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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Neha Mathur; Alan Davidson; Arjan Buis; Ivan Glesk;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Health services worldwide are seeking ways to improve patient care for amputees suffering from diabetes, and at the same time reduce costs. The monitoring of residual limb temperature, interface pressure and gait can be a useful indicator of tissue viability in lower limb amputees especially to predict the occurrence of pressure ulcers. This is further exacerbated by elevated temperatures and humid micro environment within the prosthesis which encourages the growth of bacteria and skin breakdown. Wearable systems for prosthetic users have to be designed such that the sensors are minimally obtrusive and reliable enough to faithfully record movement and physiological signals. A mobile sensor platform has been developed for use with the lower limb prosthetic users. This system uses an Arduino board that includes sensors for temperature, gait, orientation and pressure measurements. The platform transmits sensor data to a central health authority database server infrastructure through the Bluetooth protocol at a suitable sampling rate. The data-sets recorded using these systems are then processed using machine learning algorithms to extract clinically relevant information from the data. Where a sensor threshold is reached a warning signal can be sent wirelessly together with the relevant data to the patient and appropriate medical personnel. This knowledge is also useful in establishing biomarkers related to a possible deterioration in a patient’s health or for assessing the impact of clinical interventions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Goncalves, F.J.T.; Paterson, G.W.; McGrouther, D.; Drysdale, T.; Togawa, Y.; Schmool, D.S.; Stamps, R.L.;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Consortium for advanced m... (EP/M024423/1)

    Abstract A technique is presented whereby the performance of a microwave device is evaluated by mapping local field distributions using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (L-TEM). We demonstrate the method by measuring the polarisation state of the electromagnetic fields produced by a microstrip waveguide as a function of its gigahertz operating frequency. The forward and backward propagating electromagnetic fields produced by the waveguide, in a specimen-free experiment, exert Lorentz forces on the propagating electron beam. Importantly, in addition to the mapping of dynamic fields, this novel method allows detection of effects of microwave fields on specimens, such as observing ferromagnetic materials at resonance.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wanqing Zhang; Amir M. Abdulghani; Muhammad Imran; Qammer H. Abbasi;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Smart home barrier system is proposed and designed to keep people safe at home, especially for kids and pets. In this paper, working prototype of Internet of Things (IoT) enabled smart automatic door or barrier system is presented, where two models namely (i) monitoring model and (ii) actuated model can be switched to control access to the kitchen remotely by an online platform Ubidots. In experimental scenario, weight detection for monitoring model can measure from 0kg to 200kg with high precision. IoT environment enables door to be controlled remotely in real-time.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Davidson, Joy;
    Publisher: 4C Project
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christelle Elia; Alexis Karamanos; Maria João Silva; Maeve O’Connor; Yao Lu; Alexandru Dregan; Peiyuan Huang; Majella O'Keeffe; J. Kennedy Cruickshank; Elli Z. Enayat; +4 more
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract Background To evaluate the association between weight misperception and psychological symptoms in the Determinants of young Adults Social well-being and Health (DASH) longitudinal study. Methods A longitudinal sample of 3227 adolescents, in 49 secondary schools in London, aged 11–16 years participated in 2002/2003 and were followed up in 2005/2006. A sub-sample (N = 595) was followed up again at ages 21–23 years in 2012/2013. An index of weight misperception was derived from weight perception and measured weight. Psychological well- being was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at 11–16 years and the General Health Questionnaire at 21–23 years. Associations with weight misperception was assessed using regression models, adjusted for socio-economic and lifestyle factors. Results White British males and females were more likely than ethnic minority peers to report accurate perceptions of measured weight. At 11-13y, 46% females and 38% males did not have an accurate perception of their measured weight. The comparable figures at 14-16y were 42 and 40%. Compared with male adolescents, more females perceived themselves as overweight or were unsure of their weight but measured normal weight, and this was more pronounced among Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. At 14-16y, more males perceived themselves as underweight but measured normal weight, and this was more pronounced among Indians. Compared with those who had an accurate perception of their normal weight, a higher likelihood of probable clinically-relevant psychological symptoms was observed among those who measured normal weight but perceived themselves to be underweight (females Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.87 95% CI 1.03–3.40; males OR = 2.34 95% CI 1.47–3.71), overweight (females only OR = 2.06 95% CI 1.10–3.87), or unsure of their weight (males only OR = 1.61 95% CI 1.04–2.49). Among females, the association was driven by internalising rather than externalising symptoms. An accurate perception of overweight was associated with higher psychological symptoms in adolescence and early 20s. Ethnic specific effects were not evident. Conclusion Weight misperception may be an important determinant of psychological symptoms in young people, with an accurate perception of normal weight status being protective. Culturally targeted interventions should be considered to promote healthy perceptions of body image.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Geng Wang; Lesley Doyle;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Country: United Kingdom

    Individual academic achievement is highly valued in Chinese society, with vocational education students positioned at the bottom of the educational hierarchy and suffering considerable societal prejudice. In this paper we present new findings from the choice-making experiences of students in two vocational education colleges in China, how they are perceived by their teachers, and how, in the context of their negatively-stereotyped status, they perceive themselves. Drawing on the Marxist notion of false consciousness to help understand the agency of these students, we found that almost all perceived themselves as being agentic and having control over their destiny. They felt they only had themselves to blame for the stereotyping to which they were subjected. One student had not adopted this mindset and was critical of the exam system. We argue that the perceived agency of the majority of the students resonates strongly with the neoliberal values which are associated with responsibilisation, and which have been encouraged in China since the 1970s with the beginning of the Reform Era. The evidence from our study also suggests, however, that it is possible for young people , by their own efforts, to move away from the state of false consciousness.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Siganos, Antonios;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract This study explores the significance of academic networking when publishing on special issues. We find that in comparison to the main editors, guest editors publish more often papers that share networking with their authors. We explore several proxies that test whether this strong networking effect indicates favoritism; the number of referees used, the length of the period under review, the positioning of the connected papers in the issue, and the number of citations received after the publication. We find no evidence indicating that the guest editors offer favoritism towards their connected papers. Still, we find that guest editors select papers (connected and nonconnected) that receive relatively more citations and thus their role to develop special issues is encouraged.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    GIOIA FALCONE;
    Publisher: Parliamentary and Scientific Committee – All-Party Parliamentary Group
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Peter J. Uhlhaas; Frederic Roux; Wolf Singer;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: United Kingdom

    Cognitive deficits are a core dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this issue of Neuron, Parnaudeau et al. (2013) investigated synchronization in thalamocortical pathways in an animal model to address the disconnection between brain regions as a mechanism for working memory impairments in the disorder.implicated dysfunctional neural oscillations in the explanation of cognitive deficits and certain clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Specifically, we will focus on findings that have examined neural oscillations during 1) perceptual processing, 2) working memory and executive processes and 3) spontaneous activity. The importance of the development of paradigms suitable for human and animal models is discussed as well as the search for mechanistic explanation for oscillatory dysfunctions.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abraham, S.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; +202 more
    Countries: Netherlands, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Belgium, Spain, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, France ...
    Project: NWO | Quality assured industria... (13927)

    The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO, as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the MaxPlanck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/ Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies, as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the Department of Science and Technology, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), and the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India; the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d’Innovació Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana, and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain; the National Science Centre of Poland; the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF); the Russian Foundation for Basic Research; the Russian Science Foundation; the European Commission; the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF); the Royal Society; the Scottish Funding Council; the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance; the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA); the French Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO); the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS), Actions de RechercheConcertées (ARC), and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek—Vlaanderen (FWO), Belgium; the Paris Île-de-France Region; the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH); the National Research Foundation of Korea; Industry Canada and the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation; the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada; the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research; the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations, and Communications; the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTPSAIFR); the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong; the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC); the Leverhulme Trust; the Research Corporation; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan; and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN, and CNRS for provision of computational resources. The gravitational-wave signal GW190521 is consistent with a binary black hole (BBH) merger source at redshift 0.8 with unusually high component masses, ${85}_{-14}^{+21}$ M⊙ and ${66}_{-18}^{+17}$ M⊙, compared to previously reported events, and shows mild evidence for spin-induced orbital precession. The primary falls in the mass gap predicted by (pulsational) pair-instability supernova theory, in the approximate range 65–120 M⊙. The probability that at least one of the black holes in GW190521 is in that range is 99.0%. The final mass of the merger (${142}_{-16}^{+28}$ M⊙) classifies it as an intermediate-mass black hole. Under the assumption of a quasi-circular BBH coalescence, we detail the physical properties of GW190521's source binary and its post-merger remnant, including component masses and spin vectors. Three different waveform models, as well as direct comparison to numerical solutions of general relativity, yield consistent estimates of these properties. Tests of strong-field general relativity targeting the merger-ringdown stages of the coalescence indicate consistency of the observed signal with theoretical predictions. We estimate the merger rate of similar systems to be ${0.13}_{-0.11}^{+0.30}\,{{\rm{Gpc}}}^{-3}\,{{\rm{yr}}}^{-1}$. We discuss the astrophysical implications of GW190521 for stellar collapse and for the possible formation of black holes in the pair-instability mass gap through various channels: via (multiple) stellar coalescences, or via hierarchical mergers of lower-mass black holes in star clusters or in active galactic nuclei. We find it to be unlikely that GW190521 is a strongly lensed signal of a lower-mass black hole binary merger. We also discuss more exotic possible sources for GW190521, including a highly eccentric black hole binary, or a primordial black hole binary. LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration: et al. arXiv:2009.01190v1 Peer reviewed

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
36,480 Research products, page 1 of 3,648
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Neha Mathur; Alan Davidson; Arjan Buis; Ivan Glesk;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Health services worldwide are seeking ways to improve patient care for amputees suffering from diabetes, and at the same time reduce costs. The monitoring of residual limb temperature, interface pressure and gait can be a useful indicator of tissue viability in lower limb amputees especially to predict the occurrence of pressure ulcers. This is further exacerbated by elevated temperatures and humid micro environment within the prosthesis which encourages the growth of bacteria and skin breakdown. Wearable systems for prosthetic users have to be designed such that the sensors are minimally obtrusive and reliable enough to faithfully record movement and physiological signals. A mobile sensor platform has been developed for use with the lower limb prosthetic users. This system uses an Arduino board that includes sensors for temperature, gait, orientation and pressure measurements. The platform transmits sensor data to a central health authority database server infrastructure through the Bluetooth protocol at a suitable sampling rate. The data-sets recorded using these systems are then processed using machine learning algorithms to extract clinically relevant information from the data. Where a sensor threshold is reached a warning signal can be sent wirelessly together with the relevant data to the patient and appropriate medical personnel. This knowledge is also useful in establishing biomarkers related to a possible deterioration in a patient’s health or for assessing the impact of clinical interventions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Goncalves, F.J.T.; Paterson, G.W.; McGrouther, D.; Drysdale, T.; Togawa, Y.; Schmool, D.S.; Stamps, R.L.;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Consortium for advanced m... (EP/M024423/1)

    Abstract A technique is presented whereby the performance of a microwave device is evaluated by mapping local field distributions using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (L-TEM). We demonstrate the method by measuring the polarisation state of the electromagnetic fields produced by a microstrip waveguide as a function of its gigahertz operating frequency. The forward and backward propagating electromagnetic fields produced by the waveguide, in a specimen-free experiment, exert Lorentz forces on the propagating electron beam. Importantly, in addition to the mapping of dynamic fields, this novel method allows detection of effects of microwave fields on specimens, such as observing ferromagnetic materials at resonance.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wanqing Zhang; Amir M. Abdulghani; Muhammad Imran; Qammer H. Abbasi;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Smart home barrier system is proposed and designed to keep people safe at home, especially for kids and pets. In this paper, working prototype of Internet of Things (IoT) enabled smart automatic door or barrier system is presented, where two models namely (i) monitoring model and (ii) actuated model can be switched to control access to the kitchen remotely by an online platform Ubidots. In experimental scenario, weight detection for monitoring model can measure from 0kg to 200kg with high precision. IoT environment enables door to be controlled remotely in real-time.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Davidson, Joy;
    Publisher: 4C Project
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christelle Elia; Alexis Karamanos; Maria João Silva; Maeve O’Connor; Yao Lu; Alexandru Dregan; Peiyuan Huang; Majella O'Keeffe; J. Kennedy Cruickshank; Elli Z. Enayat; +4 more
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract Background To evaluate the association between weight misperception and psychological symptoms in the Determinants of young Adults Social well-being and Health (DASH) longitudinal study. Methods A longitudinal sample of 3227 adolescents, in 49 secondary schools in London, aged 11–16 years participated in 2002/2003 and were followed up in 2005/2006. A sub-sample (N = 595) was followed up again at ages 21–23 years in 2012/2013. An index of weight misperception was derived from weight perception and measured weight. Psychological well- being was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at 11–16 years and the General Health Questionnaire at 21–23 years. Associations with weight misperception was assessed using regression models, adjusted for socio-economic and lifestyle factors. Results White British males and females were more likely than ethnic minority peers to report accurate perceptions of measured weight. At 11-13y, 46% females and 38% males did not have an accurate perception of their measured weight. The comparable figures at 14-16y were 42 and 40%. Compared with male adolescents, more females perceived themselves as overweight or were unsure of their weight but measured normal weight, and this was more pronounced among Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. At 14-16y, more males perceived themselves as underweight but measured normal weight, and this was more pronounced among Indians. Compared with those who had an accurate perception of their normal weight, a higher likelihood of probable clinically-relevant psychological symptoms was observed among those who measured normal weight but perceived themselves to be underweight (females Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.87 95% CI 1.03–3.40; males OR = 2.34 95% CI 1.47–3.71), overweight (females only OR = 2.06 95% CI 1.10–3.87), or unsure of their weight (males only OR = 1.61 95% CI 1.04–2.49). Among females, the association was driven by internalising rather than externalising symptoms. An accurate perception of overweight was associated with higher psychological symptoms in adolescence and early 20s. Ethnic specific effects were not evident. Conclusion Weight misperception may be an important determinant of psychological symptoms in young people, with an accurate perception of normal weight status being protective. Culturally targeted interventions should be considered to promote healthy perceptions of body image.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Geng Wang; Lesley Doyle;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Country: United Kingdom

    Individual academic achievement is highly valued in Chinese society, with vocational education students positioned at the bottom of the educational hierarchy and suffering considerable societal prejudice. In this paper we present new findings from the choice-making experiences of students in two vocational education colleges in China, how they are perceived by their teachers, and how, in the context of their negatively-stereotyped status, they perceive themselves. Drawing on the Marxist notion of false consciousness to help understand the agency of these students, we found that almost all perceived themselves as being agentic and having control over their destiny. They felt they only had themselves to blame for the stereotyping to which they were subjected. One student had not adopted this mindset and was critical of the exam system. We argue that the perceived agency of the majority of the students resonates strongly with the neoliberal values which are associated with responsibilisation, and which have been encouraged in China since the 1970s with the beginning of the Reform Era. The evidence from our study also suggests, however, that it is possible for young people , by their own efforts, to move away from the state of false consciousness.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Siganos, Antonios;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract This study explores the significance of academic networking when publishing on special issues. We find that in comparison to the main editors, guest editors publish more often papers that share networking with their authors. We explore several proxies that test whether this strong networking effect indicates favoritism; the number of referees used, the length of the period under review, the positioning of the connected papers in the issue, and the number of citations received after the publication. We find no evidence indicating that the guest editors offer favoritism towards their connected papers. Still, we find that guest editors select papers (connected and nonconnected) that receive relatively more citations and thus their role to develop special issues is encouraged.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    GIOIA FALCONE;
    Publisher: Parliamentary and Scientific Committee – All-Party Parliamentary Group
    Country: United Kingdom

    No abstract available.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Peter J. Uhlhaas; Frederic Roux; Wolf Singer;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: United Kingdom

    Cognitive deficits are a core dysfunction in schizophrenia. In this issue of Neuron, Parnaudeau et al. (2013) investigated synchronization in thalamocortical pathways in an animal model to address the disconnection between brain regions as a mechanism for working memory impairments in the disorder.implicated dysfunctional neural oscillations in the explanation of cognitive deficits and certain clinical symptoms of schizophrenia. Specifically, we will focus on findings that have examined neural oscillations during 1) perceptual processing, 2) working memory and executive processes and 3) spontaneous activity. The importance of the development of paradigms suitable for human and animal models is discussed as well as the search for mechanistic explanation for oscillatory dysfunctions.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abraham, S.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; +202 more
    Countries: Netherlands, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Belgium, Spain, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, France ...
    Project: NWO | Quality assured industria... (13927)

    The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO, as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the MaxPlanck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/ Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies, as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the Department of Science and Technology, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), and the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India; the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d’Innovació Universitats, Ciència i Societat Digital de la Generalitat Valenciana, and the CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain; the National Science Centre of Poland; the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF); the Russian Foundation for Basic Research; the Russian Science Foundation; the European Commission; the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF); the Royal Society; the Scottish Funding Council; the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance; the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA); the French Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO); the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS-FNRS), Actions de RechercheConcertées (ARC), and Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek—Vlaanderen (FWO), Belgium; the Paris Île-de-France Region; the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH); the National Research Foundation of Korea; Industry Canada and the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation; the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada; the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research; the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations, and Communications; the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTPSAIFR); the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong; the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC); the Leverhulme Trust; the Research Corporation; the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan; and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN, and CNRS for provision of computational resources. The gravitational-wave signal GW190521 is consistent with a binary black hole (BBH) merger source at redshift 0.8 with unusually high component masses, ${85}_{-14}^{+21}$ M⊙ and ${66}_{-18}^{+17}$ M⊙, compared to previously reported events, and shows mild evidence for spin-induced orbital precession. The primary falls in the mass gap predicted by (pulsational) pair-instability supernova theory, in the approximate range 65–120 M⊙. The probability that at least one of the black holes in GW190521 is in that range is 99.0%. The final mass of the merger (${142}_{-16}^{+28}$ M⊙) classifies it as an intermediate-mass black hole. Under the assumption of a quasi-circular BBH coalescence, we detail the physical properties of GW190521's source binary and its post-merger remnant, including component masses and spin vectors. Three different waveform models, as well as direct comparison to numerical solutions of general relativity, yield consistent estimates of these properties. Tests of strong-field general relativity targeting the merger-ringdown stages of the coalescence indicate consistency of the observed signal with theoretical predictions. We estimate the merger rate of similar systems to be ${0.13}_{-0.11}^{+0.30}\,{{\rm{Gpc}}}^{-3}\,{{\rm{yr}}}^{-1}$. We discuss the astrophysical implications of GW190521 for stellar collapse and for the possible formation of black holes in the pair-instability mass gap through various channels: via (multiple) stellar coalescences, or via hierarchical mergers of lower-mass black holes in star clusters or in active galactic nuclei. We find it to be unlikely that GW190521 is a strongly lensed signal of a lower-mass black hole binary merger. We also discuss more exotic possible sources for GW190521, including a highly eccentric black hole binary, or a primordial black hole binary. LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration: et al. arXiv:2009.01190v1 Peer reviewed

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