliest Armenian texts locate Ethiopia and discuss the genealogy of its people in line with the biblical account of the Diamerismos, as well as notions based on Eusebius of Caesarea’s Chronicle translated into Armenian from Syriac in the fifth century. Each author, then, interpreted this information according to his narrative needs or the purpose of a given composition. The discussion of these sources reveals the circulation of classical and Hellenistic notions on Ethiopia and the Ethiopians in Armenian, too, such as the confusion between Ethiopia, Arabia, and India, as well as anthropological or spiritual features attributed to Ethiopians already by classical authors. Secondly, the article analyses a series of calendrical treatises, starting with one authored by the seventh-century polymath Anania Širakac‘i, that passed on a short tale about a sixth-century gathering of scholars in Alexandria in order to determine the date of the Easter and establish tables for its calculation in the future. An Ethiopian wise man Abdiē was part of this international endeavour too, according to this tradition, and his presence marked Ethiopia as part of the eastern Mediterranean learned world, with its own cultural traditions. Armenian language hemerologia also preserved month names in Gǝʿǝz, reproduced in the Appendix. Thirdly, the article draws attention to a completely new way of viewing Ethiopia in ninth- to eleventh-century Armenian anti-dyophysite (antiByzantine) treatises where the Armenian Church and its doctrines or ritual practices were imagined as part of a vast, non-dyophysite orthodox world that included the Ethiopian Church. Intriguingly, this argumentative technique, formulated in terms that one may callanti-colonial ante litteram, may be traced among Coptic and Syriac polemicists as well, a subject of research that would benefit from further analysis.

Advanced search in
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arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
313 Research products, page 1 of 32
  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Other literature type . Preprint . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mirko Severi; Roberto Udisti; Silvia Becagli; Barbara Stenni; Rita Traversi;
    Country: Italy

    Abstract. The age scale synchronisation between the Talos Dome and the EPICA Dome C ice cores was carried on through the identification of several common volcanic signatures. This paper describes the rigorous method, using the signature of volcanic sulphate, which was employed for the last 42 kyr of the record. Using this tight stratigraphic link, we transferred the EDC age scale to the Talos Dome ice core, producing a new age scale for the last 12 kyr. We estimated the discrepancies between the modelled TALDICE-1 age scale and the new scale during the studied period, by evaluating the ratio R of the apparent duration of temporal intervals between pairs of isochrones. Except for a very few cases, R ranges between 0.8 and 1.2, corresponding to an uncertainty of up to 20% in the estimate of the time duration in at least one of the two ice cores. At this stage our approach does not allow us to unequivocally identify which of the models is affected by errors, but, taking into account only the historically known volcanic events, we found that discrepancies up to 200 yr appear in the last two millennia in the TALDICE-1 model, while our new age scale shows a much better agreement with the volcanic absolute horizons. Thus, we propose for the Talos Dome ice core a new age scale (covering the whole Holocene) obtained by a direct transfer, via our stratigraphic link, from the EDC modelled age scale by Lemieux-Dudon et al. (2010).

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . Conference object . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pietro Bongini; Federico Becattini; Andrew D. Bagdanov; Alberto Del Bimbo;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing
    Country: Italy

    Technology and the fruition of cultural heritage are becoming increasingly more entwined, especially with the advent of smart audio guides, virtual and augmented reality, and interactive installations. Machine learning and computer vision are important components of this ongoing integration, enabling new interaction modalities between user and museum. Nonetheless, the most frequent way of interacting with paintings and statues still remains taking pictures. Yet images alone can only convey the aesthetics of the artwork, lacking is information which is often required to fully understand and appreciate it. Usually this additional knowledge comes both from the artwork itself (and therefore the image depicting it) and from an external source of knowledge, such as an information sheet. While the former can be inferred by computer vision algorithms, the latter needs more structured data to pair visual content with relevant information. Regardless of its source, this information still must be be effectively transmitted to the user. A popular emerging trend in computer vision is Visual Question Answering (VQA), in which users can interact with a neural network by posing questions in natural language and receiving answers about the visual content. We believe that this will be the evolution of smart audio guides for museum visits and simple image browsing on personal smartphones. This will turn the classic audio guide into a smart personal instructor with which the visitor can interact by asking for explanations focused on specific interests. The advantages are twofold: on the one hand the cognitive burden of the visitor will decrease, limiting the flow of information to what the user actually wants to hear; and on the other hand it proposes the most natural way of interacting with a guide, favoring engagement. accepted at FlorenceHeritech 2020

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefano Bertocci; Monica Bercigli; Matteo Bigongiari; Vincenzo Moschetti;
    Country: Italy

    The contribution concerns the possibilities of utilization of the digital technologies focused on the documentation of the historical centers. The aim of the project is to evaluate the conservation status of the Heritage and the possibilities and opportunities of valorization and requalification of the historical urban core through projects that show a high level of compatibility with the environment. In relation to these methodologies grows the need to take the inhabitants back to live again the historical center creating spots of complete requalification through the instruments of the architecture. The reading of the places in complete or partial decay and abandon status wants, hence, to get the basis for the preservation of them through precise interventions so that they can create significant synergies in which the inhabitants – through the architecture and their life – come back to inhabit that is to live again those places that, otherwise, time would take away letting forget and lose to the world extraordinary parties of landscape.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irene Calloud; Paola Zamperlin;
    Publisher: Ligue des Bibliotheques Europeennes de Recherche
    Country: Italy

    ArcCEs is a study for developing a digital archive on Italian scientific expeditions in Northern and Eastern Africa and the former Italian colonies (19th–20th centuries). The aim of the project is to assess, protect and enhance an important corpus of documents (historical cartographies, photographs, scientific papers and archive documents) distributed among public archives and private collections. The database structure is based on the Dublin Core metadata standard. The information system is designed to integrate and make interoperable digital resources, to ensure standardized and complex indexing, and to support advanced retrieval, according to the standards in use. The geolocation of the resources in a GIS environment can display query results in the Google Earth environment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jenny Roselli; Tommaso Innocenti; E.N. Lynch; L. Parisio; Giuseppe Macrì; Monica Milla; Tommaso Mello; Andrea Galli; Stefano Milani; Mirko Tarocchi;
    Publisher: Hindawi
    Country: Italy

    Azathioprine is a cornerstone of the therapy of Crohn’s disease. Unfortunately, infections and malignancies are relatively common adverse effects related to this drug; however, cirrhosis is exceptionally reported as a side effect. We report the case of a 49-year-old male patient with ileocolonic steno-penetrating Crohn’s disease who developed hepatic cirrhosis while treated with azathioprine. After taking azathioprine for 3 years with regular follow-up, he developed pancytopenia, and liver cirrhosis was diagnosed with ultrasound, abdomen computed tomography scan, transient elastography, and liver biopsy. As all other causes of liver damage were excluded, azathioprine was believed to be the cause of liver injury and therefore was interrupted.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Teresa Nolesini; William Frodella; Silvia Bianchini; Nicola Casagli;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Italy

    Volterra (Central Italy) is a town of great historical interest, due to its vast and well-preserved cultural heritage, including a 2.6 km long Etruscan-medieval wall enclosure representing one of the most important elements. Volterra is located on a clayey hilltop prone to landsliding, soil erosion, therefore the town is subject to structural deterioration. During 2014, two impressive collapses occurred on the wall enclosure in the southwestern urban sector. Following these events, a monitoring campaign was carried out by means of remote sensing techniques, such as space-borne (PS-InSAR) and ground-based (GB-InSAR) radar interferometry, in order to analyze the displacements occurring both in the urban area and the surrounding slopes, and therefore to detect possible critical sectors with respect to instability phenomena. Infrared thermography (IRT) was also applied with the aim of detecting possible criticalities on the wall-enclosure, with special regards to moisture and seepage areas. PS-InSAR data allowed a stability back-monitoring on the area, revealing 19 active clusters displaying ground velocity higher than 10 mm/year in the period 2011–2015. The GB-InSAR system detected an acceleration up to 1.7 mm/h in near-real time as the March 2014 failure precursor. The IRT technique, employed on a double survey campaign, in both dry and rainy conditions, permitted to acquire 65 thermograms covering 23 sectors of the town wall, highlighting four thermal anomalies. The outcomes of this work demonstrate the usefulness of different remote sensing technologies for deriving information in risk prevention and management, and the importance of choosing the appropriate technology depending on the target, time sampling and investigation scale. In this paper, the use of a multi-platform remote sensing system permitted technical support of the local authorities and conservators, providing a comprehensive overview of the Volterra site, its cultural heritage and landscape, both in near-real time and back-analysis and at different scales of investigation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Manuela Bordiga; Jorijntje Henderiks; Flavia Tori; Simonetta Monechi; R. Fenero; A. Legarda-Lisarri; Ellen Thomas;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Countries: Sweden, Spain, Italy

    The biotic response of calcareous nannoplankton to environmental and climatic changes during the Eocene–Oligocene transition was investigated at a high resolution at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge, southeast Atlantic Ocean) and compared with a lower-resolution benthic foraminiferal record. During this time interval, global climate, which had been warm under high levels of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) during the Eocene, transitioned into the cooler climate of the Oligocene, at overall lower pCO2. At Site 1263, the absolute nannofossil abundance (coccoliths per gram of sediment; N g−1) and the mean coccolith size decreased distinctly after the E–O boundary (EOB; 33.89 Ma), mainly due to a sharp decline in abundance of large-sized Reticulofenestra and Dictyococcites, occurring within a time span of ~ 47 kyr. Carbonate dissolution did not vary much across the EOB; thus, the decrease in abundance and size of nannofossils may reflect an overall decrease in their export production, which could have led to variations in the food availability for benthic foraminifers. The benthic foraminiferal assemblage data are consistent with a global decline in abundance of rectilinear species with complex apertures in the latest Eocene (~ 34.5 Ma), potentially reflecting changes in the food source, i.e., phytoplankton. This was followed by a transient increased abundance of species indicative of seasonal delivery of food to the sea floor (Epistominella spp.; ~ 33.9–33.4 Ma), with a short peak in overall food delivery at the EOB (buliminid taxa; ~ 33.8 Ma). Increased abundance of Nuttallides umbonifera (at ~ 33.3 Ma) indicates the presence of more corrosive bottom waters and possibly the combined arrival of less food at the sea floor after the second step of cooling (Step 2). The most important changes in the calcareous nannofossil and benthic communities occurred ~ 120 kyr after the EOB. There was no major change in nannofossil abundance or assemblage composition at Site 1263 after Step 2 although benthic foraminifera indicate more corrosive bottom waters during this time. During the onset of latest-Eocene–earliest-Oligocene climate change, marine phytoplankton thus showed high sensitivity to fast-changing conditions as well as to a possibly enhanced, pulsed nutrient supply and to the crossing of a climatic threshold (e.g., pCO2 decline, high-latitude cooling and changes in ocean circulation).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ahmadreza Shirvani Dastgerdi; Giuseppe De Luca;
    Country: Italy

    The inscription of historic urban quarters on the World Heritage List can be considered as a double-edged sword. On the one hand, UNESCO's Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention has been introduced as the most effective international instrument for the conservation and sustainable development of cultural heritage. On the other hand, many researchers have been discussing the many problems faced by the World Heritage Sites. This descriptive-analytic study aims to examine the effects of the inscription of historic urban quarters on the World Heritage List on the conservation and sustainable development of these sites. The research population consisted of 36 university professors, experts of cultural heritage and UNESCO experts. The measurement tool was a questionnaire with 34 questions that examined the factors affecting inscription on the World Heritage List by four indicators, including conservation, facilities, cultural sustainability and economic sustainability, in the form of a SWOT model using the Delphi method. Data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed protection of the cultural heritage against unnatural hazards as the most important positive point; the threat to the local community life due to tourist crowds as the most important disadvantage; increased investment in the historical context as the best opportunity; and a weak recognition of the tastes of foreign tourists as the most important threat. Also, in prioritization of the indicators, indicators of conservation and cultural sustainability were more effective than others.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pamela Ferrari; David Chelazzi; Nicole Bonelli; Antonio Mirabile; Rodorico Giorgi; Piero Baglioni;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | NANORESTART (646063)

    Abstract The removal of aged pressure sensitive tapes (PSTs) from contemporary drawings is a frequent and challenging task for paper conservators: in this work, an innovative method to overcome this issue is presented. Aged PSTs are largely found on paper artworks due to their use for mending, mounting and framing operations. Nevertheless, they may provoke several drawbacks on artworks (e.g. media bleeding and adhesive mass migration): the necessity of their removal promoted the development of several methodologies, but they all pose risks to both artefacts and conservation professionals. We propose a method involving polymeric gels able to load a “green” solvent, pertaining to the class of alkyl carbonates, which efficiently interacts with PSTs components; the embedment of the solvent into the gel network allows a feasible and effective intervention where the gel is directly applied on the top surface of the PST: the solvent gradually penetrates through the plastic layer of the PST (as proved by laser scanning confocal microscopy measures), swelling the underlying adhesive. In this way, the solvent-artwork contact is controlled. In order to optimize the processing costs and final properties of the gels, three formulations of poly (ethyl methacrylate)-diethyl carbonate (PEMA-DEC) organogels were synthesized, using different diluents and additives. A thorough physicochemical investigation of the systems was performed by means of rheology, gravimetric analysis, thermogravimetry, and IR Spectroscopy. After assessment on representative mock-up samples, the developed systems were successfully used for the removal of six aged PSTs from a drawing on paper by Keith Haring.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zaroui Pogossian;
    Country: Italy

    Research for this article had the purpose of exploring medieval Armenian–Ethiopian connections. The investigations revealed three main contexts where Ethiopia and Ethiopians feature in the Armenian sources of the first millennium, without necessarily implying real-life encounters. Firstly, the earliest Armenian texts locate Ethiopia and discuss the genealogy of its people in line with the biblical account of the Diamerismos, as well as notions based on Eusebius of Caesarea’s Chronicle translated into Armenian from Syriac in the fifth century. Each author, then, interpreted this information according to his narrative needs or the purpose of a given composition. The discussion of these sources reveals the circulation of classical and Hellenistic notions on Ethiopia and the Ethiopians in Armenian, too, such as the confusion between Ethiopia, Arabia, and India, as well as anthropological or spiritual features attributed to Ethiopians already by classical authors. Secondly, the article analyses a series of calendrical treatises, starting with one authored by the seventh-century polymath Anania Širakac‘i, that passed on a short tale about a sixth-century gathering of scholars in Alexandria in order to determine the date of the Easter and establish tables for its calculation in the future. An Ethiopian wise man Abdiē was part of this international endeavour too, according to this tradition, and his presence marked Ethiopia as part of the eastern Mediterranean learned world, with its own cultural traditions. Armenian language hemerologia also preserved month names in Gǝʿǝz, reproduced in the Appendix. Thirdly, the article draws attention to a completely new way of viewing Ethiopia in ninth- to eleventh-century Armenian anti-dyophysite (antiByzantine) treatises where the Armenian Church and its doctrines or ritual practices were imagined as part of a vast, non-dyophysite orthodox world that included the Ethiopian Church. Intriguingly, this argumentative technique, formulated in terms that one may callanti-colonial ante litteram, may be traced among Coptic and Syriac polemicists as well, a subject of research that would benefit from further analysis.

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