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  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Malik Hasnain;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    <p>We have elaborated on the research on the COVID-19 epidemic with regards to the roles of frontline medical staff and emerging technologies and explained the study method, results, and discussion in detail. It will make the reader feel happy in terms of the findings of this rapid review in the prevailing COVID-19 situation. We hope that it would help enrich the readers' knowledge. </p>

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Joana Gomes da Silva; Carla Silva; Bárbara Alexandre; Pedro Morgado;
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    Background: COVID-19 is a respiratory disease transmitted through respiratory droplets with a high transmission rate. There's still no effective and approved antiretroviral treatment or vaccine, thus, preventive measures are the main key to contain this pandemic. Portugal is now in phase 3.2 of the mitigation of COVID-19, being imperative to understand the health literacy of our country and how to prevent the lack of information, through community empowerment. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study with a cohort from a primary care facility was conducted. We collected demographic and epidemiological data and carried out a questionnaire by phone call. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were used to assess associations between the independent variables and the level of health literacy. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Our cohort includes 222 subjects (median age: 62 years old), mostly females (131), undergraduate (193) and with at least one risk factor for COVID-19 (144). Globally, younger individuals, females, graduates and the Non-Risk Group appear to have higher levels of health literacy, with some exceptions to this pattern. Conclusions: We observe a well-informed population. However, being a pandemic situation, we intend to identify and correct outliers/misconceptions. This work allows a perspective of the current state/pattern of health literacy as well as its possible predictors. Furthermore, this study makes aware of how relevant the specific communication approaches are. Further studies to understand the predictors of health literacy are necessary. Key-Words: COVID-19, pandemic, SARS-CoV2, Portugal, Health literacy.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ahmed Sameer Sameer El Khatib;
    Publisher: FapUNIFESP (SciELO)

    O objetivo do presente trabalho e avaliar como o surto de novo coronavirus levou a contaminacao das principais industrias da economia global e como a resposta politica e fiscal rapida de varios governos desencadeou e prolongou a recessao enquanto tentava salvar as vidas dos cidadaos. Investigamos tambem o efeito das politicas de distanciamento social no nivel de atividades economicas e nos precos dos indices de acoes. Foram coletados dados das bolsas de valores em quatro continentes: America do Norte, Africa, Asia e Europa. Extraimos informacoes do mercado de acoes sobre o preco de fechamento (PF), preco mais baixo (PB) e preco mais alto (PMA) dos principais indicadores do mercado de acoes nos quatro continentes: o indice FTSE 500 (Reino Unido);SP 500 (EUA);Nikkei 225 (Japao);e o indice SA Top 40 (Africa do Sul). Nas estimativas, adotamos o logaritmo natural de cada dado de preco para reduzir a assimetria observada na distribuicao dos dados de preco das acoes. Concentramos a analise no periodo que vai de Janeiro a Maio de 2020, quando o coronavirus comecou a se espalhar para outros paises e mercados internacionais. Examinamos empiricamente o impacto das politicas de distanciamento social nas atividades economicas e nos indices do mercado de acoes. As conclusoes revelam que o crescente numero de dias de bloqueio, decisoes de politica monetaria e restricoes internacionais de viagens afetaram severamente o nivel de atividades economicas e o fechamento, abertura, menor e mais alto preco das acoes dos principais indices da bolsa. Por outro lado, a restricao imposta ao movimento interno e o aumento dos gastos com politicas fiscais tiveram um impacto positivo no nivel das atividades economicas, embora o numero crescente de casos confirmados de covo coronavirus nao tenha afetado significativamente o nivel das atividades economicas. A discussao neste artigo contribui para a literatura sobre crise financeira (e.g., Allen & Carletti, 2010;Mian & Sufi, 2010;Stiglitz, 2010;Jagannathan, Kapoor & Schaumburg, 2013), pois evidencia que fatores nao financeiros e/ou nao economicos podem desencadear um colapso financeiro e economico de maneiras sem precedentes.Alternate abstract:El objetivo de este articulo es evaluar como el brote del nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) ha conducido a la contaminacion de las principales industrias de la economia global;asimismo, se busca analizar como la rapida respuesta politica y fiscal de varios gobiernos desencadeno y prolongo la recesion al intentar salvar las vidas de los ciudadanos. Tambien se investiga el efecto de las politicas de distanciamiento social en las actividades economicas y en los precios de los indices bursatiles. Se recopilaron datos de las bolsas de valores de cuatro continentes: America del Norte, Africa, Asia y Europa. Se tomo informacion del mercado de valores sobre el precio de cierre (PF), el precio mas bajo (PB) y el precio mas alto (PMA) de los principales indicadores del mercado de valores en los cuatro continentes: el indice FTSE 500 (Reino Unido), SP 500 (EE. UU.), Nikkei 225 (Japon) y el indice SA Top 40 (Sudafrica). En las estimaciones, se adopto el logaritmo natural de cada informacion de precios para reducir la asimetria observada en la distribucion de datos de precios de acciones. El analisis se centro en el periodo de enero a mayo de 2020, epoca en la que el coronavirus comenzo a extenderse a otros paises y mercados internacionales. Se examino empiricamente el impacto de las politicas de distancia social en las actividades economicas y los indices bursatiles. Los hallazgos revelan que el creciente numero de dias de bloqueo, las decisiones de politica monetaria y las restricciones a los viajes internacionales han afectado severamente al nivel de las actividades economicas, al cierre, a la apertura, y a los precios de acciones mas bajos y mas altos de los principales indices bursatiles. Por otro lado, la restriccion impuesta al movimiento in erno y el aumento del gasto en politicas fiscales tuvieron un impacto positivo en el nivel de las actividades economicas, aunque el creciente numero de casos confirmados de coronavirus no afecto significativamente el nivel de las actividades economicas. La discusion en este articulo contribuye a la literatura sobre crisis financiera (por ejemplo, Allen & Carletti, 2010;Mian & Sufi, 2010;Stiglitz, 2010;Jagannathan, Kapoor & Schaumburg, 2013), ya que muestra que factores no financieros y/o no economicos pueden desencadenar el colapso financiero y economico de formas sin precedentes.Alternate abstract:The aim of this paper is to assess how the outbreak of the new coronavirus led to the contamination of major industries in the global economy and how the rapid political and fiscal response of several governments triggered and prolonged the recession while trying to save the lives of citizens. We also investigated the effect of social distance policies on the level of economic activities and on the prices of stock indexes. Data were collected from stock exchanges on four continents: North America, Africa, Asia and Europe. We extracted information from the stock market on the closing price (PF), lowest price (PB) and highest price (PMA) of the main stock market indicators on the four continents: the FTSE 500 index (United Kingdom);SP 500 (USA);Nikkei 225 (Japan);and the SA Top 40 index (South Africa). In the estimates, we adopted the natural logarithm of each price data to reduce the asymmetry observed in the distribution of stock price data. We concentrated the analysis in the period from January to May 2020, when the coronavirus started to spread to other countries and international markets. We empirically examine the impact of social distance policies on economic activities and stock market indices. The findings reveal that the increasing number of blocking days, monetary policy decisions and international travel restrictions have severely affected the level of economic activities and the closing, opening, lower and higher share prices of the main stock indexes. On the other hand, the restriction imposed on the domestic movement and the increase in spending on fiscal policies had a positive impact on the level of economic activities, although the growing number of confirmed cases of coronavirus virus did not significantly affect the level of economic activities. The discussion in this article contributes to the literature on financial crisis (eg, Allen & Carletti, 2010;Mian & Sufi, 2010;Stiglitz, 2010;Jagannathan, Kapoor & Schaumburg, 2013), as it shows that non-financial and / or non-economic factors they can trigger financial and economic collapse in unprecedented ways.

  • Open Access English

    This exploratory study examined the impacts of COVID-19 and emerging challenges and opportunities from aviation recovery. Using archival and secondary data analysis, the study found that there are several challenges to aviation recovery chief among them are labour challenges and extreme weather events, which have been responsible for traffic disruptions in major aviation markets such as Europe and the USA. Other emerging challenges include high debt, inflation, interest rates, fuel, cost of labour, and general operational costs. The study recommends several interventions to address the sector&rsquo;s challenges, including adopting risk disaster preparedness and management to foster sustainability.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Briony Swire-Thompson; Joseph DeGutis; David Lazer;
    Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)

    One of the most concerning notions for science communicators, fact-checkers, and advocates of truth, is the backfire effect; this is when a correction leads to an individual increasing their belief in the very misconception the correction is aiming to rectify. There is currently a debate in the literature as to whether backfire effects exist at all, as recent studies have failed to find the phenomenon, even under theoretically favorable conditions. In this review, we summarize the current state of the worldview and familiarity backfire effect literatures. We subsequently examine barriers to measuring the backfire phenomenon, discuss approaches to improving measurement and design, and conclude with recommendations for fact-checkers. We suggest that backfire effects are not a robust empirical phenomenon, and more reliable measures, powerful designs, and stronger links between experimental design and theory, could greatly help move the field ahead.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Constanze A. Jakwerth; Martin Feuerherd; Ferdinand Guerth; Madlen Oelsner; Linda Schellhammer; Johanna Giglberger; Lisa Pechtold; Claudia Jerin; Luisa Kugler; Carolin Mogler; +9 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland

    Abstract SARS-CoV-2 has evolved to enter the host via the ACE2 receptor which is part of the kinin-kallikrein pathway. This complex pathway is only poorly understood in context of immune regulation but critical to control infection. This study examines SARS-CoV-2-infection and epithelial mechanisms of the kinin-kallikrein-system at the kinin B2 receptor level in SARS-CoV-2-infection that is of direct translational relevance. From acute SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants and -negative controls, transcriptomes of nasal curettages were analyzed. Primary airway epithelial cells (NHBEs) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with the approved B2R-antagonist icatibant. SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-qPCR, cytotoxicity assays, plaque assays, and transcriptome analyses were performed. The treatment effect was further studied in a murine airway inflammation model in vivo. Here, we report a broad and strong upregulation of kallikreins and the kinin B2 receptor (B2R) in the nasal mucosa of acutely symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants. A B2R-antagonist impeded SARS-CoV-2 replication and spread in NHBEs, as determined in plaque assays on Vero-E6 cells. B2R-antagonism reduced the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, G protein–coupled receptor signaling, and ion transport in vitro and in a murine airway inflammation in vivo model. In summary, this study provides evidence that treatment with B2R-antagonists protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting its replication and spread, through the reduction of ACE2 levels and the interference with several cellular signaling processes. Future clinical studies need to shed light on the airway protection potential of approved B2R-antagonists, like icatibant, in the treatment of early-stage COVID-19. Graphical Abstract Key messages Induction of kinin B2 receptor in the nose of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Treatment with B2R-antagonist protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2. B2R-antagonist reduces ACE2 levels in vivo and ex vivo. Protection by B2R-antagonist is mediated by inhibiting viral replication and spread.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Segreto, Rossana; Deigin, Yuri; McCairn, Kevin; Sousa, Alejandro; Sirotkin, Dan; Sirotkin, Karl; Couey, Jonathan J.; Jones, Adrian; Zhang, Daoyu;
    Publisher: arXiv

    There is a near consensus view that SARS-CoV-2 has a natural zoonotic origin; however, several characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 taken together are not easily explained by a natural zoonotic origin hypothesis. These include: a low rate of evolution in the early phase of transmission; the lack of evidence of recombination events; a high pre-existing binding to human ACE2; a novel furin cleavage site insert; a flat glycan binding domain of the spike protein which conflicts with host evasion survival patterns exhibited by other coronaviruses, and high human and mouse peptide mimicry. Initial assumptions against a laboratory origin, by contrast, have remained unsubstantiated. Furthermore, over a year after the initial outbreak in Wuhan, there is still no clear evidence of zoonotic transfer from a bat or intermediate species. Given the immense social and economic impact of this pandemic, identifying the true origin of SARS-CoV-2 is fundamental to preventing future outbreaks. The search for SARS-CoV-2's origin should include an open and unbiased inquiry into a possible laboratory origin.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Prashant N. Kambali; Amirhassan Abbasi; C. Nataraj;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Abstract This paper is concerned with nonlinear modeling and analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic. We are especially interested in two current topics: effect of vaccination and the universally observed oscillations in infections. We use a nonlinear Susceptible, Infected, & Immune model incorporating a dynamic transmission rate and vaccination policy. The US data provides a starting point for analyzing stability, bifurcations and dynamics in general. Further parametric analysis reveals a saddle-node bifurcation under imperfect vaccination leading to the occurrence of sustained epidemic equilibria. This work points to the tremendous value of systematic nonlinear dynamic analysis in pandemic modeling and demonstrates the dramatic influence of vaccination, and frequency, phase, and amplitude of transmission rate on persistent dynamic behavior of the disease.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vladimir N. Uversky; Fatma Elrashdy; Abdullah Aljadawi; Syed Moasfar Ali; Rizwan Hasan Khan; Elrashdy M. Redwan;
    Publisher: Preprints

    Without protective and/or therapeutic agents the SARS-CoV-2 infection known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is quickly spreading worldwide. It has surprising transmissibility potential, since it could infect all ages, gender, and human sectors. It attacks respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, hepatic, and endovascular systems and can reach the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) through known and unknown mechanisms. The reports on the neurological manifestations and complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are increasing exponentially. Herein, we enumerate seven candidate routes, which the mature or immature SARS-CoV-2 components could use to reach the CNS and PNS, utilizing the within-body crosstalk between organs. The majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients suffer from some neurological manifestations (e.g., confusion, anosmia, and ageusia). It seems that although the mature virus did not reach the CNS or PNS of the majority of patients, its unassembled components and/or the accompanying immune-mediated responses may be responsible for the observed neurological symptoms. The viral particles and/or its components have been specifically documented in endothelial cells of lung, kidney, skin, and CNS. This means that the blood-endothelial-barrier may be considered as the main route for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the nervous system, with the barrier disruption being more logical than barrier permeability, as evidenced by postmortem analyses.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Saharnaz Sazgarnejad; Bahar Haghdoost; Mohammad Mahdi Molaei; Vida Kordipour; Hamed Amirifard;
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC

    Abstract Background Neurological involvement including CNS demyelination syndromes following SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported as extra-pulmonary involvement in patients with COVID-19. Besides, immune-mediated central nervous system involvement is a rare phenomenon that is considered to be one of the most important and serious complications of vaccines as well. While regarding the recent pandemic and worldwide use of the COVID-19 vaccines investigating serious life-threatening side effects is worth considering. Case presentation: This article reported a young male Iranian patient without any past medical history and neurological problems who presented acute disorientation due to acute central nervous system demyelination approximately one month after receiving the first dosage of Sinopharm BIBP COVID-19 vaccine. Based on extended clinical investigations the patient had undergone the treatment with the highly probable diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis syndrome. Conclusion In this article clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the patient with the diagnosis of ADEM following COVID-19 vaccine administration have been discussed. It seems for timely diagnosis and access to a safer state in our global immunization, reporting and evaluating the diagnosis approach and challenges in treatment and patient recovery regarding rare and adverse effects is worth considering.

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Include:
71,152 Research products, page 1 of 7,116
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Malik Hasnain;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications

    <p>We have elaborated on the research on the COVID-19 epidemic with regards to the roles of frontline medical staff and emerging technologies and explained the study method, results, and discussion in detail. It will make the reader feel happy in terms of the findings of this rapid review in the prevailing COVID-19 situation. We hope that it would help enrich the readers' knowledge. </p>

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Joana Gomes da Silva; Carla Silva; Bárbara Alexandre; Pedro Morgado;
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    Background: COVID-19 is a respiratory disease transmitted through respiratory droplets with a high transmission rate. There's still no effective and approved antiretroviral treatment or vaccine, thus, preventive measures are the main key to contain this pandemic. Portugal is now in phase 3.2 of the mitigation of COVID-19, being imperative to understand the health literacy of our country and how to prevent the lack of information, through community empowerment. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study with a cohort from a primary care facility was conducted. We collected demographic and epidemiological data and carried out a questionnaire by phone call. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were used to assess associations between the independent variables and the level of health literacy. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Our cohort includes 222 subjects (median age: 62 years old), mostly females (131), undergraduate (193) and with at least one risk factor for COVID-19 (144). Globally, younger individuals, females, graduates and the Non-Risk Group appear to have higher levels of health literacy, with some exceptions to this pattern. Conclusions: We observe a well-informed population. However, being a pandemic situation, we intend to identify and correct outliers/misconceptions. This work allows a perspective of the current state/pattern of health literacy as well as its possible predictors. Furthermore, this study makes aware of how relevant the specific communication approaches are. Further studies to understand the predictors of health literacy are necessary. Key-Words: COVID-19, pandemic, SARS-CoV2, Portugal, Health literacy.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ahmed Sameer Sameer El Khatib;
    Publisher: FapUNIFESP (SciELO)

    O objetivo do presente trabalho e avaliar como o surto de novo coronavirus levou a contaminacao das principais industrias da economia global e como a resposta politica e fiscal rapida de varios governos desencadeou e prolongou a recessao enquanto tentava salvar as vidas dos cidadaos. Investigamos tambem o efeito das politicas de distanciamento social no nivel de atividades economicas e nos precos dos indices de acoes. Foram coletados dados das bolsas de valores em quatro continentes: America do Norte, Africa, Asia e Europa. Extraimos informacoes do mercado de acoes sobre o preco de fechamento (PF), preco mais baixo (PB) e preco mais alto (PMA) dos principais indicadores do mercado de acoes nos quatro continentes: o indice FTSE 500 (Reino Unido);SP 500 (EUA);Nikkei 225 (Japao);e o indice SA Top 40 (Africa do Sul). Nas estimativas, adotamos o logaritmo natural de cada dado de preco para reduzir a assimetria observada na distribuicao dos dados de preco das acoes. Concentramos a analise no periodo que vai de Janeiro a Maio de 2020, quando o coronavirus comecou a se espalhar para outros paises e mercados internacionais. Examinamos empiricamente o impacto das politicas de distanciamento social nas atividades economicas e nos indices do mercado de acoes. As conclusoes revelam que o crescente numero de dias de bloqueio, decisoes de politica monetaria e restricoes internacionais de viagens afetaram severamente o nivel de atividades economicas e o fechamento, abertura, menor e mais alto preco das acoes dos principais indices da bolsa. Por outro lado, a restricao imposta ao movimento interno e o aumento dos gastos com politicas fiscais tiveram um impacto positivo no nivel das atividades economicas, embora o numero crescente de casos confirmados de covo coronavirus nao tenha afetado significativamente o nivel das atividades economicas. A discussao neste artigo contribui para a literatura sobre crise financeira (e.g., Allen & Carletti, 2010;Mian & Sufi, 2010;Stiglitz, 2010;Jagannathan, Kapoor & Schaumburg, 2013), pois evidencia que fatores nao financeiros e/ou nao economicos podem desencadear um colapso financeiro e economico de maneiras sem precedentes.Alternate abstract:El objetivo de este articulo es evaluar como el brote del nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) ha conducido a la contaminacion de las principales industrias de la economia global;asimismo, se busca analizar como la rapida respuesta politica y fiscal de varios gobiernos desencadeno y prolongo la recesion al intentar salvar las vidas de los ciudadanos. Tambien se investiga el efecto de las politicas de distanciamiento social en las actividades economicas y en los precios de los indices bursatiles. Se recopilaron datos de las bolsas de valores de cuatro continentes: America del Norte, Africa, Asia y Europa. Se tomo informacion del mercado de valores sobre el precio de cierre (PF), el precio mas bajo (PB) y el precio mas alto (PMA) de los principales indicadores del mercado de valores en los cuatro continentes: el indice FTSE 500 (Reino Unido), SP 500 (EE. UU.), Nikkei 225 (Japon) y el indice SA Top 40 (Sudafrica). En las estimaciones, se adopto el logaritmo natural de cada informacion de precios para reducir la asimetria observada en la distribucion de datos de precios de acciones. El analisis se centro en el periodo de enero a mayo de 2020, epoca en la que el coronavirus comenzo a extenderse a otros paises y mercados internacionales. Se examino empiricamente el impacto de las politicas de distancia social en las actividades economicas y los indices bursatiles. Los hallazgos revelan que el creciente numero de dias de bloqueo, las decisiones de politica monetaria y las restricciones a los viajes internacionales han afectado severamente al nivel de las actividades economicas, al cierre, a la apertura, y a los precios de acciones mas bajos y mas altos de los principales indices bursatiles. Por otro lado, la restriccion impuesta al movimiento in erno y el aumento del gasto en politicas fiscales tuvieron un impacto positivo en el nivel de las actividades economicas, aunque el creciente numero de casos confirmados de coronavirus no afecto significativamente el nivel de las actividades economicas. La discusion en este articulo contribuye a la literatura sobre crisis financiera (por ejemplo, Allen & Carletti, 2010;Mian & Sufi, 2010;Stiglitz, 2010;Jagannathan, Kapoor & Schaumburg, 2013), ya que muestra que factores no financieros y/o no economicos pueden desencadenar el colapso financiero y economico de formas sin precedentes.Alternate abstract:The aim of this paper is to assess how the outbreak of the new coronavirus led to the contamination of major industries in the global economy and how the rapid political and fiscal response of several governments triggered and prolonged the recession while trying to save the lives of citizens. We also investigated the effect of social distance policies on the level of economic activities and on the prices of stock indexes. Data were collected from stock exchanges on four continents: North America, Africa, Asia and Europe. We extracted information from the stock market on the closing price (PF), lowest price (PB) and highest price (PMA) of the main stock market indicators on the four continents: the FTSE 500 index (United Kingdom);SP 500 (USA);Nikkei 225 (Japan);and the SA Top 40 index (South Africa). In the estimates, we adopted the natural logarithm of each price data to reduce the asymmetry observed in the distribution of stock price data. We concentrated the analysis in the period from January to May 2020, when the coronavirus started to spread to other countries and international markets. We empirically examine the impact of social distance policies on economic activities and stock market indices. The findings reveal that the increasing number of blocking days, monetary policy decisions and international travel restrictions have severely affected the level of economic activities and the closing, opening, lower and higher share prices of the main stock indexes. On the other hand, the restriction imposed on the domestic movement and the increase in spending on fiscal policies had a positive impact on the level of economic activities, although the growing number of confirmed cases of coronavirus virus did not significantly affect the level of economic activities. The discussion in this article contributes to the literature on financial crisis (eg, Allen & Carletti, 2010;Mian & Sufi, 2010;Stiglitz, 2010;Jagannathan, Kapoor & Schaumburg, 2013), as it shows that non-financial and / or non-economic factors they can trigger financial and economic collapse in unprecedented ways.

  • Open Access English

    This exploratory study examined the impacts of COVID-19 and emerging challenges and opportunities from aviation recovery. Using archival and secondary data analysis, the study found that there are several challenges to aviation recovery chief among them are labour challenges and extreme weather events, which have been responsible for traffic disruptions in major aviation markets such as Europe and the USA. Other emerging challenges include high debt, inflation, interest rates, fuel, cost of labour, and general operational costs. The study recommends several interventions to address the sector&rsquo;s challenges, including adopting risk disaster preparedness and management to foster sustainability.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Briony Swire-Thompson; Joseph DeGutis; David Lazer;
    Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)

    One of the most concerning notions for science communicators, fact-checkers, and advocates of truth, is the backfire effect; this is when a correction leads to an individual increasing their belief in the very misconception the correction is aiming to rectify. There is currently a debate in the literature as to whether backfire effects exist at all, as recent studies have failed to find the phenomenon, even under theoretically favorable conditions. In this review, we summarize the current state of the worldview and familiarity backfire effect literatures. We subsequently examine barriers to measuring the backfire phenomenon, discuss approaches to improving measurement and design, and conclude with recommendations for fact-checkers. We suggest that backfire effects are not a robust empirical phenomenon, and more reliable measures, powerful designs, and stronger links between experimental design and theory, could greatly help move the field ahead.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Constanze A. Jakwerth; Martin Feuerherd; Ferdinand Guerth; Madlen Oelsner; Linda Schellhammer; Johanna Giglberger; Lisa Pechtold; Claudia Jerin; Luisa Kugler; Carolin Mogler; +9 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Germany, Switzerland

    Abstract SARS-CoV-2 has evolved to enter the host via the ACE2 receptor which is part of the kinin-kallikrein pathway. This complex pathway is only poorly understood in context of immune regulation but critical to control infection. This study examines SARS-CoV-2-infection and epithelial mechanisms of the kinin-kallikrein-system at the kinin B2 receptor level in SARS-CoV-2-infection that is of direct translational relevance. From acute SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants and -negative controls, transcriptomes of nasal curettages were analyzed. Primary airway epithelial cells (NHBEs) were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with the approved B2R-antagonist icatibant. SARS-CoV-2 RNA RT-qPCR, cytotoxicity assays, plaque assays, and transcriptome analyses were performed. The treatment effect was further studied in a murine airway inflammation model in vivo. Here, we report a broad and strong upregulation of kallikreins and the kinin B2 receptor (B2R) in the nasal mucosa of acutely symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants. A B2R-antagonist impeded SARS-CoV-2 replication and spread in NHBEs, as determined in plaque assays on Vero-E6 cells. B2R-antagonism reduced the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, G protein–coupled receptor signaling, and ion transport in vitro and in a murine airway inflammation in vivo model. In summary, this study provides evidence that treatment with B2R-antagonists protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting its replication and spread, through the reduction of ACE2 levels and the interference with several cellular signaling processes. Future clinical studies need to shed light on the airway protection potential of approved B2R-antagonists, like icatibant, in the treatment of early-stage COVID-19. Graphical Abstract Key messages Induction of kinin B2 receptor in the nose of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Treatment with B2R-antagonist protects airway epithelial cells from SARS-CoV-2. B2R-antagonist reduces ACE2 levels in vivo and ex vivo. Protection by B2R-antagonist is mediated by inhibiting viral replication and spread.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Segreto, Rossana; Deigin, Yuri; McCairn, Kevin; Sousa, Alejandro; Sirotkin, Dan; Sirotkin, Karl; Couey, Jonathan J.; Jones, Adrian; Zhang, Daoyu;
    Publisher: arXiv

    There is a near consensus view that SARS-CoV-2 has a natural zoonotic origin; however, several characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 taken together are not easily explained by a natural zoonotic origin hypothesis. These include: a low rate of evolution in the early phase of transmission; the lack of evidence of recombination events; a high pre-existing binding to human ACE2; a novel furin cleavage site insert; a flat glycan binding domain of the spike protein which conflicts with host evasion survival patterns exhibited by other coronaviruses, and high human and mouse peptide mimicry. Initial assumptions against a laboratory origin, by contrast, have remained unsubstantiated. Furthermore, over a year after the initial outbreak in Wuhan, there is still no clear evidence of zoonotic transfer from a bat or intermediate species. Given the immense social and economic impact of this pandemic, identifying the true origin of SARS-CoV-2 is fundamental to preventing future outbreaks. The search for SARS-CoV-2's origin should include an open and unbiased inquiry into a possible laboratory origin.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Prashant N. Kambali; Amirhassan Abbasi; C. Nataraj;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC

    Abstract This paper is concerned with nonlinear modeling and analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic. We are especially interested in two current topics: effect of vaccination and the universally observed oscillations in infections. We use a nonlinear Susceptible, Infected, & Immune model incorporating a dynamic transmission rate and vaccination policy. The US data provides a starting point for analyzing stability, bifurcations and dynamics in general. Further parametric analysis reveals a saddle-node bifurcation under imperfect vaccination leading to the occurrence of sustained epidemic equilibria. This work points to the tremendous value of systematic nonlinear dynamic analysis in pandemic modeling and demonstrates the dramatic influence of vaccination, and frequency, phase, and amplitude of transmission rate on persistent dynamic behavior of the disease.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vladimir N. Uversky; Fatma Elrashdy; Abdullah Aljadawi; Syed Moasfar Ali; Rizwan Hasan Khan; Elrashdy M. Redwan;
    Publisher: Preprints

    Without protective and/or therapeutic agents the SARS-CoV-2 infection known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is quickly spreading worldwide. It has surprising transmissibility potential, since it could infect all ages, gender, and human sectors. It attacks respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, hepatic, and endovascular systems and can reach the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) through known and unknown mechanisms. The reports on the neurological manifestations and complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are increasing exponentially. Herein, we enumerate seven candidate routes, which the mature or immature SARS-CoV-2 components could use to reach the CNS and PNS, utilizing the within-body crosstalk between organs. The majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients suffer from some neurological manifestations (e.g., confusion, anosmia, and ageusia). It seems that although the mature virus did not reach the CNS or PNS of the majority of patients, its unassembled components and/or the accompanying immune-mediated responses may be responsible for the observed neurological symptoms. The viral particles and/or its components have been specifically documented in endothelial cells of lung, kidney, skin, and CNS. This means that the blood-endothelial-barrier may be considered as the main route for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the nervous system, with the barrier disruption being more logical than barrier permeability, as evidenced by postmortem analyses.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Saharnaz Sazgarnejad; Bahar Haghdoost; Mohammad Mahdi Molaei; Vida Kordipour; Hamed Amirifard;
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC

    Abstract Background Neurological involvement including CNS demyelination syndromes following SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported as extra-pulmonary involvement in patients with COVID-19. Besides, immune-mediated central nervous system involvement is a rare phenomenon that is considered to be one of the most important and serious complications of vaccines as well. While regarding the recent pandemic and worldwide use of the COVID-19 vaccines investigating serious life-threatening side effects is worth considering. Case presentation: This article reported a young male Iranian patient without any past medical history and neurological problems who presented acute disorientation due to acute central nervous system demyelination approximately one month after receiving the first dosage of Sinopharm BIBP COVID-19 vaccine. Based on extended clinical investigations the patient had undergone the treatment with the highly probable diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis syndrome. Conclusion In this article clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the patient with the diagnosis of ADEM following COVID-19 vaccine administration have been discussed. It seems for timely diagnosis and access to a safer state in our global immunization, reporting and evaluating the diagnosis approach and challenges in treatment and patient recovery regarding rare and adverse effects is worth considering.

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