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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rui Tato Marinho; Helena Donato; Fernando Fernandez-Llimos; João Massano; José Manuel Silva; Miguel Almeida; José Carvalho; Tiago Villanueva; João Eurico Fonseca;
    Publisher: Ordem dos Medicos
    Country: Portugal

    INTRODUÇÃO“Without publication, science is dead”. Scientific American, Gerard Piel.A actividade científica é tradicionalmente medida pelo número de artigos publicados em revistas com arbitragem científica (peer review).Publish or Perish - todos nós já ouvimos ou lemos estas palavras. O número e qualidade de artigos publicados são factores relevantes que podem decidir uma carreira.A autoria de publicações peer reviewed é uma métrica de sucesso.Aprender a estruturar, submeter e rever um artigo, são competências que desde cedo devem ser desenvolvidas nas Escolas Médicas. Produzir um mau manuscrito só atrasaráou evitará a publicação de bom material científico.Investigação que não é nova, inovadora ou interessante, também não será publicada numa revista de reputação.Com este documento pretendemos dinamizar a publicação de bons artigos científicos realçando que há muitas maneiras de se certificar que um manuscrito não é rejeitadoantes de ser submetido ao peer review.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2015
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maria Regina Barcelos Bettiol;
    Publisher: Revista de Estudos de Cultura
    Country: Portugal

    Al revisitar la historia de Brasil, los franceses han estado con nosotros desde los albores de nuestra colonización, sin lugar a dudas marcaron presencia en la vida brasileña, aunque dicha participación ha sido tan puntual, esto es, en el siglo XIX a través de la Misión Artística (1816) y en el siglo XX a través de la fundación de la Facultad de Filosofía, Letras y Ciencias Humanas (1934) en São Paulo. Francia protagonizó un papel destacado en nuestras artes y nuestra formación intelectual y tuve, por lo tanto, su participación en nuestra historia. Al consultar nuestros documentos históricos, percibimos claramente la forma ambivalente que los brasileños siempre reaccionaron en relación con la cultura francesa: sea asimilándola de manera acrítica, intentando implementarla en el territorio nacional sin una reflexión más profunda de nuestra realidad, ya sea rechazándola de forma un tanto caricaturizado, es decir, menospreciando el legado dejado por Francia a nuestro país. Ese gran debate ideológico que movilizó a los políticos e intelectuales, brasileños y extranjeros por más de un siglo, se polarizó en dos corrientes: una adepta al francesismo y otra al antifrancesismo. De ser así, mientras estudiamos los orígenes de la antifrancesismo en nuestro país, nos enfrentamos a un discurso que paradójicamente siempre coexistieron con la apología al francesismo en sus expresiones sociales, culturales, políticas y literarias, pero que, al principio del siglo XX, tomó otras direcciones dentro de una nueva configuración internacional. Se revisitarmos a História do Brasil, os franceses estiveram conosco desde os primórdios da nossa colonização, inegavelmente marcaram presença na vida brasileira, ainda que essa participação tenha sido de forma pontual, isto é, no século XIX através da Missão Artística (1816) e no século XX através da fundação da Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas (1934) em São Paulo. A França protagonizou um papel de destaque em nossas artes e em nossa formação intelectual e teve, portanto, a sua participação em nossa história. Ao consultarmos os nossos documentos históricos, percebemos nitidamente a forma ambivalente que os brasileiros sempre reagiram em relação à cultura francesa: ora assimilando-a de forma acrítica, tentando implementá-la em território nacional sem uma reflexão mais profunda da nossa realidade, ora rejeitando-a de uma forma um pouco caricatural, ou seja, desvalorizando completamente o legado deixado pela França ao nosso país. Esse grande debate ideológico que mobilizou políticos e intelectuais, brasileiros e estrangeiros durante mais de um século, polarizou-se em duas correntes: uma adepta ao francesismo e outra, ao antifrancesismo. Em sendo assim, ao estudarmos as origens do antifrancesismo em nosso país, defrontamo-nos com um discurso que paradoxalmente sempre coexistiu com a apologia ao francesismo em suas expressões sociais, culturais, políticas e literárias, mas que, no início no século XX, tomou outros rumos dentro de uma nova configuração internacional. If we revisit the history of Brazil, French people have been with us since the dawn of our colonization. They undeniably marked presence in Brazilian life. Even though this participation had been in a timely manner, like in the nineteenth century through Arts Mission (1816) and in the twentieth century by the foundation of Faculty of Philosophy, Letters and Human Sciences (1934) in São Paulo. France staged a major role in our arts and our intellectual training and, therefore, had their participation in our history. When we consult our historical documents, we clearly perceive the ambivalent way that Brazilians always reacted in relation to French culture: sometimes assimilating it uncritically, trying to implement it in national territory without a deeper reflection of our reality, sometimes rejecting that somewhat caricatured, i.e. completely devaluating the legacy left by France to our country. This big ideological debate that mobilized politicians and intellectuals, Brazilians and foreigners for more than a century, became polarized into two streams: an adept to Frenchism and another to Anti-Frenchism. That being so, as we study the origins of anti-Frenchism in our country, we are faced with a speech that paradoxically always coexisted with the advocacy of Frenchness in their social, cultural, political and literary expression, but that in the early twentieth century took other paths within a new international configuration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tania Hernández Fariñas; Lourenço Ribeiro; Dominique Soudant; Catherine Belin; Cédric Bacher; Luis Lampert; Laurent Barillé;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: France, Portugal

    Suspended marine benthic microalgae in the water column reflect the close relationship between the benthic and pelagic components of coastal ecosystems. In this study, a 12-year phytoplankton time-series was used to investigate the contribution of benthic microalgae to the pelagic system at a site along the French-Atlantic coast. Furthermore, all taxa identified were allocated into different growth forms in order to study their seasonal patterns. The highest contribution of benthic microalgae was observed during the winter period, reaching up to 60% of the carbon biomass in the water column. The haptobenthic growth form showed the highest contribution in terms of biomass, dominant in the fall-winter period when the turbidity and the river flow were high. The epipelic growth form did not follow any seasonal pattern. The epiphytic diatom Licmophora was most commonly found during summer. As benthic microalgae were found in the water column throughout the year, the temporal variation detected in the structure of pelagic assemblages in a macrotidal ecosystem was partly derived from the differentiated contribution of several benthic growth forms.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alden, K; Andrews, P; Polack, F; Veiga-Fernandes, H; Coles, M; Timmis, J;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Portugal
    Project: UKRI | CoSMoS: Complex Systems M... (EP/E053505/1), EC | RETIMMUNEFUNCTION (207057), UKRI | IDEAS Factory - Resilient... (EP/I005943/1), FCT | PTDC/SAU-MII/100016/2008 (PTDC/SAU-MII/100016/2008), EC | TwinnToInfect (692022), UKRI | The role of IL-7/IL7R int... (G0601156), WT | Institutional Strategic S... (097829)

    The application of computational and mathematical modelling to explore the mechanics of biological systems is becoming prevalent. To significantly impact biological research, notably in developing novel therapeutics, it is critical that the model adequately represents the captured system. Confidence in adopting in silico approaches can be improved by applying a structured argumentation approach, alongside model development and results analysis. We propose an approach based on argumentation from safety-critical systems engineering, where a system is subjected to a stringent analysis of compliance against identified criteria. We show its use in examining the biological information upon which a model is based, identifying model strengths, highlighting areas requiring additional biological experimentation and providing documentation to support model publication. We demonstrate our use of structured argumentation in the development of a model of lymphoid tissue formation, specifically Peyer's Patches. The argumentation structure is captured using Artoo (www.york.ac.uk/ycil/software/artoo), our Web-based tool for constructing fitness-for-purpose arguments, using a notation based on the safety-critical goal structuring notation. We show how argumentation helps in making the design and structured analysis of a model transparent, capturing the reasoning behind the inclusion or exclusion of each biological feature and recording assumptions, as well as pointing to evidence supporting model-derived conclusions. This work was part funded by the Wellcome Trust (ref: 097829) through the Centre for Chronic Diseases and Disorders (C2D2) at the University of York and the Medical Research Council (G0601156) to M.C. P.A. was funded by EPSRC grant no. EP/I005943/1 ‘Resilient Futures'. Part of F.A.C.P.'s contribution was supported by the CoSMoS project, EPSRC grant EP/E053505/1. J.T. is part funded by the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering. H.V.-F. was funded by the FCT Portugal (PTDC/SAU-MII/100016/2008), European Molecular Biology Organisation (Project 1648) and European Research Council (Project 207057). © 2015 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cybelle Salvador Miranda; Fernando Grilo; Joana Balsa de Pinho;
    Country: Portugal

    O estudo das instituições de saúde na cidade de Belém no século XIX, decorrentes da pesquisa “Memória e cidade: itinerários da saúde na Belém colonial e imperial” trouxeram à tona o intercâmbio estético da Arquitetura entre Brasil e Portugal. No período imperial, em especial na segunda metade do século XIX, há intenso fluxo de pessoas e ideias entre a ex-colônia e a metrópole. Deste modo, as influências recíprocas se fazem presentes, tendo como evidência o campo da arquitetura dos edifícios de saúde. A presente investigação busca contribuir para aprofundar o estudo das relações luso-brasileiras no âmbito da arquitetura, enveredando por recorte específico da arquitetura civil, que envolve as construções erigidas pelas Beneficências e Misericórdias no Brasil e em Portugal. O recorte eleito sugere desvendar as influências estéticas na Arquitetura que inaugura a Belle Époque paraense, de cunho classicista, bem como seus autores, assunto ainda não explorado pela historiografia local. The study of health institutions in the nineteenth century Belém, resulting of the research project “Memory and city: Health itineraries in colonial and imperial Belém” brought to light the aesthetic exchanges between Brazil and Portugal regarding Architecture. During the imperial period, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century, there was a high flow of people and ideas between the former colony and the metropolis. Thus, we can detect reciprocal influences, which can be seen in the architecture of health buildings. This research aims to contribute to deepen the study of Portuguese-Brazilian relations in architecture, focusing on civil architecture, which includes the buildings erected by Beneficences and Mercies in Brazil and Portugal. The selected case studies aim to unveil the aesthetic influences in architecture that launches the Belle Époque in Pará, of classicist nature, as well as its authors, a subject still unexplored by local historiography.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nelson Pinheiro Gomes;
    Publisher: Laboratorio de Orientacao da Genese Organizacional - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
    Country: Portugal

    This paper explores the relations between culture, consumer behavior and management, introducing a new perspective for the study of cultural management, in order to activate better relationship strategies between brands and their audiences. The objective is to understand the instrumentalization of culture and behavior changes, resulting in a better creation and management of cultural symbols and narratives for brands. The ability to create and to imprint meanings in new products, services and pieces of communication requires a professional not only in the field of brand management, but also on the study of culture and emerging mindset and behavior trends. In this sense, this paper explores the role of this professional, the Chief Culture Officer (CCO), and how he/she can benefit from the application and the development of trends studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marta M. B. Ribeiro; Sónia Sá Santos; David Cordeiro Sousa; Margarida Oliveira; Sara M. Santos; Montserrat Heras; Eduard Bardají; Isaura Tavares; Miguel A. R. B. Castanho;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Portugal
    Project: EC | PEP2BRAIN (230654), FCT | SFRH/BD/42158/2007 (SFRH/BD/42158/2007), FCT | SFRH/BI/51213/2010 (SFRH/BI/51213/2010)

    The adverse side-effects associated with opioid administration restrain their use as analgesic drugs and call for new solutions to treat pain. Two kyotorphin derivatives, kyotorphin-amide (KTP–NH2) and ibuprofen–KTP–NH2 (IbKTP–NH2) are promising alternatives to opioids: they trigger analgesia via an indirect opioid mechanism and are highly effective in several pain models following systemic delivery. In vivo side-effects of KTP–NH2 and IbKTP–NH2 are, however, unknown and were evaluated in the present study using male adult Wistar rats. For comparison purposes, morphine and tramadol, two clinically relevant opioids, were also studied. Results showed that KTP-derivatives do not cause constipation after systemic administration, in contrast to morphine. Also, no alterations were observed in blood pressure or in food and water intake, which were only affected by tramadol. A reduction in micturition was detected after KTP–NH2 or tramadol administrations. A moderate locomotion decline was detected after IbKTP–NH2-treatment. The side-effect profile of KTP–NH2 and IbKTP–NH2 support the existence of opioid-based mechanisms in their analgesic actions. The conjugation of a strong analgesic activity with the absence of the major side-effects associated to opioids highlights the potential of both KTP–NH2 and IbKTP–NH2 as advantageous alternatives over current opioids. Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portugal) is acknowledged for funding: SFRH/BD/42158/2007 fellowship to M. Ribeiro and SFRH/BI/51213/2010 fellowship (for doctorate) to S. Sá Santos associated to Marie Curie IAPP. Marie Curie Industry-Academia Partnerships and Pathways (European Commission) is also acknowledged for funding (FP7-PEOPLE-2007-3-1-IAPP. Project 230654). The authors acknowledge and appreciate the financial support received from Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa and Fundação Amadeu Dias, Portugal (Project No. 2010029) © Springer-Verlag 2013

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Duygu P. Oksuz; Jorge M. Palmeirim; Ricardo A. Correia;
    Publisher: Springer
    Countries: Portugal, Finland

    Wood-pastures are socio-ecological systems covering vast areas in Europe. Although used for grazing and production of various forest goods, wood-pastures harbour a rich biodiversity and are usually considered as High Nature Value Farmlands. However, socio-economic pressures are driving the transformation of these valuable landscapes from multi-functional, heterogeneous habitats to homogeneous areas through either intensification or land abandonment. We investigated how changes in management intensity influence the taxonomic diversity, functional diversity and functional composition of birds in these landscapes using generalized linear models. In contrast to taxonomic diversity, functional diversity decreased significantly towards shrub-dominated and less heterogeneous areas related to the abandonment of grazing and/or understory management practices. Grassland and generalist species, and associated guilds such as granivores, ground-nesters and ground-foragers are almost absent less managed areas. On the other hand, shrub-dominated areas favour forest species, particularly understory/canopy foragers and arboreal nesters, although the forest guild is still well-represented in actively managed, heterogeneous areas. Our results indicate the abandonment of wood-pasture management affects the prevalence of grassland and generalist species, leading to functional diversity loss and potentially reduced ecosystem functioning. We suggest non-intensive, active management is needed to maintain habitat heterogeneity and canopy openness, enhancing trait diversity in wood-pastures. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Slimane Mokrani; Elhafid Nabti; Cristina Cruz;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Portugal

    Humanity in the modern world is confronted with diverse problems at several levels. The environmental concern is probably the most important as it threatens different ecosystems, food, and farming as well as humans, animals, and plants. More specifically, salinization of agricultural soils is a global concern because of on one side, the permanent increase of the areas affected, and on the other side, the disastrous damage caused to various plants affecting hugely crop productivity and yields. Currently, great attention is directed towards the use of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB). This alternative method, which is healthy, safe, and ecological, seems to be very promising in terms of simultaneous salinity alleviation and improving crop productivity. This review attempts to deal with different aspects of the current advances concerning the use of PGPBs for saline stress alleviation. The objective is to explain, discuss, and present the current progress in this area of research. We firstly discuss the implication of PGPB on soil desalinization. We present the impacts of salinity on crops. We look for the different salinity origin and its impacts on plants. We discuss the impacts of salinity on soil. Then, we review various recent progress of hemophilic PGPB for sustainable agriculture. We categorize the mechanisms of PGPB toward salinity tolerance. We discuss the use of PGPB inoculants under salinity that can reduce chemical fertilization. Finally, we present some possible directions for future investigation. It seems that PGPBs use for saline stress alleviation gain more importance, investigations, and applications. Regarding the complexity of the mechanisms implicated in this domain, various aspects remain to be elucidated.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McGregor, Andrew; Eilenberg, Michael; Coutinho, Joana Borges;
    Countries: Portugal, Denmark

    If there is one message that emerges from this collection of essays exploring how REDD+ (the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhancing forest carbon stocks and conservation programme) is unfolding in the Asia Pacific region, it is that geography matters. The theme recurs again and again as authors examine how this global initiative being developed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and various grant and market initiatives is being negotiated across scale and space. The case studies show that no amount of planning within the offices and boardrooms of international environmental agencies and among expert communities can predict what will happen when their initiatives become embedded in particular localities. Contemporary and historic place-based politics, cultures, economies, ecologies and societies inevitably become tangled within and ‘mess up’ the best laid plans. Anyone who thought REDD+ would be a quick, cheap and simple approach to climate change mitigation has been sorely mistaken.

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rui Tato Marinho; Helena Donato; Fernando Fernandez-Llimos; João Massano; José Manuel Silva; Miguel Almeida; José Carvalho; Tiago Villanueva; João Eurico Fonseca;
    Publisher: Ordem dos Medicos
    Country: Portugal

    INTRODUÇÃO“Without publication, science is dead”. Scientific American, Gerard Piel.A actividade científica é tradicionalmente medida pelo número de artigos publicados em revistas com arbitragem científica (peer review).Publish or Perish - todos nós já ouvimos ou lemos estas palavras. O número e qualidade de artigos publicados são factores relevantes que podem decidir uma carreira.A autoria de publicações peer reviewed é uma métrica de sucesso.Aprender a estruturar, submeter e rever um artigo, são competências que desde cedo devem ser desenvolvidas nas Escolas Médicas. Produzir um mau manuscrito só atrasaráou evitará a publicação de bom material científico.Investigação que não é nova, inovadora ou interessante, também não será publicada numa revista de reputação.Com este documento pretendemos dinamizar a publicação de bons artigos científicos realçando que há muitas maneiras de se certificar que um manuscrito não é rejeitadoantes de ser submetido ao peer review.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2015
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maria Regina Barcelos Bettiol;
    Publisher: Revista de Estudos de Cultura
    Country: Portugal

    Al revisitar la historia de Brasil, los franceses han estado con nosotros desde los albores de nuestra colonización, sin lugar a dudas marcaron presencia en la vida brasileña, aunque dicha participación ha sido tan puntual, esto es, en el siglo XIX a través de la Misión Artística (1816) y en el siglo XX a través de la fundación de la Facultad de Filosofía, Letras y Ciencias Humanas (1934) en São Paulo. Francia protagonizó un papel destacado en nuestras artes y nuestra formación intelectual y tuve, por lo tanto, su participación en nuestra historia. Al consultar nuestros documentos históricos, percibimos claramente la forma ambivalente que los brasileños siempre reaccionaron en relación con la cultura francesa: sea asimilándola de manera acrítica, intentando implementarla en el territorio nacional sin una reflexión más profunda de nuestra realidad, ya sea rechazándola de forma un tanto caricaturizado, es decir, menospreciando el legado dejado por Francia a nuestro país. Ese gran debate ideológico que movilizó a los políticos e intelectuales, brasileños y extranjeros por más de un siglo, se polarizó en dos corrientes: una adepta al francesismo y otra al antifrancesismo. De ser así, mientras estudiamos los orígenes de la antifrancesismo en nuestro país, nos enfrentamos a un discurso que paradójicamente siempre coexistieron con la apología al francesismo en sus expresiones sociales, culturales, políticas y literarias, pero que, al principio del siglo XX, tomó otras direcciones dentro de una nueva configuración internacional. Se revisitarmos a História do Brasil, os franceses estiveram conosco desde os primórdios da nossa colonização, inegavelmente marcaram presença na vida brasileira, ainda que essa participação tenha sido de forma pontual, isto é, no século XIX através da Missão Artística (1816) e no século XX através da fundação da Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas (1934) em São Paulo. A França protagonizou um papel de destaque em nossas artes e em nossa formação intelectual e teve, portanto, a sua participação em nossa história. Ao consultarmos os nossos documentos históricos, percebemos nitidamente a forma ambivalente que os brasileiros sempre reagiram em relação à cultura francesa: ora assimilando-a de forma acrítica, tentando implementá-la em território nacional sem uma reflexão mais profunda da nossa realidade, ora rejeitando-a de uma forma um pouco caricatural, ou seja, desvalorizando completamente o legado deixado pela França ao nosso país. Esse grande debate ideológico que mobilizou políticos e intelectuais, brasileiros e estrangeiros durante mais de um século, polarizou-se em duas correntes: uma adepta ao francesismo e outra, ao antifrancesismo. Em sendo assim, ao estudarmos as origens do antifrancesismo em nosso país, defrontamo-nos com um discurso que paradoxalmente sempre coexistiu com a apologia ao francesismo em suas expressões sociais, culturais, políticas e literárias, mas que, no início no século XX, tomou outros rumos dentro de uma nova configuração internacional. If we revisit the history of Brazil, French people have been with us since the dawn of our colonization. They undeniably marked presence in Brazilian life. Even though this participation had been in a timely manner, like in the nineteenth century through Arts Mission (1816) and in the twentieth century by the foundation of Faculty of Philosophy, Letters and Human Sciences (1934) in São Paulo. France staged a major role in our arts and our intellectual training and, therefore, had their participation in our history. When we consult our historical documents, we clearly perceive the ambivalent way that Brazilians always reacted in relation to French culture: sometimes assimilating it uncritically, trying to implement it in national territory without a deeper reflection of our reality, sometimes rejecting that somewhat caricatured, i.e. completely devaluating the legacy left by France to our country. This big ideological debate that mobilized politicians and intellectuals, Brazilians and foreigners for more than a century, became polarized into two streams: an adept to Frenchism and another to Anti-Frenchism. That being so, as we study the origins of anti-Frenchism in our country, we are faced with a speech that paradoxically always coexisted with the advocacy of Frenchness in their social, cultural, political and literary expression, but that in the early twentieth century took other paths within a new international configuration.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tania Hernández Fariñas; Lourenço Ribeiro; Dominique Soudant; Catherine Belin; Cédric Bacher; Luis Lampert; Laurent Barillé;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: France, Portugal

    Suspended marine benthic microalgae in the water column reflect the close relationship between the benthic and pelagic components of coastal ecosystems. In this study, a 12-year phytoplankton time-series was used to investigate the contribution of benthic microalgae to the pelagic system at a site along the French-Atlantic coast. Furthermore, all taxa identified were allocated into different growth forms in order to study their seasonal patterns. The highest contribution of benthic microalgae was observed during the winter period, reaching up to 60% of the carbon biomass in the water column. The haptobenthic growth form showed the highest contribution in terms of biomass, dominant in the fall-winter period when the turbidity and the river flow were high. The epipelic growth form did not follow any seasonal pattern. The epiphytic diatom Licmophora was most commonly found during summer. As benthic microalgae were found in the water column throughout the year, the temporal variation detected in the structure of pelagic assemblages in a macrotidal ecosystem was partly derived from the differentiated contribution of several benthic growth forms.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alden, K; Andrews, P; Polack, F; Veiga-Fernandes, H; Coles, M; Timmis, J;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Portugal
    Project: UKRI | CoSMoS: Complex Systems M... (EP/E053505/1), EC | RETIMMUNEFUNCTION (207057), UKRI | IDEAS Factory - Resilient... (EP/I005943/1), FCT | PTDC/SAU-MII/100016/2008 (PTDC/SAU-MII/100016/2008), EC | TwinnToInfect (692022), UKRI | The role of IL-7/IL7R int... (G0601156), WT | Institutional Strategic S... (097829)

    The application of computational and mathematical modelling to explore the mechanics of biological systems is becoming prevalent. To significantly impact biological research, notably in developing novel therapeutics, it is critical that the model adequately represents the captured system. Confidence in adopting in silico approaches can be improved by applying a structured argumentation approach, alongside model development and results analysis. We propose an approach based on argumentation from safety-critical systems engineering, where a system is subjected to a stringent analysis of compliance against identified criteria. We show its use in examining the biological information upon which a model is based, identifying model strengths, highlighting areas requiring additional biological experimentation and providing documentation to support model publication. We demonstrate our use of structured argumentation in the development of a model of lymphoid tissue formation, specifically Peyer's Patches. The argumentation structure is captured using Artoo (www.york.ac.uk/ycil/software/artoo), our Web-based tool for constructing fitness-for-purpose arguments, using a notation based on the safety-critical goal structuring notation. We show how argumentation helps in making the design and structured analysis of a model transparent, capturing the reasoning behind the inclusion or exclusion of each biological feature and recording assumptions, as well as pointing to evidence supporting model-derived conclusions. This work was part funded by the Wellcome Trust (ref: 097829) through the Centre for Chronic Diseases and Disorders (C2D2) at the University of York and the Medical Research Council (G0601156) to M.C. P.A. was funded by EPSRC grant no. EP/I005943/1 ‘Resilient Futures'. Part of F.A.C.P.'s contribution was supported by the CoSMoS project, EPSRC grant EP/E053505/1. J.T. is part funded by the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering. H.V.-F. was funded by the FCT Portugal (PTDC/SAU-MII/100016/2008), European Molecular Biology Organisation (Project 1648) and European Research Council (Project 207057). © 2015 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cybelle Salvador Miranda; Fernando Grilo; Joana Balsa de Pinho;
    Country: Portugal

    O estudo das instituições de saúde na cidade de Belém no século XIX, decorrentes da pesquisa “Memória e cidade: itinerários da saúde na Belém colonial e imperial” trouxeram à tona o intercâmbio estético da Arquitetura entre Brasil e Portugal. No período imperial, em especial na segunda metade do século XIX, há intenso fluxo de pessoas e ideias entre a ex-colônia e a metrópole. Deste modo, as influências recíprocas se fazem presentes, tendo como evidência o campo da arquitetura dos edifícios de saúde. A presente investigação busca contribuir para aprofundar o estudo das relações luso-brasileiras no âmbito da arquitetura, enveredando por recorte específico da arquitetura civil, que envolve as construções erigidas pelas Beneficências e Misericórdias no Brasil e em Portugal. O recorte eleito sugere desvendar as influências estéticas na Arquitetura que inaugura a Belle Époque paraense, de cunho classicista, bem como seus autores, assunto ainda não explorado pela historiografia local. The study of health institutions in the nineteenth century Belém, resulting of the research project “Memory and city: Health itineraries in colonial and imperial Belém” brought to light the aesthetic exchanges between Brazil and Portugal regarding Architecture. During the imperial period, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century, there was a high flow of people and ideas between the former colony and the metropolis. Thus, we can detect reciprocal influences, which can be seen in the architecture of health buildings. This research aims to contribute to deepen the study of Portuguese-Brazilian relations in architecture, focusing on civil architecture, which includes the buildings erected by Beneficences and Mercies in Brazil and Portugal. The selected case studies aim to unveil the aesthetic influences in architecture that launches the Belle Époque in Pará, of classicist nature, as well as its authors, a subject still unexplored by local historiography.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nelson Pinheiro Gomes;
    Publisher: Laboratorio de Orientacao da Genese Organizacional - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
    Country: Portugal

    This paper explores the relations between culture, consumer behavior and management, introducing a new perspective for the study of cultural management, in order to activate better relationship strategies between brands and their audiences. The objective is to understand the instrumentalization of culture and behavior changes, resulting in a better creation and management of cultural symbols and narratives for brands. The ability to create and to imprint meanings in new products, services and pieces of communication requires a professional not only in the field of brand management, but also on the study of culture and emerging mindset and behavior trends. In this sense, this paper explores the role of this professional, the Chief Culture Officer (CCO), and how he/she can benefit from the application and the development of trends studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marta M. B. Ribeiro; Sónia Sá Santos; David Cordeiro Sousa; Margarida Oliveira; Sara M. Santos; Montserrat Heras; Eduard Bardají; Isaura Tavares; Miguel A. R. B. Castanho;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Portugal
    Project: EC | PEP2BRAIN (230654), FCT | SFRH/BD/42158/2007 (SFRH/BD/42158/2007), FCT | SFRH/BI/51213/2010 (SFRH/BI/51213/2010)

    The adverse side-effects associated with opioid administration restrain their use as analgesic drugs and call for new solutions to treat pain. Two kyotorphin derivatives, kyotorphin-amide (KTP–NH2) and ibuprofen–KTP–NH2 (IbKTP–NH2) are promising alternatives to opioids: they trigger analgesia via an indirect opioid mechanism and are highly effective in several pain models following systemic delivery. In vivo side-effects of KTP–NH2 and IbKTP–NH2 are, however, unknown and were evaluated in the present study using male adult Wistar rats. For comparison purposes, morphine and tramadol, two clinically relevant opioids, were also studied. Results showed that KTP-derivatives do not cause constipation after systemic administration, in contrast to morphine. Also, no alterations were observed in blood pressure or in food and water intake, which were only affected by tramadol. A reduction in micturition was detected after KTP–NH2 or tramadol administrations. A moderate locomotion decline was detected after IbKTP–NH2-treatment. The side-effect profile of KTP–NH2 and IbKTP–NH2 support the existence of opioid-based mechanisms in their analgesic actions. The conjugation of a strong analgesic activity with the absence of the major side-effects associated to opioids highlights the potential of both KTP–NH2 and IbKTP–NH2 as advantageous alternatives over current opioids. Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portugal) is acknowledged for funding: SFRH/BD/42158/2007 fellowship to M. Ribeiro and SFRH/BI/51213/2010 fellowship (for doctorate) to S. Sá Santos associated to Marie Curie IAPP. Marie Curie Industry-Academia Partnerships and Pathways (European Commission) is also acknowledged for funding (FP7-PEOPLE-2007-3-1-IAPP. Project 230654). The authors acknowledge and appreciate the financial support received from Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa and Fundação Amadeu Dias, Portugal (Project No. 2010029) © Springer-Verlag 2013

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Duygu P. Oksuz; Jorge M. Palmeirim; Ricardo A. Correia;
    Publisher: Springer
    Countries: Portugal, Finland

    Wood-pastures are socio-ecological systems covering vast areas in Europe. Although used for grazing and production of various forest goods, wood-pastures harbour a rich biodiversity and are usually considered as High Nature Value Farmlands. However, socio-economic pressures are driving the transformation of these valuable landscapes from multi-functional, heterogeneous habitats to homogeneous areas through either intensification or land abandonment. We investigated how changes in management intensity influence the taxonomic diversity, functional diversity and functional composition of birds in these landscapes using generalized linear models. In contrast to taxonomic diversity, functional diversity decreased significantly towards shrub-dominated and less heterogeneous areas related to the abandonment of grazing and/or understory management practices. Grassland and generalist species, and associated guilds such as granivores, ground-nesters and ground-foragers are almost absent less managed areas. On the other hand, shrub-dominated areas favour forest species, particularly understory/canopy foragers and arboreal nesters, although the forest guild is still well-represented in actively managed, heterogeneous areas. Our results indicate the abandonment of wood-pasture management affects the prevalence of grassland and generalist species, leading to functional diversity loss and potentially reduced ecosystem functioning. We suggest non-intensive, active management is needed to maintain habitat heterogeneity and canopy openness, enhancing trait diversity in wood-pastures. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Slimane Mokrani; Elhafid Nabti; Cristina Cruz;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Portugal

    Humanity in the modern world is confronted with diverse problems at several levels. The environmental concern is probably the most important as it threatens different ecosystems, food, and farming as well as humans, animals, and plants. More specifically, salinization of agricultural soils is a global concern because of on one side, the permanent increase of the areas affected, and on the other side, the disastrous damage caused to various plants affecting hugely crop productivity and yields. Currently, great attention is directed towards the use of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB). This alternative method, which is healthy, safe, and ecological, seems to be very promising in terms of simultaneous salinity alleviation and improving crop productivity. This review attempts to deal with different aspects of the current advances concerning the use of PGPBs for saline stress alleviation. The objective is to explain, discuss, and present the current progress in this area of research. We firstly discuss the implication of PGPB on soil desalinization. We present the impacts of salinity on crops. We look for the different salinity origin and its impacts on plants. We discuss the impacts of salinity on soil. Then, we review various recent progress of hemophilic PGPB for sustainable agriculture. We categorize the mechanisms of PGPB toward salinity tolerance. We discuss the use of PGPB inoculants under salinity that can reduce chemical fertilization. Finally, we present some possible directions for future investigation. It seems that PGPBs use for saline stress alleviation gain more importance, investigations, and applications. Regarding the complexity of the mechanisms implicated in this domain, various aspects remain to be elucidated.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McGregor, Andrew; Eilenberg, Michael; Coutinho, Joana Borges;
    Countries: Portugal, Denmark

    If there is one message that emerges from this collection of essays exploring how REDD+ (the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhancing forest carbon stocks and conservation programme) is unfolding in the Asia Pacific region, it is that geography matters. The theme recurs again and again as authors examine how this global initiative being developed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and various grant and market initiatives is being negotiated across scale and space. The case studies show that no amount of planning within the offices and boardrooms of international environmental agencies and among expert communities can predict what will happen when their initiatives become embedded in particular localities. Contemporary and historic place-based politics, cultures, economies, ecologies and societies inevitably become tangled within and ‘mess up’ the best laid plans. Anyone who thought REDD+ would be a quick, cheap and simple approach to climate change mitigation has been sorely mistaken.

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