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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Amandine Godet; Saber, J. T.; Nurup, J. N.; George Panagakos; Michael Bruhn Barfod;
    Country: Denmark

    In recent years, international shipping has received considerable attention with regard to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While efficient ships are key, benchmarking the energy efficiency of ships is not straightforward. Technical indicators, such as the EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index), reflect a ship's efficiency in ideal conditions (calm sea, no wind, fully laden, design speed). In contrast, operational indicators, such as the EEOI (Energy Efficiency Operational Index), are affected by factors either completely out of the operator's control (weather conditions, etc.) or partially controllable due to market conditions (volume of cargo, speed, etc.). In its way towards decarbonization, the maritime industry needs a realistic benchmarking tool for ship energy efficiency that considers both technical and operational aspects. The automotive industry has been using driving cycles for decades to test and assess the efficiency of vehicles in terms of air pollutants, and more recently, GHG emissions. This concept does not exist in maritime transport, at least not in formal policy-making. This work investigates the possibility of applying the concept of operational cycles in the maritime industry based on experiences acquired from the automotive driving cycles. More specifically, we will: (i) present the motivations for developing operational cycles for ships, (ii) provide an overview of the methods and uses of the driving cycles in road transport, and (iii) suggest an initial procedure for developing these cycles in maritime transport, including the data needed. A literature review identifies the development and use of the driving cycles, the methodologies applied worldwide, and the benefits and limitations of the different types of driving cycles. We also identify the few applications of operational cycles in the maritime industry. The lessons learned from the automotive industry form the foundation for discussing the possibility of applying this concept in the maritime sector, considering the differences between the two industries. We identify the necessary data, and we discuss further development work along with the potential use of these cycles as a tool for enhancing policy-making and ultimately improving the design of efficient ships.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    P S Sajini Anand; Veena H. Bhat; Shriram Ramesh;
    Publisher: IEEE

    Management of containers and carriers in a supply chain that spreads across different intermodal legs of ocean, land, river, rail and air transport is a challenging task in the shipping industry. During the intermodal phase, the triangulation of containers or carriers is a process that is sought to minimize cost by saving a possible transport leg. In this paper, we discuss an optimal triangulation process of containers carried by trucks in an intermodal transport network. We are addressing a specific triangulation process for the trucks engaged in import drops or export pickups of containers such that they can be effectively reused for the next export pickups or import drops in locations within a neighbourhood. We propose a mathematical model to address this problem in the framework of minimum cost network flows. Further, we introduce a heuristic method using the successive shortest path algorithm for the proposed model. The model is analyzed using data from current shipping networks of one of the major shipping industries for its North America database.

  • Publication . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Meisam Jamshidi Seikavandi; Kamal Nasrollahi; Thomas B. Moeslund;
    Publisher: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
    Country: Denmark

    Recent advances have shown sensor-fusion’s vital role in accurate detection, especially for advanced driver assistancesystems. We introduce a novel procedure for depth upsampling and sensor-fusion that together lead to an improved detectionperformance, compared to state-of-the-art results for detecting cars. Upsampling is generally based on combining datafrom an image to compensate for the low resolution of a LiDAR (Light Detector and Ranging). This paper, on the otherhand, presents a framework to obtain dense depth map solely from a single LiDAR point cloud that makes it possible touse just one deep network for both LiDAR and image modalities. The produced full-depth map is added to the grayscaleversion of the image to produce a two-channel input for a deep neural network. The simple preprocessing structure isefficiently competent in filing cars’ shapes, which helps the fusion framework to outperforms the state-of-the-art on theKITTI object detection for the Car class. Additionally, the combination of depth and image makes it easier for the networkto discriminate highly occluded and truncated vehicles.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Di Dio, Salvatore; Lissandrello, Enza; Schillaci, Domenico; Caroleo, Brunella; Vesco, Andrea; D’ Hespeel, Ingwio;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | MUV (723521)

    This working paper investigates the question of changing people mobility towards more sustainable habits involving them in an engaging gameplay. The work is performed within MUV H2020 research and innovation action. The game design, definition and features have been co-created through the involvement of different citizens and stakeholders in six European neighbourhoods. The paper discusses the game design as resulting from co-creation and co-design experiences with each neighbourhood communities involved in initial phases. The paper argues that the local co-design activities have influenced the game definition, together with the community engagement approach. The MUV gameplay approach results thus a demand-side measure able to encouraging people to sustainable mobility modes in the awareness of their potential role as agents of urban livability. The data collected by the players will be used to support a citizen-centric approach to facilitate equity and mobility justice in urban policies.

  • Publication . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rikke Hagensby Jensen; Michael Kvist Svangren; Mikael B. Skov; Jesper Kjeldskov;
    Publisher: ACM
    Country: Denmark
    Project: EC | GOFLEX (731232)

    Studies show that people find meanings such as freedom and independence in driving. However, the transition towards electric vehicles (EV's) challenges these meanings as they present different driving experiences such as shorter driving range and missing supportive infrastructures. This suggests that people find other meaning in EV driving. This paper presents a qualitative study with 11 Danish participants who reflect on their experiences of driving EV's in everyday life. As driving is embedded in many practices along with being a practice in itself, we draw on social practice theory as a framework to unfold how participants make use of technology to make EV driving a meaningful and desirable practice. We report on how participants facilitate their driving practices using interactive technology and charging infrastructure. We discuss these findings under three headings with ideas to inspire future HCI research and design for meaningful, sustainable EV driving practice.

  • Publication . Conference object . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Artur Pilimon; Angelos Mimidis Kentis; Sarah Ruepp; Lars Dittmann;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: Denmark

    In the recent years more and more existing services have moved from local execution environments into the cloud. In addition, new cloud-based services are emerging, which are characterized by very stringent delay requirements. This trend puts a stress in the existing monolithic architecture of Data Center Networks (DCN), thus creating the need to evolve them. Traffic Engineering (TE) has long been the way of attacking this problem, but as with DCN, needs to evolve by encompassing new technologies and paradigms. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of current DCN operational and TE techniques focusing on their limitations. Then, it highlights the benefits of incorporating the Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to address these limitations. Furthermore, it illustrates two methodologies and addresses the scalability aspect of DCN-oriented TE, network and service testing, by presenting a hybrid physical-simulated SDN enabled testbed for TE studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Roberto Pili; Søren Bojer Jørgensen; Fredrik Haglind;
    Publisher: ECOS 2021 Program Organizers
    Country: Denmark
    Project: EC | EuroTechPostdoc (754462)

    The Organic Rankine cycle system is a well-established technology for converting medium/low temperature waste heat into mechanical or electrical power. Inefficiencies in the internal combustion engines for road transportation lead to large amounts of waste heat that are not exploited. Because of the engine load changes during a driving cycle, the mass flow rate and temperature of the heat source fluctuate rapidly over a broad range. This poses high requirements to the control of the organic Rankine cycle unit, in order to prevent the formation of liquid droplets at the turbine inlet and acid gas corrosion in the evaporator if the exhaust gas temperatures are too low, which reduce the system lifetime. In addition, the fluctuations in the heat source degrade the efficiency of the organic Rankine cycle unit, because of part-load operation. Furthermore, the penalty on the transportable vehicle payload caused by the increase in system mass should be considered. This paper presents a novel design method for organic Rankine cycle systems subject to highly fluctuating heat sources, ensuring safe and efficient operation. An integral optimization code developed in MATLAB®/Simulink® combining the design of the thermodynamic cycle, the system evaporator and the control system with a dynamic simulation model is presented. The multi-objective optimization maximizes the organic Rankine cycle net power output over a driving cycle of a heavy-duty truck, while minimizing the mass of the evaporator. The results indicate that, in order to ensure safe operation, the degree of superheating of the working fluid as well as the exhaust gas temperature leaving the evaporator at design conditions should be higher than what classical steady-state thermodynamic analyses suggest. This work provides a unique benchmark for the optimization of organic Rankine cycle systems subject to high fluctuating heat sources that will be of benefit both for academia and industry.

  • Publication . Conference object . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pranshu Upadhayay; Adolfo G. Garcia; Ziwei Li; Amit Kumar Jha; Peter Omand Rasmussen; Afef Kedous-Lebouc; Jean-Claude Mipo;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Countries: France, Denmark
    Project: EC | DEMETER (674973)

    International audience; Nowadays, in automotive applications, theelectric vehicle motors generally utilize permanent magnetmotors due to their various advantages like high torque density,high efficiency, compactness and ease of control. In this paperemphasis is given to the evaluation of energy cost index for anEV motor over a particular drive cycle during motorsoperational lifetime. Performance evaluation over the entiredrive cycle, instead of at rated conditions, provides a better ideaof the efficiency and energy consumption of an electric motor.Therefore, energy cost evaluation for the urban part of NewEuropean Driving Cycle i.e. ECE-15 is selected in this study andthe energy cost index is evaluated for an EV motor for virginand recycled magnets utilized in the machine. The comparisonshows that utilizing recycled magnets can provide economicaladvantage over using virgin magnets albeit under certainassumptions.

  • Publication . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mattia Marinelli; Lisa Calearo; Sabrina Ried; Xaver Pfab; Julio Cesar Diaz Cabrera; Christian Spalthoff; Martin Braun; Hanne Sale; Bendik Nybakk Torsater; Poria Hasanpor Divshali; +7 more
    Publisher: IEEE
    Countries: Finland, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Spain
    Project: EC | EU-SysFlex (773505), EC | INSULAE (824433)

    [EN] This paper gathers experiences and results from several demonstration projects in the field of grid integration of electric vehicles. The analyzed research projects are selected among research institutes and universities that are part of the European Energy Research Alliance Joint Program on Smart Grids. The paper provides an overview of recent trends in the field of electric vehicles integration issues and then dives deeper into specific aspects of each project. Twelve research projects are presented in general terms, while detailed information can be retrieved from the references and the websites. Although each project has its focus, a common element that can be devised is that the charging process can be technically controlled based on different interests and algorithms, but its role in the market is still under development. Particular focus is always given to the behavior of the user, which ultimately determines the possible level of flexibility that the electric vehicle can provide to the grid.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Enrica Raheli; Qiuwei Wu; Changyun Wen;
    Publisher: IEEE

    The power system and the natural gas network are becoming increasingly interconnected due to the rising number of gas-fired power plants and the emergence of power-to-gas technology. The coordinated operation of power and gas systems is a promising solution to add flexibility to future energy systems, facilitating renewable integration. The optimal operation of the power system is commonly modeled as a mixed-integer linear problem (MILP). Conversely, the natural gas network optimization is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem (MINLP), due to the highly nonlinear and nonconvex Weymouth equation modeling the gas flow in pipelines. Different linearization and convexification approaches have been investigated in the literature for the gas optimization problem, but few authors have verified the quality of the solution. In this paper, a MILP model for the gas problem is developed using an outer approximation technique, and the feasibility of the solution is assessed. A sensitivity analysis on the number of linearization breakpoints is conducted to show the impact on the solution quality and computational time.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
52 Research products, page 1 of 6
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Amandine Godet; Saber, J. T.; Nurup, J. N.; George Panagakos; Michael Bruhn Barfod;
    Country: Denmark

    In recent years, international shipping has received considerable attention with regard to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While efficient ships are key, benchmarking the energy efficiency of ships is not straightforward. Technical indicators, such as the EEDI (Energy Efficiency Design Index), reflect a ship's efficiency in ideal conditions (calm sea, no wind, fully laden, design speed). In contrast, operational indicators, such as the EEOI (Energy Efficiency Operational Index), are affected by factors either completely out of the operator's control (weather conditions, etc.) or partially controllable due to market conditions (volume of cargo, speed, etc.). In its way towards decarbonization, the maritime industry needs a realistic benchmarking tool for ship energy efficiency that considers both technical and operational aspects. The automotive industry has been using driving cycles for decades to test and assess the efficiency of vehicles in terms of air pollutants, and more recently, GHG emissions. This concept does not exist in maritime transport, at least not in formal policy-making. This work investigates the possibility of applying the concept of operational cycles in the maritime industry based on experiences acquired from the automotive driving cycles. More specifically, we will: (i) present the motivations for developing operational cycles for ships, (ii) provide an overview of the methods and uses of the driving cycles in road transport, and (iii) suggest an initial procedure for developing these cycles in maritime transport, including the data needed. A literature review identifies the development and use of the driving cycles, the methodologies applied worldwide, and the benefits and limitations of the different types of driving cycles. We also identify the few applications of operational cycles in the maritime industry. The lessons learned from the automotive industry form the foundation for discussing the possibility of applying this concept in the maritime sector, considering the differences between the two industries. We identify the necessary data, and we discuss further development work along with the potential use of these cycles as a tool for enhancing policy-making and ultimately improving the design of efficient ships.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    P S Sajini Anand; Veena H. Bhat; Shriram Ramesh;
    Publisher: IEEE

    Management of containers and carriers in a supply chain that spreads across different intermodal legs of ocean, land, river, rail and air transport is a challenging task in the shipping industry. During the intermodal phase, the triangulation of containers or carriers is a process that is sought to minimize cost by saving a possible transport leg. In this paper, we discuss an optimal triangulation process of containers carried by trucks in an intermodal transport network. We are addressing a specific triangulation process for the trucks engaged in import drops or export pickups of containers such that they can be effectively reused for the next export pickups or import drops in locations within a neighbourhood. We propose a mathematical model to address this problem in the framework of minimum cost network flows. Further, we introduce a heuristic method using the successive shortest path algorithm for the proposed model. The model is analyzed using data from current shipping networks of one of the major shipping industries for its North America database.

  • Publication . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Meisam Jamshidi Seikavandi; Kamal Nasrollahi; Thomas B. Moeslund;
    Publisher: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
    Country: Denmark

    Recent advances have shown sensor-fusion’s vital role in accurate detection, especially for advanced driver assistancesystems. We introduce a novel procedure for depth upsampling and sensor-fusion that together lead to an improved detectionperformance, compared to state-of-the-art results for detecting cars. Upsampling is generally based on combining datafrom an image to compensate for the low resolution of a LiDAR (Light Detector and Ranging). This paper, on the otherhand, presents a framework to obtain dense depth map solely from a single LiDAR point cloud that makes it possible touse just one deep network for both LiDAR and image modalities. The produced full-depth map is added to the grayscaleversion of the image to produce a two-channel input for a deep neural network. The simple preprocessing structure isefficiently competent in filing cars’ shapes, which helps the fusion framework to outperforms the state-of-the-art on theKITTI object detection for the Car class. Additionally, the combination of depth and image makes it easier for the networkto discriminate highly occluded and truncated vehicles.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Di Dio, Salvatore; Lissandrello, Enza; Schillaci, Domenico; Caroleo, Brunella; Vesco, Andrea; D’ Hespeel, Ingwio;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | MUV (723521)

    This working paper investigates the question of changing people mobility towards more sustainable habits involving them in an engaging gameplay. The work is performed within MUV H2020 research and innovation action. The game design, definition and features have been co-created through the involvement of different citizens and stakeholders in six European neighbourhoods. The paper discusses the game design as resulting from co-creation and co-design experiences with each neighbourhood communities involved in initial phases. The paper argues that the local co-design activities have influenced the game definition, together with the community engagement approach. The MUV gameplay approach results thus a demand-side measure able to encouraging people to sustainable mobility modes in the awareness of their potential role as agents of urban livability. The data collected by the players will be used to support a citizen-centric approach to facilitate equity and mobility justice in urban policies.

  • Publication . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rikke Hagensby Jensen; Michael Kvist Svangren; Mikael B. Skov; Jesper Kjeldskov;
    Publisher: ACM
    Country: Denmark
    Project: EC | GOFLEX (731232)

    Studies show that people find meanings such as freedom and independence in driving. However, the transition towards electric vehicles (EV's) challenges these meanings as they present different driving experiences such as shorter driving range and missing supportive infrastructures. This suggests that people find other meaning in EV driving. This paper presents a qualitative study with 11 Danish participants who reflect on their experiences of driving EV's in everyday life. As driving is embedded in many practices along with being a practice in itself, we draw on social practice theory as a framework to unfold how participants make use of technology to make EV driving a meaningful and desirable practice. We report on how participants facilitate their driving practices using interactive technology and charging infrastructure. We discuss these findings under three headings with ideas to inspire future HCI research and design for meaningful, sustainable EV driving practice.

  • Publication . Conference object . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Artur Pilimon; Angelos Mimidis Kentis; Sarah Ruepp; Lars Dittmann;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: Denmark

    In the recent years more and more existing services have moved from local execution environments into the cloud. In addition, new cloud-based services are emerging, which are characterized by very stringent delay requirements. This trend puts a stress in the existing monolithic architecture of Data Center Networks (DCN), thus creating the need to evolve them. Traffic Engineering (TE) has long been the way of attacking this problem, but as with DCN, needs to evolve by encompassing new technologies and paradigms. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of current DCN operational and TE techniques focusing on their limitations. Then, it highlights the benefits of incorporating the Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to address these limitations. Furthermore, it illustrates two methodologies and addresses the scalability aspect of DCN-oriented TE, network and service testing, by presenting a hybrid physical-simulated SDN enabled testbed for TE studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Roberto Pili; Søren Bojer Jørgensen; Fredrik Haglind;
    Publisher: ECOS 2021 Program Organizers
    Country: Denmark
    Project: EC | EuroTechPostdoc (754462)

    The Organic Rankine cycle system is a well-established technology for converting medium/low temperature waste heat into mechanical or electrical power. Inefficiencies in the internal combustion engines for road transportation lead to large amounts of waste heat that are not exploited. Because of the engine load changes during a driving cycle, the mass flow rate and temperature of the heat source fluctuate rapidly over a broad range. This poses high requirements to the control of the organic Rankine cycle unit, in order to prevent the formation of liquid droplets at the turbine inlet and acid gas corrosion in the evaporator if the exhaust gas temperatures are too low, which reduce the system lifetime. In addition, the fluctuations in the heat source degrade the efficiency of the organic Rankine cycle unit, because of part-load operation. Furthermore, the penalty on the transportable vehicle payload caused by the increase in system mass should be considered. This paper presents a novel design method for organic Rankine cycle systems subject to highly fluctuating heat sources, ensuring safe and efficient operation. An integral optimization code developed in MATLAB®/Simulink® combining the design of the thermodynamic cycle, the system evaporator and the control system with a dynamic simulation model is presented. The multi-objective optimization maximizes the organic Rankine cycle net power output over a driving cycle of a heavy-duty truck, while minimizing the mass of the evaporator. The results indicate that, in order to ensure safe operation, the degree of superheating of the working fluid as well as the exhaust gas temperature leaving the evaporator at design conditions should be higher than what classical steady-state thermodynamic analyses suggest. This work provides a unique benchmark for the optimization of organic Rankine cycle systems subject to high fluctuating heat sources that will be of benefit both for academia and industry.

  • Publication . Conference object . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pranshu Upadhayay; Adolfo G. Garcia; Ziwei Li; Amit Kumar Jha; Peter Omand Rasmussen; Afef Kedous-Lebouc; Jean-Claude Mipo;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Countries: France, Denmark
    Project: EC | DEMETER (674973)

    International audience; Nowadays, in automotive applications, theelectric vehicle motors generally utilize permanent magnetmotors due to their various advantages like high torque density,high efficiency, compactness and ease of control. In this paperemphasis is given to the evaluation of energy cost index for anEV motor over a particular drive cycle during motorsoperational lifetime. Performance evaluation over the entiredrive cycle, instead of at rated conditions, provides a better ideaof the efficiency and energy consumption of an electric motor.Therefore, energy cost evaluation for the urban part of NewEuropean Driving Cycle i.e. ECE-15 is selected in this study andthe energy cost index is evaluated for an EV motor for virginand recycled magnets utilized in the machine. The comparisonshows that utilizing recycled magnets can provide economicaladvantage over using virgin magnets albeit under certainassumptions.

  • Publication . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mattia Marinelli; Lisa Calearo; Sabrina Ried; Xaver Pfab; Julio Cesar Diaz Cabrera; Christian Spalthoff; Martin Braun; Hanne Sale; Bendik Nybakk Torsater; Poria Hasanpor Divshali; +7 more
    Publisher: IEEE
    Countries: Finland, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Spain
    Project: EC | EU-SysFlex (773505), EC | INSULAE (824433)

    [EN] This paper gathers experiences and results from several demonstration projects in the field of grid integration of electric vehicles. The analyzed research projects are selected among research institutes and universities that are part of the European Energy Research Alliance Joint Program on Smart Grids. The paper provides an overview of recent trends in the field of electric vehicles integration issues and then dives deeper into specific aspects of each project. Twelve research projects are presented in general terms, while detailed information can be retrieved from the references and the websites. Although each project has its focus, a common element that can be devised is that the charging process can be technically controlled based on different interests and algorithms, but its role in the market is still under development. Particular focus is always given to the behavior of the user, which ultimately determines the possible level of flexibility that the electric vehicle can provide to the grid.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Enrica Raheli; Qiuwei Wu; Changyun Wen;
    Publisher: IEEE

    The power system and the natural gas network are becoming increasingly interconnected due to the rising number of gas-fired power plants and the emergence of power-to-gas technology. The coordinated operation of power and gas systems is a promising solution to add flexibility to future energy systems, facilitating renewable integration. The optimal operation of the power system is commonly modeled as a mixed-integer linear problem (MILP). Conversely, the natural gas network optimization is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem (MINLP), due to the highly nonlinear and nonconvex Weymouth equation modeling the gas flow in pipelines. Different linearization and convexification approaches have been investigated in the literature for the gas optimization problem, but few authors have verified the quality of the solution. In this paper, a MILP model for the gas problem is developed using an outer approximation technique, and the feasibility of the solution is assessed. A sensitivity analysis on the number of linearization breakpoints is conducted to show the impact on the solution quality and computational time.

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