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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Gumbrevičiūtė-Kuzminskienė, Diana;

    Gender discrimination case law of European Court of Justice established fundamental principles and influenced both the jurisprudence and case law of the examining discrimination cases on gender and other discrimination grounds. In the paper, the concept of direct discrimination formulated in the Race and Occupation equality directives applied under them, later taken by other directives and national law, is analyzed. Lithuania, the same as the other Member States, defined the direct discrimination concept in the way as it was formulated in the directives. The content of the prohibition of discrimination depends on the content of equality. There is a difference between formal and substantive equality—the implementation of formal and substantive equality is reflected in the case law of the ECJ and national courts. Direct discrimination is one of the discrimination forms and it is distinguished as the prime form of discrimination. As was stated in the early case law of the EJC, direct discrimination is not always overt. The covert form of direct discrimination is becoming more common. These elements of direct discrimination can be enumerated—the symmetric structure of the concept, which shows the equal protection of both majority and minority of people; comparison, which shows the requirement to compare as many similar situations as possible to less favourable treatment due to dependence on discrimination grounds consolidated in the law; and the possibility to justify direct discrimination if only there are narrow exceptions consolidated in the law. The problem of comparison of situations is often faced by courts. There is no criterion that could direct a proper comparison in discrimination cases. The requirement to compare with other persons in a similar situation allows comparison of real situations and the possibility to compare situations in the past and hypothetical situations. The law omissions authorise courts to use the instrument of comparison flexibly, so consequently the problem of impartiality and incoherence of implementation of non-discrimination law can be raised. As the main element in examining the fact of direct discrimination, the element of comparison is criticised in present scientific papers because it is desirable but not a necessary element. It is considered that the main element in examining the fact of direct discrimination is less favourable treatment—it can be established following the criterion only of exceptional feature. There has to be a direct link between less favourable treatment and the grounds of discrimination consolidated in the law. The practice of stereotypes is widely considered as form of direct discrimination. The perpetrator’s aim and purpose to discriminate is not a necessary condition of liability even if the respondent appeal on the customers is money saving or conflict avoiding. Examining the basis of justifying direct discrimination, the justifications, exceptions, and exclusions are distinguished. Exceptions that can justify direct discrimination are finitive and narrow. Lithuanian law prohibits direct discrimination justification apart from narrow exceptions consolidated in the legislation. One of the exceptions that is consolidated in the legislation is the necessary and genuine occupational requirements that must be proportional and lawful. Gausi Europos Teisingumo Teismo praktika diskriminacijos dėl lyties bylose suformavo pagrindinius principus ir padarė įtaką jurisprudencijai bei teismų praktikai nagrinėjant diskriminacijos bylas ir kitais pagrindais (rasės, amžiaus, lytinės orientacijos ir kt.). Straipsnyje analizuojama Rasės lygybės bei Užimtumo lygybės direktyvų pagrindu suformuluota ir taikoma tiesioginės diskriminacijos samprata, vėliau perimta kitų direktyvų ir nacionalinių valstybių teisės aktų. Lietuva, kaip ir kitos valstybės narės, perkėlė Direktyvų nuostatas iš esmės atkartodama tiesioginės diskriminacijos apibrėžimą. Straipsnyje analizuojami tiesioginės diskriminacijos sąvokos elementai: simetriškumas, palyginimas, mažiau palankus elgesys, galimybė pateisinti tiesioginę diskriminaciją. Atskleidžiant tiesioginės diskriminacijos sampratą, remiamasi Europos Teisingumo Teismo ir nacionalinių teismų praktika. Straipsnio pirmoje dalyje pateikiamas tiesioginės diskriminacijos santykis su bendra diskriminacijos sąvoka, diskriminacijos ir lygybės santykis. Antroje straipsnio dalyje nagrinėjami tiesioginės diskriminacijos sąvokos elementai: simetriškumas ir palyginimas, mažiau palankus elgesys. Vertinama tikslo ir motyvo reikšmė tiesioginės diskriminacijos bylose, hipotetinio palyginimo galimybė, tiesioginės diskriminacijos pateisinimas.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mykolas Romeris Univ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Mačiulaitis, Vilius;

    Employees are the most likely to become an extremely vulnerable link in labour relations during various employer initiated reorganisation processes. This situation remains despite the nature of reorganisation processes, i.e. local adjustment, reorganisation, transfer of business or its share to another legal entity, or, simply, the replacement of the main shareholder. As a rule, all the aforementioned situations are very stressful for employees because the adjustment of work organisation and integration of additional organisational structures leads to alterations in working conditions as well as to giving cause for lawful dismissal. In most cases such actions are justified by economic logic, economic rationality, allocation of resources, etc. But sometimes such actions hide things that have nothing to do with economic logic, for example, the change of work organisation due to the specific attitude of new management, stereotypes or even different organisational understanding. The European Community has spotlighted these problems long ago. The development of a single market led to quite a number of reorganisations as these processes involved international components. The free movement of services has determined the various ways and forms for the transfer of undertaking, the whole or any part of the business. In order to make these changes more acceptable and to soften their effect on employees, employers and their representatives, a number of initiatives on safeguarding employee rights emerged from the Community’s Social Action Programme of 1974. It was the so-called triad of safeguarding employee rights— directives related to consultations in collective redundancy situations with the aim to protect the employee rights during the transfers of undertakings, business and its parts, and those of which the employer had become insolvent. Later these directives were revised and consolidated. The subject of the research in this article is the consolidated Council Directive 2001/23/ EC of March 12, 2001 on the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to the safeguarding of employee rights in the event of transfers of undertakings, businesses, or parts of undertakings or businesses. Various reorganisation processes of undertakings have significant impact not only on business development, but also on safeguarding employee rights, as well as retention of workplaces. In other words, the principle of the stability of employment relationships in such cases must be secured. The intent of this article is to analyze the influence of the changes in business on the principle of the stability of employment relationship and also to find out how the reorganisational processes, transfers of undertakings, businesses or parts of undertakings or businesses affect employee guarantees and retention of workplaces. Darbo santykių stabilumo principu siekiama apsaugoti darbuotojus nuo pernelyg didelės darbo santykių kaitos tais atvejais, kai darbo santykiai atitinka nuolatinumo bei tęstinumo požymius. Visuotinai pripažįstama, kad darbas pats savaime yra vertybė, užtikrinanti dirbančiojo socialinį statusą. Iš darbo santykių gaunamos pajamos dažniausiai yra pagrindinis pragyvenimo šaltinis. Dėl to svarbu, kad darbuotojų teisės nebūtų pažeidžiamos, kai dėl vienų ar kitų priežasčių darbo santykiai turi pasibaigti. Ypač tai svarbu, kai darbo santykiai pasibaigia dėl nuo darbuotojo valios nepriklausančių priežasčių, t. y. darbo santykiai baigiasi nesant darbuotojo valios nutraukti darbo sutartį. Perduodant įmonę, verslą ar jų dalis dažniausiai sprendžiami klausimai ir dėl darbo santykių tęstinumo ar nutraukimo. Be to, užtikrinant darbo santykių tęstinumą, labai svarbu, kaip bus užtikrinamos darbo sutartyje jau sulygtos sąlygos – ar įmonės, verslo ar jų dalių perėmėjas turi tam tikrų įsipareigojimų, kylančių iš jau sudarytų darbo sutarčių.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mykolas Romeris Univ...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Kudirka, Robertas;

    This article analyses 127 suffixal adverbs from Lithuanian slang and non-standard dictionary (Kaunas, 2012). The suffixal adverbs of Lithuanian slang have not been researched systematically according to grammatical classification. This research is based on the morphological analysis. The suffixal adverbs are divided into groups: every group includes some subgroups. First, the most productive derivatives groups are analyzed, then the less productive groups are involved. In each subgroup are described derivatives of individual suffixes; where necessary, due consideration is given to the underlying structure and various morphological properties. Every subgroup has a small description of the accentuation and the pronunciation or the root vocalism.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vilnius University I...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Izabelė Švaraitė;

    The aim of the work is to analyze how sexual minorities were presented in the press of Lithuania (dailies “Lietuvos rytas” and “Respublika”) during the period of 2008-2013. The data of a research was collected to write a bachelor’s work in 2014 and was analyzed in the context of previous researches. 580 publications were used (343 were published in “Lietuvos rytas”, 237 – in “Respublika”). It was noticed that two dailies of Lithuania presented two different approaches to the problems of sexual minorities. “Lietuvos rytas” gives an impression that members of sexual minorities are a normal part of our society. They were presented either neutrally or sympathetically in the context of human rights and freedom. Sexual minorities in “Respublika” were presented as perverts. Their depravity was emphasized by putting them against nation, family, morality and Catholic Church. The results also show that the problems of sexual minorities remain abstract and deindividualized. Most attention is paid to the questions of samesex marriages, adoption, partnership, march of “Baltic Pride” and “Gender Loops” program.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vilnius University I...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Žurnalistikos Tyrimai
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Žurnalistikos Tyrimai
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    Narimantas Evaldas Samalavičius; Tomas Poskus;

    Narimantas Evaldas Samalavicius 1 , Tomas Poskus 2 1 Vilniaus universiteto Onkologijos instituto Chirurgijos klinika, Santariskių g. 1, LT-08660 Vilnius 2 Vilniaus universiteto ligoninės Santariskių klinikų Centro filialo III abdominalinės chirurgijos skyriaus Koloproktologijos poskyris, Žygimantų g. 3, LT-01102 Vilnius El pastas: narimantsam@yahoo.com Tikslas Įvertinti ankstyvuosius ir vėlyvuosius mechaninės siūlės hemoroidektomijų, atliktų Vilniaus universiteto ligoninės Santariskių klinikų Centro filialo III pilvo chirurgijos skyriaus koloproktologijos poskyryje, rezultatus. Ligoniai ir metodai Per ketverius metus, nuo 2001 metų gruodžio iki 2005 metų sausio, mechaninės siūlės hemoroidektomija atlikta 29 ligoniams, sirgusiems III laipsnio (26 ligoniai) ir IV laipsnio (3 ligoniai) hemorojumi. Is jų buvo 15 moterų ir 14 vyrų, jų amžius – 32–80 metų, vidurkis – 54 metai. Operacijai buvo naudojamas PPH. Operacija truko nuo 10 iki 40 minucių, vidutiniskai 30 minucių. Rezultatai Vidutinė hospitalizacijos trukmė buvo 5 dienos (nuo 2 iki 8). Chirurginių komplikacijų po operacijos nebuvo. Sisteminių analgetikų po operacijos prireikė 21 pacientui vidutiniskai 2 paras (1–3 paros). Dviem pacientams konstatuotas užsiteses pooperacinis skausmas, kurį reikėjo malsinti vaistais atitinkamai 7 ir 10 dienų po operacijos. Pacientai į darbą ar prie įprastinės gyvenimo veiklos grįžo vidutiniskai astuntą parą po operacijos (nuo 5 iki 14 paros). Po vienerių metų is apklaustų 24 pacientų operaciją gerai ir labai gerai vertino 19 (79,2%), patenkinamai – 3 (12,5%) ir blogai – 2 (8,3%) pacientai: is pastarųjų vienam liko iskritimas, o vienam pasikartojo kraujavimas, uždegimas ir skausmas. Viena pacientė buvo mirusi. Keturių pacientų apklausti nepavyko. Isvados Mūsų patirtis parodė, jog mechaninės siūlės hemoroidektomija yra saugi ir patikima. Vėlyvieji operacijos rezultatai yra geri. Reiksminiai žodžiai: isangė, hemorojus, mechaninė siūlė, chirurginis gydymas, rezultatai Stapled hemorrhoidectomy: experience after 29 operations Narimantas Evaldas Samalavicius 1 , Tomas Poskus 2 1 Vilnius University, Institute of Oncology, Clinic of Surgery, Santariskių str. 1, LT-08660 Vilnius, Lithuania 2 Vilnius University Hospital "Santariskių klinikos", Central Branch, 3rd Department of Abdominal Surgery, Division of Coloproctology, Žygimantų str. 3, LT-01102 Vilnius, Lithuania E-mail: narimantsam@yahoo.com Objective To evaluate early and late results after stapled hemorrhoidectomy in the colorectal subunit of the third departament of surgery in Vilnius University Hospital "Santariskių klinikos" Central Branch. Patients and methods 29 patients underwent stapled hemorrhoidectomy over a period of four years (from December 2001 to January 2005). 26 patients had third and 3 patients had fourth degree hemorrhoids. There were 15 females and 14 males, age range from 32 to 80 years (mean 54 years). The PPH kit (Procedure for prolapsed hemorrhoids), Ethicon, Johnson and Johnson was used. Operations lasted from 10 to 40 minutes, on average 30 minutes. Results The mean in-hospital stay was 5 days (2–8). No surgical complications occurred. Analgesic medications were needed for 21 patients, on average for 2 days (1–3). Prolonged pain was observed in two patients who required analgesic medications for 7 and 10 days. Patients resumed their routine activities on the 8th postoperative day (5–14 days). After one year, 19 of 24 (79.2%) patients regarded their operation as good or very good, 3 (12.5%) as satisfactory and two (8.3%) as bad: in those patients one had recurrent prolapse, another one had recurrent bleeding, the third one had bleeding and thrombotic episodes. One patient had died of the causes unrelated to the operation, and the other four were out of reach. Conclusions Our experience shows that stapled hemorrhoidectomy is safe and effective. Late follow-up results are good. Key words: anus, haemorrhoids, surgical treatment, stapling, results

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lietuvos Chirurgijaarrow_drop_down
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    Lietuvos Chirurgija
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    Lietuvos Chirurgija
    Article . 2006
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    Lietuvos Chirurgija
    Article . 2006
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Rimkevičienė, Audronė;

    In the paper, we prove a limit theorem of discrete type on the weak convergence of probability measures on the complex plane for the periodic Hurwitz zeta-function.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vilnius University I...arrow_drop_down
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    Stasiulis, Arvydas; Zaičenkovienė, Kristina; Aleksandravičienė, Roma;

    Sportinė aerobika yra viena iš naujausių gimnastikos sporto šakų, kurią kultivuodami sportininkai pagal muziką turi atlikti didelio intensyvumo pagrindinius aerobikos judesius ir jungti juos su jėgos, šuolių, lankstumo, pusiausvyros pratimais. Kaip ir kitos gimnastikos rūšys, sportinė aerobika reikalauja aerobinės ir anaerobinės ištvermės, šoklumo, lankstumo, jėgos ir puikios koordinacijos. Visos šios fizinės ypatybės turi būti rodomos varžybinio pratimo metu (vidutinė trukmė — 2 min), atliekant koordinaciškai sudėtingus judesius bei įvairaus sudėtingumo elementus dideliu intensyvumu be poilsio intervalų (Sports Aerobics Code of Points, 2002). Fiziologinius pokyčius specifinio fizinio krūvio (varžybinės veiklos) metu tyrė ispanų mokslininkai (Rodriguez et al., 1998). R. Aleksandravičienė (2005) ištyrė skirtingo meistriškumo aerobininkių aerobinį pajėgumą ir energijos sąnaudas varžybinės veiklos metu. Tyrimo tikslas — nustatyti skirtingo meistriškumo aerobininkių anaerobinį pajėgumą minant veloergometrą. Buvo tiriama 18 aerobikos sportininkių. Išanalizavus varžybinių pratimų sudėtingumą ir varžybų rezultatus, jos buvo suskirstytos į didesnio ir mažesnio sportinio meistriškumo grupes. Visos tiriamosios atliko 30 sekundžių maksimalų Vingeito testą „Monark“ veloergometru. Testo ir atsigavimo po jo metu buvo registruojamas širdies susitraukimų dažnis naudojant „Polar“ pulso matuoklį S-810 (Suomija). Kapiliarinio kraujo mėginiai buvo imami atsigavimo metu po Vingeito testo praėjus... [toliau žr. visą tekstą] Aerobic gymnastics is one of the newest branches in gymnastics sport, when athletes must perform continuous complex and high intensity movement patterns to music, which originate from traditional aerobic steps and strength, flexibility and balance exercises. Aerobic gymnastics is characterized as an intensive physical exercise in which a number of muscle groups are actively engaged as well as both aerobic and anaerobic capacity of the body is developed. In competitive activities (lasting 2 min on average) physical properties, such as strength, flexibility, coordination must be demonstrated without rest intervals (Sports Aerobics Code of Points, 2002). Physiological responses during a competitive exercise in aerobic gymnastics were determined by Spanish scientists (Rodriguez et al., 1998), aerobic capacity and energy expenditure of aerobic gymnastics athletes of different level of training during competitive exercise were studied by R. Aleksandravičienė (2005). The aim of this study was to determine the anaerobic performance during cycling ergometry in differently trained sports aerobics women athletes. A group of Lithuanian aerobic competitors (n = 15) with different level of training were engaged as the subjects in this experiment. Their anaerobic performance was assessed by using 30 s Wingate anaerobic test. The heart rate (HR) dynamics during Wingate test and during recovery was evaluated as well. In addition, capillary blood samples were taken at 5th and 20th min of... [to full text]

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    Jakaitė, Dalia;

    Akmuo yra vienas iš daiktų Rainerio Marios Rilke’s žmogaus pasaulyje, kuris pasižymi išskirtiniu simboliniu daiktiškumu, šio fenomeno meditacija, persmelkta kūrybinių „aš“ galių. Kaip egzistencinė būties dalis ir šventuma, daiktai pripažįstami ir šlovinami giesmės intonacijomis. Daiktų ir žmogaus santykis iškyla kaip laikiškai štai-būčiai ir metafizinei paslapčiai atsiverianti tikrovė. IX Rilke’s Duino elegijoje žmogaus būtis suvokiama kaip prasmė pavadinti daiktus: „Esam čia gal tik tam, kad ištartu­me: namas, / tiltas, šulinys, vartai, ąsotis, vaismedis, langas, – / kilniau: kolona, bokštas...“ (R i lk e 1996, 299). Per šiuos ir kitus daiktus jutimiškai patiriamas pasaulis yra galimybė autentiškam santykiui su būtimi, sakralumo ištikčiai. Kita vertus, ir patys daiktai yra savaiminė vertybė, prie kurios priartėti žmogui leidžia ypatinga kalbos patirtis. Apie daiktiškojo Rilke’s pasaulio simboliškumą kalbėjo ne vienas poeto kritikas. Iš daugiaprasmės poeto simbolikos šioje publikacijoje linkstama į teopoetinį krikščioniškojo pasaulio reikšmių lauką . Tai lemia aptariami tekstai – eilėraščiai iš Valandų knygos (Das Stundenbuch). Šioje pranciškoniškosios, subjektyviai krikščioniškosios (žmogiškąjį ir daiktiškąjį subjektyvumą suabsoliutinančios) dvasios knygoje akmens ir akmeniškumo yra gausu. Žmogaus būčiai suvokti akmuo pasirenkamas ir kuriamas kaip gamtos ir Biblijos daiktas. Šios publikacijos tikslas – ne tiek išsamus tyrimas, kiek „akmeninių“ Valandų knygos eilėraščių... [toliau žr. visą tekstą] Stone is one of the things in the world of Rilke’s man. The aim of the present publication is to comment on several poems from “The Book of Hours” presenting new translations into the Lithuanian language. For the comments we have chosen the poetical semantic field of the Christian world from polysemous poet’s symbolism. It is conditioned by the collection itself. In the poems “Jetzt reifen schon die roten Berberitze” and “Da trat ich als ein Pilger ein” stone becomes the metaphor of God. In the poem “Wenn etwas mir vom Fenster fällt” stone allows the verification of the world order and the assurance in its existence and meaning. The poems “Sie sind es nicht“ and “Du bist der Arme, du der Mittellose” are related by the symbolism of stone expressing divine poverty. In the poem “Du bist das Kloster zu den Wundenmalen” stone speaks about the polysemy of a cloister. The stone world of a cloister as God’s house symbolizes the nature of the relation between human and God. In this and other texts, stone and language appear as the ways to get closer to the essence, the possibility to listen to and hear. In the poem “Und seine Sorgfalt ist uns wie ein Alb” stone and silence point to the divine incognizability. In the poem “Mach mich zum Wächter deiner Weiten” stone is not only a part of the building but a spot of silence that allows hearing. Quite a few poems of “The Book of Hours” have the spirit of pilgrimage.

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    Rotomskis, Augustinas; Grabauskaitė, Aida; Margevičiūtė, Ramunė; Germanavičius, Arūnas; +5 Authors

    Background. Currently, it is recognised that movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s and related diseases, also have a cognitive component and those diseases even progress in some patients to dementia. Therefore, a cognitive assessment is useful in evaluating movement disorders. There is a need for having more clinical tools for differential diagnostics between DLB and AD. The Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised can meet this need as it is a brief sensitive dementia screening test. The Lithuanian version of ACE-R (ACE-RLT) was shown to be able to detect dementia, but further research was still lacking in establishing the use of the ACE-R for differential diagnostics of AD and DLB. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the ACE-R to accurately differentiate mild-moderate Alzheimer’s disease from mild-moderate dementia with Lewy bodies. Participants and methods. Seventy three patients with early mild-moderate AD and 30 patients with mild-moderate DLB were evaluated with the ACE-R, the test which consists of the following domains: orientation, attention, memory, verbal fluency, language and visuospatial ability, with maximum total score 100. The results were compared with those obtained in 86 healthy controls. The one-way ANOVA, logistic-regression analysis, ROC analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test were done for statistical analysis. Results. In AD group neither age (p=0.060), nor gender (p=0.466) or education (p=0.206) had an effect on ACE-R scores. In DLB group neither age (p=0.249), nor gender (p=0.615) or education (p=0.360) had an effect on ACE-R scores. In control group both age (p<0.001) and education (p<0.001) had an effect, while gender did not (p=0.438). At 74, the previously recommended cut-off score for clinical use in the detection of dementia, the ACE-RLT showed a sensitivity of 100 %, and a specificity of 90.5% for AD in our study. The Cronbach’s alpha for the ACE-RLT was 0.912. AD group was significantly more likely to score below the recommended cut-off scores for memory and language subtests than the DLB group (chi-square; p<0.0001). The DLB group was significantly more likely to score below the recommended cut-off scores for verbal fluency and visuospatial abilities subtests than the AD group (chi square; p<0.0001). Conclusions. The ACE-RLT appears to be a reliable and valid tool for differential diagnostics of DLB and AD in Lithuanian speaking population. The cognitive assessment using ACE-RLT indicated that in DLB verbal fluency and visuospatial abilities were more impaired compared to AD. And in AD memory and language performance were worse than in DLB.

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    Juodka, Robertas;

    Ištyrus nespecifinius kraujo serumo baltymus nustatyta, kad vištoms yra būdingi dideli alelių PreAl – 2B (0,667), PostAlA (0,635), PostTf – 2B (0,627) dažnumai, o alelių PreTf – 2A, PreTf – 2B, McA, McB dažnumai buvo artimi trijų tirtų populiacijų vidurkiams ( skirtumas 0,008 – 0,015 ). Kalakutų populiacijai yra būdingas didelis alelio PreAl – 1B (0,613) dažnumas, o alelių PreAl – 2A, PreAl – 2B , PostTfA, PostTfB, McA, McB dažnumai buvo artimi trijų populiacijų vidurkiui ( skirtumas 0,010 – 0,033). Pentardos pasižymėjo dideliais alelių PreAl – 1A (0,681), PreAl – 2A (0,681), AlB (0,736), PreTfA (0,708) dažnumais, o alelių McA ir McB dažnumai buvo identiški trijų populiacijų vidurkiui. Mažiausias vidutinis faktinis heterozigotiškumas buvo kalakutų populiacijoje (0,329), didesnis pas pentardas (0,437) ir didžiausias pas vištas (0,509). Didžiausias genetinis identiškumas (0,969) nustatytas tarp vištų ir kalakutų populiacijų, mažiausias tarp vištų ir pentardų (0,928). The analysis of non-specific blood serum proteins indicated that high frequency of alleles PreAl– 2B (0.667), PostAlA (0.635), PostTf–2B (0.627), was characteristic of hens, and the frequencies of alleles PreTf–2A, PreTf–2B, McA, McB were close to the mean values of the three populations under investigation (difference – 0.008-0.015). The population of turkeys was distinguished by high frequency of allele PreAl–1B (0.613), and the frequencies of alleles PreAl–2A, PreAl–2B, PostTfA, PostTfB, McA, McB were similar to the mean values of the three populations (difference – 0.010-0.033). High frequencies of alleles PreAl–1A (0.681), PreAl–2A (0.681), AlB (0.736), PreTfA (0.708) were characteristic of guinea fowls, while the frequencies of alleles McA and McB were identical to the mean values of the three populations. Turkey population had the lowest average actual heterozygosity (0.329), guinea fowls had somewhat higher heterozygosity (0,437) and the highest heterozygosity was determined for hens (0.509). The highest genetic identity (0.969) was found between the populations of hens and turkeys, while the lowest – between hens and guinea fowls (0.928). Исследовав неспецифический белок сыворотки крови трех разных популяций птиц, установлено, что куры имели большие частоты аллелей PreAl – 2B (0,667), PostAlA (0,635), PostTf – 2B (0,627), а частоты аллелей PreTf – 2A, PreTf – 2B, McA, McB у ку�� были близкие к средней величине трех популяций (разница 0,008 – 0,015). Для популяции индюков было присущее большая частота аллели PreAl – 1B (0,613) , а частота аллелей PreAl – 2A, PreAl – 2B , PostTfA, PostTfB, McA, McB была близка к средней величине трех популяций (разница 0,010 – 0,033). Цесарки отличались большими частотами аллелей PreAl – 1A (0,681), PreAl – 2A (0,681), AlB (0,736), PreTfA (0,708), а частота аллелей McA ir McB у них была идентична к средней величине трех популяций. Наименьшая средняя фактическая гетерозиготность была в популяции индюков (0,329), наибольшая у цесарок (0,437) и самая большая у кур (0,509). Наибольшая генетическая идентичность (0,969) установлена между популяциями кур и индюков, а наименьшая между популяциями кур и цесарок (0,928).

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    Gumbrevičiūtė-Kuzminskienė, Diana;

    Gender discrimination case law of European Court of Justice established fundamental principles and influenced both the jurisprudence and case law of the examining discrimination cases on gender and other discrimination grounds. In the paper, the concept of direct discrimination formulated in the Race and Occupation equality directives applied under them, later taken by other directives and national law, is analyzed. Lithuania, the same as the other Member States, defined the direct discrimination concept in the way as it was formulated in the directives. The content of the prohibition of discrimination depends on the content of equality. There is a difference between formal and substantive equality—the implementation of formal and substantive equality is reflected in the case law of the ECJ and national courts. Direct discrimination is one of the discrimination forms and it is distinguished as the prime form of discrimination. As was stated in the early case law of the EJC, direct discrimination is not always overt. The covert form of direct discrimination is becoming more common. These elements of direct discrimination can be enumerated—the symmetric structure of the concept, which shows the equal protection of both majority and minority of people; comparison, which shows the requirement to compare as many similar situations as possible to less favourable treatment due to dependence on discrimination grounds consolidated in the law; and the possibility to justify direct discrimination if only there are narrow exceptions consolidated in the law. The problem of comparison of situations is often faced by courts. There is no criterion that could direct a proper comparison in discrimination cases. The requirement to compare with other persons in a similar situation allows comparison of real situations and the possibility to compare situations in the past and hypothetical situations. The law omissions authorise courts to use the instrument of comparison flexibly, so consequently the problem of impartiality and incoherence of implementation of non-discrimination law can be raised. As the main element in examining the fact of direct discrimination, the element of comparison is criticised in present scientific papers because it is desirable but not a necessary element. It is considered that the main element in examining the fact of direct discrimination is less favourable treatment—it can be established following the criterion only of exceptional feature. There has to be a direct link between less favourable treatment and the grounds of discrimination consolidated in the law. The practice of stereotypes is widely considered as form of direct discrimination. The perpetrator’s aim and purpose to discriminate is not a necessary condition of liability even if the respondent appeal on the customers is money saving or conflict avoiding. Examining the basis of justifying direct discrimination, the justifications, exceptions, and exclusions are distinguished. Exceptions that can justify direct discrimination are finitive and narrow. Lithuanian law prohibits direct discrimination justification apart from narrow exceptions consolidated in the legislation. One of the exceptions that is consolidated in the legislation is the necessary and genuine occupational requirements that must be proportional and lawful. Gausi Europos Teisingumo Teismo praktika diskriminacijos dėl lyties bylose suformavo pagrindinius principus ir padarė įtaką jurisprudencijai bei teismų praktikai nagrinėjant diskriminacijos bylas ir kitais pagrindais (rasės, amžiaus, lytinės orientacijos ir kt.). Straipsnyje analizuojama Rasės lygybės bei Užimtumo lygybės direktyvų pagrindu suformuluota ir taikoma tiesioginės diskriminacijos samprata, vėliau perimta kitų direktyvų ir nacionalinių valstybių teisės aktų. Lietuva, kaip ir kitos valstybės narės, perkėlė Direktyvų nuostatas iš esmės atkartodama tiesioginės diskriminacijos apibrėžimą. Straipsnyje analizuojami tiesioginės diskriminacijos sąvokos elementai: simetriškumas, palyginimas, mažiau palankus elgesys, galimybė pateisinti tiesioginę diskriminaciją. Atskleidžiant tiesioginės diskriminacijos sampratą, remiamasi Europos Teisingumo Teismo ir nacionalinių teismų praktika. Straipsnio pirmoje dalyje pateikiamas tiesioginės diskriminacijos santykis su bendra diskriminacijos sąvoka, diskriminacijos ir lygybės santykis. Antroje straipsnio dalyje nagrinėjami tiesioginės diskriminacijos sąvokos elementai: simetriškumas ir palyginimas, mažiau palankus elgesys. Vertinama tikslo ir motyvo reikšmė tiesioginės diskriminacijos bylose, hipotetinio palyginimo galimybė, tiesioginės diskriminacijos pateisinimas.

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    Mačiulaitis, Vilius;

    Employees are the most likely to become an extremely vulnerable link in labour relations during various employer initiated reorganisation processes. This situation remains despite the nature of reorganisation processes, i.e. local adjustment, reorganisation, transfer of business or its share to another legal entity, or, simply, the replacement of the main shareholder. As a rule, all the aforementioned situations are very stressful for employees because the adjustment of work organisation and integration of additional organisational structures leads to alterations in working conditions as well as to giving cause for lawful dismissal. In most cases such actions are justified by economic logic, economic rationality, allocation of resources, etc. But sometimes such actions hide things that have nothing to do with economic logic, for example, the change of work organisation due to the specific attitude of new management, stereotypes or even different organisational understanding. The European Community has spotlighted these problems long ago. The development of a single market led to quite a number of reorganisations as these processes involved international components. The free movement of services has determined the various ways and forms for the transfer of undertaking, the whole or any part of the business. In order to make these changes more acceptable and to soften their effect on employees, employers and their representatives, a number of initiatives on safeguarding employee rights emerged from the Community’s Social Action Programme of 1974. It was the so-called triad of safeguarding employee rights— directives related to consultations in collective redundancy situations with the aim to protect the employee rights during the transfers of undertakings, business and its parts, and those of which the employer had become insolvent. Later these directives were revised and consolidated. The subject of the research in this article is the consolidated Council Directive 2001/23/ EC of March 12, 2001 on the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to the safeguarding of employee rights in the event of transfers of undertakings, businesses, or parts of undertakings or businesses. Various reorganisation processes of undertakings have significant impact not only on business development, but also on safeguarding employee rights, as well as retention of workplaces. In other words, the principle of the stability of employment relationships in such cases must be secured. The intent of this article is to analyze the influence of the changes in business on the principle of the stability of employment relationship and also to find out how the reorganisational processes, transfers of undertakings, businesses or parts of undertakings or businesses affect employee guarantees and retention of workplaces. Darbo santykių stabilumo principu siekiama apsaugoti darbuotojus nuo pernelyg didelės darbo santykių kaitos tais atvejais, kai darbo santykiai atitinka nuolatinumo bei tęstinumo požymius. Visuotinai pripažįstama, kad darbas pats savaime yra vertybė, užtikrinanti dirbančiojo socialinį statusą. Iš darbo santykių gaunamos pajamos dažniausiai yra pagrindinis pragyvenimo šaltinis. Dėl to svarbu, kad darbuotojų teisės nebūtų pažeidžiamos, kai dėl vienų ar kitų priežasčių darbo santykiai turi pasibaigti. Ypač tai svarbu, kai darbo santykiai pasibaigia dėl nuo darbuotojo valios nepriklausančių priežasčių, t. y. darbo santykiai baigiasi nesant darbuotojo valios nutraukti darbo sutartį. Perduodant įmonę, verslą ar jų dalis dažniausiai sprendžiami klausimai ir dėl darbo santykių tęstinumo ar nutraukimo. Be to, užtikrinant darbo santykių tęstinumą, labai svarbu, kaip bus užtikrinamos darbo sutartyje jau sulygtos sąlygos – ar įmonės, verslo ar jų dalių perėmėjas turi tam tikrų įsipareigojimų, kylančių iš jau sudarytų darbo sutarčių.

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    Kudirka, Robertas;

    This article analyses 127 suffixal adverbs from Lithuanian slang and non-standard dictionary (Kaunas, 2012). The suffixal adverbs of Lithuanian slang have not been researched systematically according to grammatical classification. This research is based on the morphological analysis. The suffixal adverbs are divided into groups: every group includes some subgroups. First, the most productive derivatives groups are analyzed, then the less productive groups are involved. In each subgroup are described derivatives of individual suffixes; where necessary, due consideration is given to the underlying structure and various morphological properties. Every subgroup has a small description of the accentuation and the pronunciation or the root vocalism.

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    Izabelė Švaraitė;

    The aim of the work is to analyze how sexual minorities were presented in the press of Lithuania (dailies “Lietuvos rytas” and “Respublika”) during the period of 2008-2013. The data of a research was collected to write a bachelor’s work in 2014 and was analyzed in the context of previous researches. 580 publications were used (343 were published in “Lietuvos rytas”, 237 – in “Respublika”). It was noticed that two dailies of Lithuania presented two different approaches to the problems of sexual minorities. “Lietuvos rytas” gives an impression that members of sexual minorities are a normal part of our society. They were presented either neutrally or sympathetically in the context of human rights and freedom. Sexual minorities in “Respublika” were presented as perverts. Their depravity was emphasized by putting them against nation, family, morality and Catholic Church. The results also show that the problems of sexual minorities remain abstract and deindividualized. Most attention is paid to the questions of samesex marriages, adoption, partnership, march of “Baltic Pride” and “Gender Loops” program.

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    Žurnalistikos Tyrimai
    Article . 2015
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    Žurnalistikos Tyrimai
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    Narimantas Evaldas Samalavičius; Tomas Poskus;

    Narimantas Evaldas Samalavicius 1 , Tomas Poskus 2 1 Vilniaus universiteto Onkologijos instituto Chirurgijos klinika, Santariskių g. 1, LT-08660 Vilnius 2 Vilniaus universiteto ligoninės Santariskių klinikų Centro filialo III abdominalinės chirurgijos skyriaus Koloproktologijos poskyris, Žygimantų g. 3, LT-01102 Vilnius El pastas: narimantsam@yahoo.com Tikslas Įvertinti ankstyvuosius ir vėlyvuosius mechaninės siūlės hemoroidektomijų, atliktų Vilniaus universiteto ligoninės Santariskių klinikų Centro filialo III pilvo chirurgijos skyriaus koloproktologijos poskyryje, rezultatus. Ligoniai ir metodai Per ketverius metus, nuo 2001 metų gruodžio iki 2005 metų sausio, mechaninės siūlės hemoroidektomija atlikta 29 ligoniams, sirgusiems III laipsnio (26 ligoniai) ir IV laipsnio (3 ligoniai) hemorojumi. Is jų buvo 15 moterų ir 14 vyrų, jų amžius – 32–80 metų, vidurkis – 54 metai. Operacijai buvo naudojamas PPH. Operacija truko nuo 10 iki 40 minucių, vidutiniskai 30 minucių. Rezultatai Vidutinė hospitalizacijos trukmė buvo 5 dienos (nuo 2 iki 8). Chirurginių komplikacijų po operacijos nebuvo. Sisteminių analgetikų po operacijos prireikė 21 pacientui vidutiniskai 2 paras (1–3 paros). Dviem pacientams konstatuotas užsiteses pooperacinis skausmas, kurį reikėjo malsinti vaistais atitinkamai 7 ir 10 dienų po operacijos. Pacientai į darbą ar prie įprastinės gyvenimo veiklos grįžo vidutiniskai astuntą parą po operacijos (nuo 5 iki 14 paros). Po vienerių metų is apklaustų 24 pacientų operaciją gerai ir labai gerai vertino 19 (79,2%), patenkinamai – 3 (12,5%) ir blogai – 2 (8,3%) pacientai: is pastarųjų vienam liko iskritimas, o vienam pasikartojo kraujavimas, uždegimas ir skausmas. Viena pacientė buvo mirusi. Keturių pacientų apklausti nepavyko. Isvados Mūsų patirtis parodė, jog mechaninės siūlės hemoroidektomija yra saugi ir patikima. Vėlyvieji operacijos rezultatai yra geri. Reiksminiai žodžiai: isangė, hemorojus, mechaninė siūlė, chirurginis gydymas, rezultatai Stapled hemorrhoidectomy: experience after 29 operations Narimantas Evaldas Samalavicius 1 , Tomas Poskus 2 1 Vilnius University, Institute of Oncology, Clinic of Surgery, Santariskių str. 1, LT-08660 Vilnius, Lithuania 2 Vilnius University Hospital "Santariskių klinikos", Central Branch, 3rd Department of Abdominal Surgery, Division of Coloproctology, Žygimantų str. 3, LT-01102 Vilnius, Lithuania E-mail: narimantsam@yahoo.com Objective To evaluate early and late results after stapled hemorrhoidectomy in the colorectal subunit of the third departament of surgery in Vilnius University Hospital "Santariskių klinikos" Central Branch. Patients and methods 29 patients underwent stapled hemorrhoidectomy over a period of four years (from December 2001 to January 2005). 26 patients had third and 3 patients had fourth degree hemorrhoids. There were 15 females and 14 males, age range from 32 to 80 years (mean 54 years). The PPH kit (Procedure for prolapsed hemorrhoids), Ethicon, Johnson and Johnson was used. Operations lasted from 10 to 40 minutes, on average 30 minutes. Results The mean in-hospital stay was 5 days (2–8). No surgical complications occurred. Analgesic medications were needed for 21 patients, on average for 2 days (1–3). Prolonged pain was observed in two patients who required analgesic medications for 7 and 10 days. Patients resumed their routine activities on the 8th postoperative day (5–14 days). After one year, 19 of 24 (79.2%) patients regarded their operation as good or very good, 3 (12.5%) as satisfactory and two (8.3%) as bad: in those patients one had recurrent prolapse, another one had recurrent bleeding, the third one had bleeding and thrombotic episodes. One patient had died of the causes unrelated to the operation, and the other four were out of reach. Conclusions Our experience shows that stapled hemorrhoidectomy is safe and effective. Late follow-up results are good. Key words: anus, haemorrhoids, surgical treatment, stapling, results

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    Lietuvos Chirurgija
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    Lietuvos Chirurgija
    Article . 2006
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    Lietuvos Chirurgija
    Article . 2006
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    Rimkevičienė, Audronė;

    In the paper, we prove a limit theorem of discrete type on the weak convergence of probability measures on the complex plane for the periodic Hurwitz zeta-function.

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    Stasiulis, Arvydas; Zaičenkovienė, Kristina; Aleksandravičienė, Roma;

    Sportinė aerobika yra viena iš naujausių gimnastikos sporto šakų, kurią kultivuodami sportininkai pagal muziką turi atlikti didelio intensyvumo pagrindinius aerobikos judesius ir jungti juos su jėgos, šuolių, lankstumo, pusiausvyros pratimais. Kaip ir kitos gimnastikos rūšys, sportinė aerobika reikalauja aerobinės ir anaerobinės ištvermės, šoklumo, lankstumo, jėgos ir puikios koordinacijos. Visos šios fizinės ypatybės turi būti rodomos varžybinio pratimo metu (vidutinė trukmė — 2 min), atliekant koordinaciškai sudėtingus judesius bei įvairaus sudėtingumo elementus dideliu intensyvumu be poilsio intervalų (Sports Aerobics Code of Points, 2002). Fiziologinius pokyčius specifinio fizinio krūvio (varžybinės veiklos) metu tyrė ispanų mokslininkai (Rodriguez et al., 1998). R. Aleksandravičienė (2005) ištyrė skirtingo meistriškumo aerobininkių aerobinį pajėgumą ir energijos sąnaudas varžybinės veiklos metu. Tyrimo tikslas — nustatyti skirtingo meistriškumo aerobininkių anaerobinį pajėgumą minant veloergometrą. Buvo tiriama 18 aerobikos sportininkių. Išanalizavus varžybinių pratimų sudėtingumą ir varžybų rezultatus, jos buvo suskirstytos į didesnio ir mažesnio sportinio meistriškumo grupes. Visos tiriamosios atliko 30 sekundžių maksimalų Vingeito testą „Monark“ veloergometru. Testo ir atsigavimo po jo metu buvo registruojamas širdies susitraukimų dažnis naudojant „Polar“ pulso matuoklį S-810 (Suomija). Kapiliarinio kraujo mėginiai buvo imami atsigavimo metu po Vingeito testo praėjus... [toliau žr. visą tekstą] Aerobic gymnastics is one of the newest branches in gymnastics sport, when athletes must perform continuous complex and high intensity movement patterns to music, which originate from traditional aerobic steps and strength, flexibility and balance exercises. Aerobic gymnastics is characterized as an intensive physical exercise in which a number of muscle groups are actively engaged as well as both aerobic and anaerobic capacity of the body is developed. In competitive activities (lasting 2 min on average) physical properties, such as strength, flexibility, coordination must be demonstrated without rest intervals (Sports Aerobics Code of Points, 2002). Physiological responses during a competitive exercise in aerobic gymnastics were determined by Spanish scientists (Rodriguez et al., 1998), aerobic capacity and energy expenditure of aerobic gymnastics athletes of different level of training during competitive exercise were studied by R. Aleksandravičienė (2005). The aim of this study was to determine the anaerobic performance during cycling ergometry in differently trained sports aerobics women athletes. A group of Lithuanian aerobic competitors (n = 15) with different level of training were engaged as the subjects in this experiment. Their anaerobic performance was assessed by using 30 s Wingate anaerobic test. The heart rate (HR) dynamics during Wingate test and during recovery was evaluated as well. In addition, capillary blood samples were taken at 5th and 20th min of... [to full text]

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    Jakaitė, Dalia;

    Akmuo yra vienas iš daiktų Rainerio Marios Rilke’s žmogaus pasaulyje, kuris pasižymi išskirtiniu simboliniu daiktiškumu, šio fenomeno meditacija, persmelkta kūrybinių „aš“ galių. Kaip egzistencinė būties dalis ir šventuma, daiktai pripažįstami ir šlovinami giesmės intonacijomis. Daiktų ir žmogaus santykis iškyla kaip laikiškai štai-būčiai ir metafizinei paslapčiai atsiverianti tikrovė. IX Rilke’s Duino elegijoje žmogaus būtis suvokiama kaip prasmė pavadinti daiktus: „Esam čia gal tik tam, kad ištartu­me: namas, / tiltas, šulinys, vartai, ąsotis, vaismedis, langas, – / kilniau: kolona, bokštas...“ (R i lk e 1996, 299). Per šiuos ir kitus daiktus jutimiškai patiriamas pasaulis yra galimybė autentiškam santykiui su būtimi, sakralumo ištikčiai. Kita vertus, ir patys daiktai yra savaiminė vertybė, prie kurios priartėti žmogui leidžia ypatinga kalbos patirtis. Apie daiktiškojo Rilke’s pasaulio simboliškumą kalbėjo ne vienas poeto kritikas. Iš daugiaprasmės poeto simbolikos šioje publikacijoje linkstama į teopoetinį krikščioniškojo pasaulio reikšmių lauką . Tai lemia aptariami tekstai – eilėraščiai iš Valandų knygos (Das Stundenbuch). Šioje pranciškoniškosios, subjektyviai krikščioniškosios (žmogiškąjį ir daiktiškąjį subjektyvumą suabsoliutinančios) dvasios knygoje akmens ir akmeniškumo yra gausu. Žmogaus būčiai suvokti akmuo pasirenkamas ir kuriamas kaip gamtos ir Biblijos daiktas. Šios publikacijos tikslas – ne tiek išsamus tyrimas, kiek „akmeninių“ Valandų knygos eilėraščių... [toliau žr. visą tekstą] Stone is one of the things in the world of Rilke’s man. The aim of the present publication is to comment on several poems from “The Book of Hours” presenting new translations into the Lithuanian language. For the comments we have chosen the poetical semantic field of the Christian world from polysemous poet’s symbolism. It is conditioned by the collection itself. In the poems “Jetzt reifen schon die roten Berberitze” and “Da trat ich als ein Pilger ein” stone becomes the metaphor of God. In the poem “Wenn etwas mir vom Fenster fällt” stone allows the verification of the world order and the assurance in its existence and meaning. The poems “Sie sind es nicht“ and “Du bist der Arme, du der Mittellose” are related by the symbolism of stone expressing divine poverty. In the poem “Du bist das Kloster zu den Wundenmalen” stone speaks about the polysemy of a cloister. The stone world of a cloister as God’s house symbolizes the nature of the relation between human and God. In this and other texts, stone and language appear as the ways to get closer to the essence, the possibility to listen to and hear. In the poem “Und seine Sorgfalt ist uns wie ein Alb” stone and silence point to the divine incognizability. In the poem “Mach mich zum Wächter deiner Weiten” stone is not only a part of the building but a spot of silence that allows hearing. Quite a few poems of “The Book of Hours” have the spirit of pilgrimage.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lietuvos Akademinė E...arrow_drop_down
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    Rotomskis, Augustinas; Grabauskaitė, Aida; Margevičiūtė, Ramunė; Germanavičius, Arūnas; +5 Authors

    Background. Currently, it is recognised that movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s and related diseases, also have a cognitive component and those diseases even progress in some patients to dementia. Therefore, a cognitive assessment is useful in evaluating movement disorders. There is a need for having more clinical tools for differential diagnostics between DLB and AD. The Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised can meet this need as it is a brief sensitive dementia screening test. The Lithuanian version of ACE-R (ACE-RLT) was shown to be able to detect dementia, but further research was still lacking in establishing the use of the ACE-R for differential diagnostics of AD and DLB. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the ACE-R to accurately differentiate mild-moderate Alzheimer’s disease from mild-moderate dementia with Lewy bodies. Participants and methods. Seventy three patients with early mild-moderate AD and 30 patients with mild-moderate DLB were evaluated with the ACE-R, the test which consists of the following domains: orientation, attention, memory, verbal fluency, language and visuospatial ability, with maximum total score 100. The results were compared with those obtained in 86 healthy controls. The one-way ANOVA, logistic-regression analysis, ROC analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test were done for statistical analysis. Results. In AD group neither age (p=0.060), nor gender (p=0.466) or education (p=0.206) had an effect on ACE-R scores. In DLB group neither age (p=0.249), nor gender (p=0.615) or education (p=0.360) had an effect on ACE-R scores. In control group both age (p<0.001) and education (p<0.001) had an effect, while gender did not (p=0.438). At 74, the previously recommended cut-off score for clinical use in the detection of dementia, the ACE-RLT showed a sensitivity of 100 %, and a specificity of 90.5% for AD in our study. The Cronbach’s alpha for the ACE-RLT was 0.912. AD group was significantly more likely to score below the recommended cut-off scores for memory and language subtests than the DLB group (chi-square; p<0.0001). The DLB group was significantly more likely to score below the recommended cut-off scores for verbal fluency and visuospatial abilities subtests than the AD group (chi square; p<0.0001). Conclusions. The ACE-RLT appears to be a reliable and valid tool for differential diagnostics of DLB and AD in Lithuanian speaking population. The cognitive assessment using ACE-RLT indicated that in DLB verbal fluency and visuospatial abilities were more impaired compared to AD. And in AD memory and language performance were worse than in DLB.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vilnius University I...arrow_drop_down
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    Juodka, Robertas;

    Ištyrus nespecifinius kraujo serumo baltymus nustatyta, kad vištoms yra būdingi dideli alelių PreAl – 2B (0,667), PostAlA (0,635), PostTf – 2B (0,627) dažnumai, o alelių PreTf – 2A, PreTf – 2B, McA, McB dažnumai buvo artimi trijų tirtų populiacijų vidurkiams ( skirtumas 0,008 – 0,015 ). Kalakutų populiacijai yra būdingas didelis alelio PreAl – 1B (0,613) dažnumas, o alelių PreAl – 2A, PreAl – 2B , PostTfA, PostTfB, McA, McB dažnumai buvo artimi trijų populiacijų vidurkiui ( skirtumas 0,010 – 0,033). Pentardos pasižymėjo dideliais alelių PreAl – 1A (0,681), PreAl – 2A (0,681), AlB (0,736), PreTfA (0,708) dažnumais, o alelių McA ir McB dažnumai buvo identiški trijų populiacijų vidurkiui. Mažiausias vidutinis faktinis heterozigotiškumas buvo kalakutų populiacijoje (0,329), didesnis pas pentardas (0,437) ir didžiausias pas vištas (0,509). Didžiausias genetinis identiškumas (0,969) nustatytas tarp vištų ir kalakutų populiacijų, mažiausias tarp vištų ir pentardų (0,928). The analysis of non-specific blood serum proteins indicated that high frequency of alleles PreAl– 2B (0.667), PostAlA (0.635), PostTf–2B (0.627), was characteristic of hens, and the frequencies of alleles PreTf–2A, PreTf–2B, McA, McB were close to the mean values of the three populations under investigation (difference – 0.008-0.015). The population of turkeys was distinguished by high frequency of allele PreAl–1B (0.613), and the frequencies of alleles PreAl–2A, PreAl–2B, PostTfA, PostTfB, McA, McB were similar to the mean values of the three populations (difference – 0.010-0.033). High frequencies of alleles PreAl–1A (0.681), PreAl–2A (0.681), AlB (0.736), PreTfA (0.708) were characteristic of guinea fowls, while the frequencies of alleles McA and McB were identical to the mean values of the three populations. Turkey population had the lowest average actual heterozygosity (0.329), guinea fowls had somewhat higher heterozygosity (0,437) and the highest heterozygosity was determined for hens (0.509). The highest genetic identity (0.969) was found between the populations of hens and turkeys, while the lowest – between hens and guinea fowls (0.928). Исследовав неспецифический белок сыворотки крови трех разных популяций птиц, установлено, что куры имели большие частоты аллелей PreAl – 2B (0,667), PostAlA (0,635), PostTf – 2B (0,627), а частоты аллелей PreTf – 2A, PreTf – 2B, McA, McB у ку�� были близкие к средней величине трех популяций (разница 0,008 – 0,015). Для популяции индюков было присущее большая частота аллели PreAl – 1B (0,613) , а частота аллелей PreAl – 2A, PreAl – 2B , PostTfA, PostTfB, McA, McB была близка к средней величине трех популяций (разница 0,010 – 0,033). Цесарки отличались большими частотами аллелей PreAl – 1A (0,681), PreAl – 2A (0,681), AlB (0,736), PreTfA (0,708), а частота аллелей McA ir McB у них была идентична к средней величине трех популяций. Наименьшая средняя фактическая гетерозиготность была в популяции индюков (0,329), наибольшая у цесарок (0,437) и самая большая у кур (0,509). Наибольшая генетическая идентичность (0,969) установлена между популяциями кур и индюков, а наименьшая между популяциями кур и цесарок (0,928).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lietuvos Akademinė E...arrow_drop_down
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