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  • 2018-2022
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  • Universidade de Lisboa: Repositório.UL
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Videira-Silva, Antonio; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan; Sardinha, Luís B.; Fonseca, Helena;
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Country: Portugal

    The value of physical activity (PA) counselling and its impact on PA behaviour and weight management have been in question. The main aim of this study was to analyse 6 and 12-month effects of a PA consultation (PAC—a structured form of PA counselling) with and without the inclusion of structured exercise, on body mass index (BMI) z-score, body composition and PA levels of adolescents with excess weight (BMI ≥p85), as part of a clinical multicomponent weight management program. Participants were allocated at baseline into a control (CG—standard care, including paediatric and nutrition consultations) and two experimental groups (EGI and EGII). Both EG's were exposed to standard care plus PAC for 12 months. During the first 6 months, EGII additionally participated in two weekly exercise sessions. From 165 participants recruited, 102 completed the intervention (CG n = 28, EGI n = 36 and EGII n = 38). According to generalized estimating equations, at 6 months both EG's improved (p < 0.05) their BMI z-score, waist-height ratio (WHtR), body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, sedentary time and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) compared to CG. Further improvements were observed in BMI z-score between 6 and 12 months in EG's compared to CG. At 6 months, EGII showed a higher (p < 0.05) increase in MVPA compared to EGI, and EGI a higher decrease in WHtR. No other differences were found between EG's. This study suggests that PAC is a timeeffective approach to improve BMI z-score, body composition and PA levels in adolescents with excess weight, even without the inclusion of structured exercise AVS was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BD/130193/2017). © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Domingos Xavier Viegas; Ricardo Oliveira; Miguel Almeida; Donghyun Kim;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Countries: Austria, Portugal, Portugal
    Project: EC | FirEUrisk (101003890)

    A conceptual model based on the balance of energy in a system composed of a burning cigarette, ambient flow and a porous fuel bed is proposed to study the burning of a single cigarette and the process of fuel bed dehydration, pyrolysis and its eventual ignition or combustion extinction. Model predictions of time to ignition and of the probability of ignition as a function of fuel bed moisture content and ambient flow velocity are compared with results obtained in laboratory ignition tests of straw fuel beds for various ambient conditions. According to this study, the main parameters influencing the models developed are the fuel bed and tobacco moisture content, as well as the flow velocity.

  • Publication . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Salema de Carvalho, Rosário; Curvelo, Alexandra; Pais, Alexandre;
    Country: Portugal
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    José Silva-Cardoso; Dulce Brito; João M. Frazão; Aníbal Ferreira; Paulo Bettencourt; Patrícia Branco; Cândida Fonseca;
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Country: Portugal

    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction in a dose-dependent manner. They also have a positive impact in other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, RAASi may induce hyperkalemia, a potentially life-threatening disorder. This risk is further increased in those with concomitant chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and/or in patients with hypertension. Current treatment guidelines recommend maximal RAASi dosing to improve clinical outcomes; however, this is often limited by the development of hyperkalemia. When this occurs, current guidelines recommend RAASi down-titration/interruption, which, while improving short-term prognosis, is associated with a negative long-term prognostic impact. At present, the European Society of Cardiology suggests the consideration of novel potassium binders (patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate) for the management of RAASi-associated hyperkalemia. Both drugs can reduce serum potassium levels and prevent recurrent hyperkalemia. Additionally, patiromer showed enabling of RAASi optimization in high-risk patients. Nevertheless, precise recommendations on the use of these drugs are lacking. Building upon current HF guideline recommendations, a multidisciplinary expert panel convened to design an algorithm providing practical guidance on the use of novel potassium binders/patiromer in patients with HF and/or other CVD. As a result of that effort, we present an evidence-based treatment algorithm for the management of hyperkalemia with novel potassium binders/patiromer in patients with HF and/or other CVD receiving RAASi, including the necessary monitoring to avoid induction of hypokalemia. This algorithm aims to maintain or up-titrate RAASi to optimized doses, while maintaining normokalemia, improved clinical outcomes, and long-term prognosis. © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creat iveco mmons .org/licen ses/by/4.0/ This work was supported by Vifor Pharma, Portugal, via an educational grant.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Caroline M. Nieberding; Patrícia Beldade; Véronique Baumle; Gilles San Martin; Alok Arun; Georges Lognay; Nicolas Montagné; Lucie Bastin-Héline; Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly; Céline Noirot; +2 more
    Publisher: MDPI
    Countries: Belgium, Portugal

    AbstractUnraveling the origin of molecular pathways underlying the evolution of adaptive traits is essential for understanding how new lineages emerge, including the relative contribution of conserved, ancestral traits, and newly evolved, derived traits. Here, we investigated the evolutionary divergence of sex pheromone communication from moths (mostly nocturnal) to butterflies (mostly diurnal) that occurred ~98 million years ago. In moths, females typically emit pheromones to attract male mates, but in butterflies pheromones and used by females for mate choice. The molecular bases of sex pheromone communication are well understood in moths, but have remained virtually unexplored in butterflies. We used a combination of transcriptomics, real time qPCR, and phylogenetics, to identify genes involved in different steps of sex pheromone communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Our results show that the biosynthesis and reception of sex pheromones relies both on moth-specific gene families (reductases) and on more ancestral insect gene families (desaturases, olfactory receptors, odorant binding proteins). Interestingly, B. anynana further appears to use what was believed to be the moth-specific neuropeptide Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) for regulation of sex pheromone production. Altogether, our results suggest that a mosaic pattern best explains how sex pheromone communication evolved in butterflies, with some molecular components derived from moths, and others conserved from more ancient insect ancestors. This is the first large-scale analysis of the genetic pathways underlying sex pheromone communication in a butterfly.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ricardo Cyrne; Inês C. Rosa; Filipa Faleiro; Gisela Dionísio; Miguel Baptista; Ana Couto; Marta Pola; Rui Rosa;
    Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
    Countries: Portugal, Spain
    Project: FCT | UID/Multi/04378/2013 (UID/Multi/04378/2013), FCT | SFRH/BD/88175/2012 (SFRH/BD/88175/2012)

    The sudden appearance and disappearance of nudibranchs in intertidal areas have puzzled researchers all over the world, giving rise to a great diversity of theories to explain it. Here we conducted a five-year survey to evaluate seasonal changes in the abundance of Dendrodoris herytra and D. grandiflora in the Sado estuary (Portugal) and to explore a possible relationship with environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Moreover, we report, for the first time, the capacity of Dendrodoris nudibranchs to tolerate emersion (unhidden and completely exposed to sun exposure) during low tides. Our results showed that both species consistently started to appear emerged in March, reaching a peak abundance between April and May, and completely disappearing in July. In both species, this temporal trend was significantly associated with water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen, but not with salinity. We argue that the sudden appearance and disappearance of these nudibranchs in intertidal areas may result from a seasonal horizontal movement of adult nudibranchs from subtidal areas to mate in intertidal areas during spring, when phytoplankton production is enhanced and planktotrophic larvae may benefit from greater food availability The Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) supported this study through the strategic project granted to MARE UID/Multi/04378/2013, FCT Investigator Consolidation Grant to R. Rosa, doctoral grants to G.D. (SFRH/ BD/73205/2010) and M.B. (SFRH/BD/88175/2012) and a post-doc grant (SFRH/ BPD/79038/2011) to F.F.

  • Publication . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Assunção, Victor; Dias, Rafael; Luis, Henrique; Soares Luis, Luis Francisco;
    Country: Portugal

    Objectives The objective of this study was to describe oral health literacy and its association with periodontal health status. Methods A population of young adults, enlisted personnel, at a military police force at Escola da Guarda (EG - GNR) in Portalegre, Portugal, participated in this crosssectional study. Information on sociodemographic, dental and oral health literacy was collected. Oral health literacy was assessed using OHLI (Oral Health Literacy Instrument). Clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and data was obtained for oral hygiene status and severity of gingival inflammation. Results A total of 274 participants enrolled and completed the study. Most participants (54.7 percent) had an adequate oral health literacy level. For 38 percent the level of literacy was marginal and, 7.3 percent had an inadequate level of oral health literacy. There is an association between education and oral health literacy (P<0.001). Female participants had more general oral health knowledge than males (P=0.034). Participants with the 12th grade or less have statistically significant less general oral health knowledge than participants with a bachelor’s degree (P<0.001). Dental plaque index was lower for participants with higher attendance of dental appointments (P=0.002) and adequate oral health literacy (P = 0.009). Conclusions Oral health literacy, education and frequency of dental appointments were associated. General oral knowledge is worst for males and people with lower education levels. Oral hygiene status is better for participants with adequate oral health literacy and a higher number of dental appointments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Miller, Nicholas B.;
    Publisher: Tagus Press. Center for Portuguese Studies and Culture at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
    Country: Portugal
    Project: EC | COLOUR (695573)

    During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, over 13,000 European men, women, and children, predominantly from Madeira and the Açores, emigrated to the Kingdom of Hawai‘i on contracts of government indenture. Their modality of migration was a contemporary anomaly, as it was restricted in other global contexts at this time to peoples racialized as non-European. This atypical conjuncture of white bonded labor and a government headed by a Polynesian monarch not only upset the contemporary racial geo-politics of the age of New Imperialism, but likewise has long complicated attempts to locate this migration trajectory in comparative histories of migration and indenture. Through a close study of the vessels used to transport European indentured laborers to Hawai‘i and the conditions of transhipment they endured aboard, this article probes a boundary case between the two commonly identified global historical migra- tion patterns of the late nineteenth century: (i) European “voluntary” migration to the Americas and Australia and (ii) Asian “indentured” immigration to Euro-American dom- inated plantation colonies in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, the Mascarene Islands, and the South Pacific. By tracking the diverse passages made by the same ship, sail and steam, in-between different migrant commissions, this article suggests that a strict delineation of the onboard experience between indentured and voluntary migration is untenable. Further, this article considers the potential and limits of the study of the onboard pas- senger experience to study racialization processes in migration history, including for the complex context of pre-annexation Hawai‘i.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Filip Hrbáček; Gonçalo Vieira; Marc Oliva; Megan R. Balks; Mauro Guglielmin; Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Antonio Molina; Miguel Ramos; Gabriel Alejandro Goyanes; Ian Meiklejohn; +17 more
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis
    Country: Portugal

    Monitoring of active layer thawing depth and active layer thickness (ALT), using mechanical pronging and continuous temperature data logging, has been undertaken under the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring – South (CALM-S) program at a range of sites across Antarctica. The objective of this study was to summarize key data from sites in different Antarctic regions from 2006 to 2015 to review the state of the active layer in Antarctica and the effectiveness of the CALM-S program. The data from 16 sites involving 8 CALM-S and another 8 boreholes across the Antarctic have been used in the study. Probing for thaw depth, while giving information on local spatial variability, often underestimates the maximum ALT of Antarctic soils compared to that determined using continuous temperature monitoring. The differences are likely to be caused by stones limiting probe penetration and the timing of probing not coinciding with the timing of maximum thaw, which varies between seasons. The information on the active layer depth is still sparse in many regions and the monitoring needs to be extended and continued to provide a better understanding of both spatial and temporal variability in Antarctic soil thermal properties.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2019
    Open Access Portuguese
    Authors: 
    João Queiroz;
    Publisher: Universidade de Lisboa
    Country: Portugal

    É possível descolonizar a arte? Entre a arte o poder estabelece-se ora oposições ora alianças, ambas construtoras de identidades e de discursos, no contexto da crise de descentramento em torno do etnocentrismo, do género, do pós-colonialismo. As imagens tornaram-se hoje mais letalmente políticas (as fakenews, os memes, as redes): são as 'imagens armadilha,' ou as 'imagens ofensivas.' Ao museu, tingido de hibridação, sobra a desconfiança da sua génese colonial: o oriente foi imaginado primeiro no museu, nos artefactos egípcios que o legitimaram. Is it possible to decolonize art? Between art and power, oppositions or alliances are established, both constructing of identities and discourses, in the context of the crisis of decentralization around ethnocentrism, around gender, and around post-colonialism. Images have now become more lethally political (the fakenews, the memes, the web): they are 'trap images,' or 'offensive images.' The museum, dyed with hybridization, there remains the distrust of its colonial genesis: the East was first imagined in the museum, in the Egyptian artifacts that legitimized it.

Advanced search in
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arrow_drop_down
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Include:
2,299 Research products, page 1 of 230
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Videira-Silva, Antonio; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan; Sardinha, Luís B.; Fonseca, Helena;
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Country: Portugal

    The value of physical activity (PA) counselling and its impact on PA behaviour and weight management have been in question. The main aim of this study was to analyse 6 and 12-month effects of a PA consultation (PAC—a structured form of PA counselling) with and without the inclusion of structured exercise, on body mass index (BMI) z-score, body composition and PA levels of adolescents with excess weight (BMI ≥p85), as part of a clinical multicomponent weight management program. Participants were allocated at baseline into a control (CG—standard care, including paediatric and nutrition consultations) and two experimental groups (EGI and EGII). Both EG's were exposed to standard care plus PAC for 12 months. During the first 6 months, EGII additionally participated in two weekly exercise sessions. From 165 participants recruited, 102 completed the intervention (CG n = 28, EGI n = 36 and EGII n = 38). According to generalized estimating equations, at 6 months both EG's improved (p < 0.05) their BMI z-score, waist-height ratio (WHtR), body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, sedentary time and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) compared to CG. Further improvements were observed in BMI z-score between 6 and 12 months in EG's compared to CG. At 6 months, EGII showed a higher (p < 0.05) increase in MVPA compared to EGI, and EGI a higher decrease in WHtR. No other differences were found between EG's. This study suggests that PAC is a timeeffective approach to improve BMI z-score, body composition and PA levels in adolescents with excess weight, even without the inclusion of structured exercise AVS was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BD/130193/2017). © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Domingos Xavier Viegas; Ricardo Oliveira; Miguel Almeida; Donghyun Kim;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Countries: Austria, Portugal, Portugal
    Project: EC | FirEUrisk (101003890)

    A conceptual model based on the balance of energy in a system composed of a burning cigarette, ambient flow and a porous fuel bed is proposed to study the burning of a single cigarette and the process of fuel bed dehydration, pyrolysis and its eventual ignition or combustion extinction. Model predictions of time to ignition and of the probability of ignition as a function of fuel bed moisture content and ambient flow velocity are compared with results obtained in laboratory ignition tests of straw fuel beds for various ambient conditions. According to this study, the main parameters influencing the models developed are the fuel bed and tobacco moisture content, as well as the flow velocity.

  • Publication . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Salema de Carvalho, Rosário; Curvelo, Alexandra; Pais, Alexandre;
    Country: Portugal
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    José Silva-Cardoso; Dulce Brito; João M. Frazão; Aníbal Ferreira; Paulo Bettencourt; Patrícia Branco; Cândida Fonseca;
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Country: Portugal

    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction in a dose-dependent manner. They also have a positive impact in other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, RAASi may induce hyperkalemia, a potentially life-threatening disorder. This risk is further increased in those with concomitant chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, and/or in patients with hypertension. Current treatment guidelines recommend maximal RAASi dosing to improve clinical outcomes; however, this is often limited by the development of hyperkalemia. When this occurs, current guidelines recommend RAASi down-titration/interruption, which, while improving short-term prognosis, is associated with a negative long-term prognostic impact. At present, the European Society of Cardiology suggests the consideration of novel potassium binders (patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate) for the management of RAASi-associated hyperkalemia. Both drugs can reduce serum potassium levels and prevent recurrent hyperkalemia. Additionally, patiromer showed enabling of RAASi optimization in high-risk patients. Nevertheless, precise recommendations on the use of these drugs are lacking. Building upon current HF guideline recommendations, a multidisciplinary expert panel convened to design an algorithm providing practical guidance on the use of novel potassium binders/patiromer in patients with HF and/or other CVD. As a result of that effort, we present an evidence-based treatment algorithm for the management of hyperkalemia with novel potassium binders/patiromer in patients with HF and/or other CVD receiving RAASi, including the necessary monitoring to avoid induction of hypokalemia. This algorithm aims to maintain or up-titrate RAASi to optimized doses, while maintaining normokalemia, improved clinical outcomes, and long-term prognosis. © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creat iveco mmons .org/licen ses/by/4.0/ This work was supported by Vifor Pharma, Portugal, via an educational grant.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Caroline M. Nieberding; Patrícia Beldade; Véronique Baumle; Gilles San Martin; Alok Arun; Georges Lognay; Nicolas Montagné; Lucie Bastin-Héline; Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly; Céline Noirot; +2 more
    Publisher: MDPI
    Countries: Belgium, Portugal

    AbstractUnraveling the origin of molecular pathways underlying the evolution of adaptive traits is essential for understanding how new lineages emerge, including the relative contribution of conserved, ancestral traits, and newly evolved, derived traits. Here, we investigated the evolutionary divergence of sex pheromone communication from moths (mostly nocturnal) to butterflies (mostly diurnal) that occurred ~98 million years ago. In moths, females typically emit pheromones to attract male mates, but in butterflies pheromones and used by females for mate choice. The molecular bases of sex pheromone communication are well understood in moths, but have remained virtually unexplored in butterflies. We used a combination of transcriptomics, real time qPCR, and phylogenetics, to identify genes involved in different steps of sex pheromone communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Our results show that the biosynthesis and reception of sex pheromones relies both on moth-specific gene families (reductases) and on more ancestral insect gene families (desaturases, olfactory receptors, odorant binding proteins). Interestingly, B. anynana further appears to use what was believed to be the moth-specific neuropeptide Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) for regulation of sex pheromone production. Altogether, our results suggest that a mosaic pattern best explains how sex pheromone communication evolved in butterflies, with some molecular components derived from moths, and others conserved from more ancient insect ancestors. This is the first large-scale analysis of the genetic pathways underlying sex pheromone communication in a butterfly.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ricardo Cyrne; Inês C. Rosa; Filipa Faleiro; Gisela Dionísio; Miguel Baptista; Ana Couto; Marta Pola; Rui Rosa;
    Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
    Countries: Portugal, Spain
    Project: FCT | UID/Multi/04378/2013 (UID/Multi/04378/2013), FCT | SFRH/BD/88175/2012 (SFRH/BD/88175/2012)

    The sudden appearance and disappearance of nudibranchs in intertidal areas have puzzled researchers all over the world, giving rise to a great diversity of theories to explain it. Here we conducted a five-year survey to evaluate seasonal changes in the abundance of Dendrodoris herytra and D. grandiflora in the Sado estuary (Portugal) and to explore a possible relationship with environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Moreover, we report, for the first time, the capacity of Dendrodoris nudibranchs to tolerate emersion (unhidden and completely exposed to sun exposure) during low tides. Our results showed that both species consistently started to appear emerged in March, reaching a peak abundance between April and May, and completely disappearing in July. In both species, this temporal trend was significantly associated with water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen, but not with salinity. We argue that the sudden appearance and disappearance of these nudibranchs in intertidal areas may result from a seasonal horizontal movement of adult nudibranchs from subtidal areas to mate in intertidal areas during spring, when phytoplankton production is enhanced and planktotrophic larvae may benefit from greater food availability The Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) supported this study through the strategic project granted to MARE UID/Multi/04378/2013, FCT Investigator Consolidation Grant to R. Rosa, doctoral grants to G.D. (SFRH/ BD/73205/2010) and M.B. (SFRH/BD/88175/2012) and a post-doc grant (SFRH/ BPD/79038/2011) to F.F.

  • Publication . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Assunção, Victor; Dias, Rafael; Luis, Henrique; Soares Luis, Luis Francisco;
    Country: Portugal

    Objectives The objective of this study was to describe oral health literacy and its association with periodontal health status. Methods A population of young adults, enlisted personnel, at a military police force at Escola da Guarda (EG - GNR) in Portalegre, Portugal, participated in this crosssectional study. Information on sociodemographic, dental and oral health literacy was collected. Oral health literacy was assessed using OHLI (Oral Health Literacy Instrument). Clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and data was obtained for oral hygiene status and severity of gingival inflammation. Results A total of 274 participants enrolled and completed the study. Most participants (54.7 percent) had an adequate oral health literacy level. For 38 percent the level of literacy was marginal and, 7.3 percent had an inadequate level of oral health literacy. There is an association between education and oral health literacy (P<0.001). Female participants had more general oral health knowledge than males (P=0.034). Participants with the 12th grade or less have statistically significant less general oral health knowledge than participants with a bachelor’s degree (P<0.001). Dental plaque index was lower for participants with higher attendance of dental appointments (P=0.002) and adequate oral health literacy (P = 0.009). Conclusions Oral health literacy, education and frequency of dental appointments were associated. General oral knowledge is worst for males and people with lower education levels. Oral hygiene status is better for participants with adequate oral health literacy and a higher number of dental appointments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Miller, Nicholas B.;
    Publisher: Tagus Press. Center for Portuguese Studies and Culture at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
    Country: Portugal
    Project: EC | COLOUR (695573)

    During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, over 13,000 European men, women, and children, predominantly from Madeira and the Açores, emigrated to the Kingdom of Hawai‘i on contracts of government indenture. Their modality of migration was a contemporary anomaly, as it was restricted in other global contexts at this time to peoples racialized as non-European. This atypical conjuncture of white bonded labor and a government headed by a Polynesian monarch not only upset the contemporary racial geo-politics of the age of New Imperialism, but likewise has long complicated attempts to locate this migration trajectory in comparative histories of migration and indenture. Through a close study of the vessels used to transport European indentured laborers to Hawai‘i and the conditions of transhipment they endured aboard, this article probes a boundary case between the two commonly identified global historical migra- tion patterns of the late nineteenth century: (i) European “voluntary” migration to the Americas and Australia and (ii) Asian “indentured” immigration to Euro-American dom- inated plantation colonies in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, the Mascarene Islands, and the South Pacific. By tracking the diverse passages made by the same ship, sail and steam, in-between different migrant commissions, this article suggests that a strict delineation of the onboard experience between indentured and voluntary migration is untenable. Further, this article considers the potential and limits of the study of the onboard pas- senger experience to study racialization processes in migration history, including for the complex context of pre-annexation Hawai‘i.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Filip Hrbáček; Gonçalo Vieira; Marc Oliva; Megan R. Balks; Mauro Guglielmin; Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Antonio Molina; Miguel Ramos; Gabriel Alejandro Goyanes; Ian Meiklejohn; +17 more
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis
    Country: Portugal

    Monitoring of active layer thawing depth and active layer thickness (ALT), using mechanical pronging and continuous temperature data logging, has been undertaken under the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring – South (CALM-S) program at a range of sites across Antarctica. The objective of this study was to summarize key data from sites in different Antarctic regions from 2006 to 2015 to review the state of the active layer in Antarctica and the effectiveness of the CALM-S program. The data from 16 sites involving 8 CALM-S and another 8 boreholes across the Antarctic have been used in the study. Probing for thaw depth, while giving information on local spatial variability, often underestimates the maximum ALT of Antarctic soils compared to that determined using continuous temperature monitoring. The differences are likely to be caused by stones limiting probe penetration and the timing of probing not coinciding with the timing of maximum thaw, which varies between seasons. The information on the active layer depth is still sparse in many regions and the monitoring needs to be extended and continued to provide a better understanding of both spatial and temporal variability in Antarctic soil thermal properties.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2019
    Open Access Portuguese
    Authors: 
    João Queiroz;
    Publisher: Universidade de Lisboa
    Country: Portugal

    É possível descolonizar a arte? Entre a arte o poder estabelece-se ora oposições ora alianças, ambas construtoras de identidades e de discursos, no contexto da crise de descentramento em torno do etnocentrismo, do género, do pós-colonialismo. As imagens tornaram-se hoje mais letalmente políticas (as fakenews, os memes, as redes): são as 'imagens armadilha,' ou as 'imagens ofensivas.' Ao museu, tingido de hibridação, sobra a desconfiança da sua génese colonial: o oriente foi imaginado primeiro no museu, nos artefactos egípcios que o legitimaram. Is it possible to decolonize art? Between art and power, oppositions or alliances are established, both constructing of identities and discourses, in the context of the crisis of decentralization around ethnocentrism, around gender, and around post-colonialism. Images have now become more lethally political (the fakenews, the memes, the web): they are 'trap images,' or 'offensive images.' The museum, dyed with hybridization, there remains the distrust of its colonial genesis: the East was first imagined in the museum, in the Egyptian artifacts that legitimized it.

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