The following chapter covers the saga of the Golgi apparatus (GA) from its discovery to the beginning of the 1980s when new tools for research, such as antibodies and molecular probes, became available. Emphasis is given to early insights and to those developments which laid the foundations for new developments covered in this monograph. This historical review, however, cannot include detailed descriptions nor can all significant contributions be mentioned. I apologize to all those whose work may not have found its due consideration. The historical development of our current knowledge of the GA is paradigmatic for the evolution of science in many ways. It exemplifies the importance of new approaches for progress to be made since contacts with apparently unrelated areas of research very often lead to surprising breakthroughs. Camillo Golgi discovered the “apparato reticolare interno”by using his difficult “black reaction”which brought him fame for the first demonstration of neuronal networks. During the following fifty years, the GA remained an intangible and often spurious concept for one part of the scientific community while the other was convinced of its reality, ubiquity and functional association with secretory processes. The end of this “Golgi controversy”was marked by the identification of the GA as a morphological entity by electron microscopy at the beginning of the 1950s. This advance, followed by the general pace of the postwar development of the life sciences, led to a singular explosion of interest in this organelle during the 1960s as reflected by a citation analysis. Major contributions were the observations on cytochemical differentiation of the cisternal stack of the GA, its role in secretion, and post-translational modifications as shown by autoradiography and biochemically by fractionation. At the end of the 1970s, the importance of the GA within the secretory pathway and its contribution to structural changes of secretory products was solidly established. The development of immunochemical and molecular probes for Golgi-specific marker proteins was the beginning of the current era. These tools now permit studies on the biogenesis of the GA, molecular mechanisms of intracellular transport and sorting, assembly and disassembly during the cell cycle, the fine architecture of this organelle, and have shown its ubiquity among eukaryotic cells including yeasts. All these aspects are at the center of current interests and are comprehensively dealt with in this volume.
Abstract Wood has been used by mankind since prehistory; therefore the presence of wood in cultural heritage is huge. The dendrochronological dating is considered one of the principal techniques for the study of wood of historical and architectural interest. When the traces left by the history make a correct reading of the context impossible, the results given by dendrochronology are often the only certain data useful as a reference. Wood species identification and tree-ring analysis allow far more than just dating: often it is possible to identify the provenance of the woods, closely studying some technical aspects, detecting major or minor interventions of restoration, substitution, and reuse, and, in some fields of study, verifying the attribution of the artifact to a certain artist or school. The power of dendrochronology is based on the rigorous scientific approach and the complete independence from other stylistic or historical considerations.
We propose an approach to categorize real-world natural scenes based on a semantic typicality measure. The proposed typicality measure allows to grade the similarity of an image with respect to a scene category. We argue that such a graded decision is appropriate and justified both from a human’s perspective as well as from the image-content point of view. The method combines bottom-up information of local semantic concepts with the typical semantic content of an image category. Using this learned category representation the proposed typicality measure also quantifies the semantic transitions between image categories such as coasts, rivers/lakes, forest, plains, mountains or sky/clouds. The method is evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively on a database of natural scenes. The experiments show that the typicality measure well represents the diversity of the given image categories as well as the ambiguity in human judgment of image categorization.
The actor Claud Sykes (1883–1963), who had come to Zurich in 1915, met Joyce in 1917. Together they founded the English Players, an English language theatre company that was active in Zurich between April 1918 and late 1919. Sykes moved back to England after the war. He continued to produce plays at first, but later worked as an author and translator of books about World War I aviation. From the mid-1930s onwards he worked for MI5.
Joyce regarded the Swiss Othmar Schoeck (1886–1957) as one of the most important contemporary composers, standing “head and shoulders over Stravinsky and Antheil as composer for orchestra and voice anyhow”. He was deeply impressed by a performance of Schoeck’s Lebendig Begraben on 14 January 1935 at the Tonhalle, conducted by the composer himself. He went to see Schoeck immediately afterwards and came to see him as one of Zurich’s most important assets.
In October 1881, the “Gunfight at the O.K. (‘Old Kindersley’) Corral,” a combat between lawmen and members of a group of outlaws, the so-called “Cowboys”, took place in Tombstone, Arizona Territory. Tombstone was a booming mining town near the Mexican border. The gunfight is widely regarded as the most famous shootout in the history of the Wild West. It was the result of a feud between five of the Cowboys and four representatives of the town’s authorities, in particular Special Policeman Wyatt Earp and Temporary Policeman Doc Holliday, a gambler, gunfighter and dentist.
International audience; The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: comprehensive monitoring is now built in to the framework; for validation and debugging, reconstructed data can be written out; the steering is integrated with the new configuration (presented separately), and topological and global triggers have been added. This paper will present details of the final design and its implementation, the principles behind it, and the requirements and constraints it is subject to. The experience gained from technical runs with realistic trigger menus will be described.
We present an overview of the CODICES project, an interdisciplinary approach for analysis of pre-Columbian collections of pictorial materials – more specifically, of Maya hieroglyphics. We discuss some of the main scientific and technical challenges that we have found in our work, and present a summary of our current technical achievements. This overview stresses the importance of thinking globally and acting both locally and globally with respect to developing approaches for cultural heritage preservation, research, and education.