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  • 2013-2022
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  • “Lituanistika”, International Research Database

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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rowell, Stephen Christopher;

    In 1935 a politically active physician was exiled from his urban home in northern Italy to the countryside several hundred kilometres away. There he found himself in a world of squabbling petty gentry, overworked peasants and negligent, fornicating clergy. Ordinary people had recourse in their spiritual life more often to folklore, witchcraft and superstition, the exile noted, than to the parish church and its despised priest. The people placed their faith in gnomes and magic spells. They even said of themselves that Christianity (and hence Civilization) had never reached as far as their land. Even so those same apparent pagans did attend Mass on high holidays and venerated the Blessed Virgin Mary. The physician in question was the Italian anti-fascist Carlo Levi; the apparently God-forsaken land was Lucania (Basilicata), in southern Italy, not Lithuania. Similar stories of the remnants of ancient arcane behaviour might be told of peasants in other western European countries. When reading sixteenth-century Protestant polemical literature such as the De diis Samagitiarum caeterorumque sarmatarum et falsorum christianorum of Jan Łaski with its list of the pagan deities and of the Žemaitijans and Sarmatians and other false Christians, or the Annual Reports sent to Rome by Lithuanian Jesuits describing their missionary efforts in the Lithuanian and Livonian countryside, we might wonder whether for them Christ had stopped at the Polish border.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Baliulė, Irena;
  • Other research product . 2017
    Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Girininkaitė, Veronika;

    Straipsnyje aptartas emocijų verbalizavimas daugiakalbių asmenų diskurse. Straipsnio pradžioje apžvelgiami kai kurie kalbininkų tyrimai, skirti pažinti emocijų ir kalbos sąryšius. Remiantis tais tyrimais pastebėta, kad kiekvienoje etninėje kalboje emocijų įvardijimai gali būti netikslūs, be to, emocijų įvardijimai įvairiose kalbose dažniausiai nėra tapatūs. Tai gali sudaryti nepatogumų dvikalbiams, kurie bando savo jausmus, emocijas išreikšti negimtosios kalbos priemonėmis. Vėliau pereinama prie atvejo analizės. Nagrinėti pavyzdžiai iš XX a. pr. egodokumento, Dienoraščio (1904-1910) rankraščio, kurį kelioms kalbomis rašė studentas Vytautas Civinskis. Didžioji Dienoraščio dalis parašyta lenkų, rusų, lietuvių kalbomis. Kurį laiką studijavęs psichologiją, Civinskis susidomėjo savo emocijų sekimu ir klasifikavimu. Pateikti pavyzdžiai parodė, kad rašydamas apie savo emocijas, dienoraštininkas pavartodavo įvairių kalbų leksiką (lenkų, rusų, lietuvių, prancūzų, vokiečių). Dažnai emociją įvardijantis žodis nesutapo su sakinio kalba. Manoma, kad jis nevertė leksemų, esančių idiominių frazeologizmų sudėtyje, ir tais atvejais, kai emocija kurioje nors kalboje įvardijama ypatingai raiškiai (salient). Taip pat buvo pastebėtas individualus dienoraštininko polinkis cituoti literatūrinės ir kitokios kilmės tekstus. Savo jauseną Civinskis kartais apibūdindavo ir žinomo eilėraščio ar dainos eilute. Įvardydamas savo emocijas, Civinskis buvo linkęs kaitalioti kodą (kalbą). Tai atitinka dvikalbystės tyrėjų eksperimentų duomenis. Atvejo analizė taip pat parodė, kad tirdami tokį specifinį reiškinį, kaip keliakalbių asmenų emocijų verbalizavimas, turėtume įvertinti ir papildomus leksikos junglumo, semantikos, psichologijos duomenis. The article aims to discuss the verbalisation of emotions in the discourse of a multilingual person. First, an overview of linguistic investigation in the field of emotions is presented. Notably, linguistic expression of feelings in every given language sometimes lacks precision; moreover, the names of emotions in various languages do not correspond. This poses some problems for multilinguals who try to express their emotions in L2. Later, the paper focuses on a case study, mainly on a series of examples from the manuscript of Diary (1904–1910), an egodocument from the beginning of the 20thcentury written by a multilingual student Vytautas Civinskis. The Diary was written mainly in Polish, Russian and Lithuanian. Civinskis was inspired to classify his own emotions by his studies in psychology. The examples show that while writing about his emotions the diarist makes use of lexical units from various languages (Polish, Russian, German, French, Lithuanian), often not matching the language of the sentence. Presumably, he chooses not to translate the words incorporated in idioms or collocations and avoids translating the names of emotions, which are especially salient in some given language. The diarist is keen to quote the texts of literary and other origin; therefore, he sometimes names his emotion after the line of a wellknown poem or a song (such quotations are also kept in the original). The observed tendency to code-switch while talking about emotions corresponds to the results of some experiments carried out by the researchers of bilingualism. The case study also shows that research into emotion names in the discourse of multilinguals should rely on the results of research from the fields of lexical valency, semantics and psychology.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Burvytė, Sigita;

    Gyvenimo kokybė, arba gerovė, dažnai apibrėžiama ne tik kaip gera žmogaus emocinė būsena, bet ir adekvatus jo socialinis statusas visuomenėje, fizinė aplinka. Gyvenimo kokybė įvairiais aspektais analizuota užsienio mokslininkų straipsniuose, disertacijose (Campbell, Converse ir Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 ir kt.). Tačiau skirtingi autoriai įvairiai interpretuoja gyvenimo kokybę ir vis dar trūksta šios temos teorinio pagrindimo. Mokslinėje literatūroje iki šiol nėra pateikta vienareikšmiškos gyvenimo kokybės sampratos, nesutariama dėl gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo, metodologijos, pateikiami skirtingi vertinimo rodikliai. Iki šiol nėra vieno atsakymo į klausimą, kokie yra gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo komponentai bei sritys. Problema – žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajų vertinimo socialiniu aspektu tyrimų stoka. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajas socialiniu aspektu, remiantis tyrimo rezultatais. Life quality is defined not only as a good emotional condition of a person, but also as his/her adequate social status in the society and physical environment. Different aspects of life quality are analysed by a number of scholars (Campbell, Converse, & Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 and others). Lithuanian authors also pay attention to the conception of life quality (Bagdonienė, 2000), links link the life quality and regional competition (Černiūtė, 2001), analyse the influence of human health on life quality (Rėklaitienė & Juozulynas, 2003; Jatulienė, Čepienė, Kalibatas, & Juozulynas, 2003), as well as conduct research on youth life quality (Bartkutė, 2005), children’s socialisation and adult life quality (Kvieskienė & Kvieska, 2012). Scholarly literature does not provide a single conception of life quality; there is a disagreement regarding the assessment methodology of life quality; as well as different assessment criteria are presented. There is no unanimous answer to the question what components and areas of life quality assessment are. The problem is that a more exhaustive social research on the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences has not been conducted yet. The aim of the research is to present the links between human life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint on the basis of the research results. The following objectives are posed for the attainment of the aim: 1. To make a theoretical review of the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint; 2. To reveal the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint. The following methods of data collection were applied: scientific literature analysis and interview. The methods of data analysis included open-ended questions used in the interview. The answers were analysed employing content analysis. The research results demonstrated that self-assessment of the quality of social life is related to childhood experiences in the social sphere. Childhood experiences are associated with other persons, which directly determines the development of social skills and life quality experiences in social sphere.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Jokūbaitė, Rasa;

    Straipsnyje analizuojami veiksniai, didinantys ir mažinantys rizikingo elgesio raišką internete. Skiriami vidiniai ir aplinkos veiksniai, skatinantys tokį elgesį. Vidiniai veiksniai struktūruojami individualiu lygmeniu, kuriame skiriama amžiaus ypatumų, asmenybės savybių ir elgesio problemų reikšmė rizikingo elgesio raiškai internete. Aplinkos įtaka – taip pat svarbus veiksnys paauglio rizikingam elgesiui internete. Aplinkos veiksniai struktūruojami šeimos, bendraamžių, mokyklos lygmenimis. Šeimos santykių kokybė, šeimos sudėtis, materialinė padėtis gali tapti rizikingo elgesio internete veiksniu. Reikšmingą vaidmenį paauglystėje atlieka neigiama bendraamžių įtaka, patiriama socialinė atskirtis gali būti susijusi su paauglių polinkiu į rizikingą veiklą internete. Psichologiniai ir socialiniai mokyklos aspektai, akademiniai rezultatai, savirealizacijos galimybės mokyklos veikloje išskiriami kaip tokio elgesio veiksniai. Paauglių rizikingo elgesio internete veiksnių analizė atskleidė, kad svarbu ieškoti teoriškai pagrįstų ir praktiškai patikrintų paauglių saugumą virtualioje erdvėje užtikrinančių būdų. Today’s technological advance and rapid development provide teenagers with a lot of opportunities for learning, free time and self-expression. Main factors encouraging teenagers’ risky behavior online are distinguished into internal and environmental. Internal factors are structured in accordance to the individual level, which distinguishes the significance of age characteristics, personal features and behavior problems in regard to the expression of risky actions on the internet. Environmental influence is an important factor in point of risky actions of teenagers on the internet as well. Environmental factors are structured into the levels of family, peers and school. Quality of family relations, family context and circumstance may become a factor of risky behavior online. Negative influence of peers plays a significant role during the adolescence. Social isolation experienced among peers may have coherence with teenagers’ tendency to the risky behavior online. Psychological and social school aspects, academic achievements and self-realization opportunities through school work are also distinguished as factors of such behavior. Analysis of teenagers’ risky behavior online showed that it is important to look for theoretically grounded and practically checked ways of ensuring teenagers’ safety in virtual reality.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Mozūraitis, Giedrius;

    Paciento privataus gyvenimo neliečiamumą saugo tarptautiniai ir nacionaliniai teisės aktai, tačiau neretai paciento sveikatos informacija turi būti atskleista valstybės institucijoms. Straipsnyje atskleidžiama Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucinio Teismo jurisprudencija pacientų privataus gyvenimo neliečiamumo srityje. Remiantis teisės aktais, Konstitucinio Teismo, Europos Žmogaus Teisių Teismo praktika, teisės doktrina analizuojami valstybės institucijų teisės gauti paciento konfidencialią informaciją teisiniai pagrindai, formos, informacijos teikimo procedūra. Pateikiama atvejų analizė, kuomet asmens sveikatos priežiūros įstaigos negali valstybės institucijoms teikti paciento konfidencialią informaciją. The private life of a patient is protected by international and national legal acts, however, often the information on a patient’s health must be revealed to state institutions. The article reveals the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania in the field of the immunity of patients’ private life. Basing on legal acts, the practice of the Constitutional Court and the European Court of Human Rights, the doctrine of law, the basis of state institutions’ right to obtain confidential information on patients were analyzed as well as the forms and procedure of the provision of information. The analysis of cases is provided when health care institutions cannot provide confidential information on patients to state institutions. A conclusion is drawn that the state’s duty to ensure the protection of human dignity and security also means that state institutions and officers may not restrict human rights and liberties unfoundedly. In each case, a human being must be considered as a free person, whose dignity should be respected. State institutions and officers have the duty to respect human dignity as especial value. Violation of a person’s rights and liberties may violate a person’s dignity as well.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Tereškinas, Artūras;

    Analizuojant pusiau struktūruotus interviu su jaunais bedarbiais vyrais1 siekiama parodyti, kaip, viena vertus, buvimas bedarbiu vyru skatina socialinę atskirtį ir izoliaciją, kita vertus, kaip prisirišimas prie normatyvinio vyriškumo veikia jų atskirties mastą ir intensyvumą. Pagal savo požiūrį į vyriškumą, darbo vaidmenį ir šeiminio gyvenimo supratimą 18 tyrime dalyvavusių vyrų suskirstyti į dvi grupes. Pirmoji didžiausia grupė, sąlygiškai pavadinta „toksiškai normatyvūs vyrai“, buvo aistringai prisirišusi prie hegemoninio vyriškumo normos. Būti vyru jiems reiškė pirmiausia būti šeimos maitintoju, dirbančiu subjektu, kurio ekonominė sėkmė lemia ir pasitenkinimą asmeniniais santykiais. Šiems vyrams svarbiausia buvo išlikti ištikimiems vyriškumo versijai, kuri leidžia palaikyti orumo ir pripažinimo iliuziją. Antroji informantų grupė, pavadinta „akligatvio vyrais“, kurių dauguma turėjo tik vidurinį išsilavinimą ir atsitiktinio nelegalaus darbo patirtį, nelaikė šeimos maitintojo vaidmens ir darbo savo vyriškos tapatybės dominante. Šiems vyrams darbas – tik vartojimo poreikių patenkinimo garantas, todėl jie nekūrė aiškesnių strategijų, kurios remtųsi pripažinimo troškimu. Nors ir dalyvaudami galios, kuri vienus vyriškus subjektus padaro vertingus, o kitus nuvertina, lauke, šie vyrai savo abejingumu apmokamu darbu paremtai tapatybei iš dalies kvestionavo vyraujančias lyčių normas. Paradoksalu, kad dėl savo beatodairiško prisirišimo prie normatyvinio vyriškumo pirmosios grupės informantai artikuliavo stipresnį socialinės atskirties pojūtį negu „akligatvio vyrai“. The article focuses on the relationship between young unemployed men’s social exclusion, recognition and gender normativity. It argues that the desire for recognition is crucial in self-construction of male subjects. In order to become “real” men, they must be recognized as effective and viable subjects defined by the norm of employment and work. According to their attitudes towards masculinity, work and family, two groups of respondents were distinguished. The first biggest group called “men of toxic normativity” was passionately attached to the norm of hegemonic masculinity that enabled them to sustain the illusion of both respectability and recognition. However, this attachment negatively affected their lives and deepened their sense of social exclusion and isolation despite the fact that the majority were university-educated and had well-developed networks of social support. The second group of the respondents called “impasse men” largely comprised of men with high school education and the experience of illegal temporary jobs did not regard work and breadwinner role as an essence of their male identity. They thought of work as merely a means of satisfying their consumer needs. Furthermore, these men did not construct any specific strategies of future employment. Paradoxically, their negligent attitude towards work and recognition enabled them to live a carefree life that resisted the overpowering norm of hegemonic masculinity and instead relied on dreaming about the uncertain future as a way of everyday survival. The research results suggest that by analyzing a complex relation between masculinity, recognition, normativity and social exclusion, it is necessary to rethink what kind of male subjects are recognized as valuable in specific social fields and how their (mis) recognition can deconstruct the established gender norms that affect men’s experiences of social exclusion and isolation.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Krutulienė, Sandra;

    The article analyses political, cultural and social participation of adults with epilepsy. Research goal: to assess peculiarities of participation and its factors among adults with epilepsy. This article is based on the findings of the survey of 220 adults with epilepsy aged 18–85 years old. Secondary data analysis of departmental (state) statistics is also applied in the article, which enables to compare the participation trends of the people with epilepsy to Lithuanian population participation in political, social and cultural activities. The research results reveal that every fourth respondent tends to be politically inactive and only every tenth respondent tends to be very politically active. More than 80 percent of adults with epilepsy do not participate in social activities (the extent to which people with epilepsy participate in formal and informal organizations is an indicator of social participation in our study). The survey demonstrates low participation rates in cultural activities, especially in those requiring financial expenditures, e.g. ballet, concert, cinema or theatre. The research results disclose low participation rates in social and cultural activities of adults with epilepsy though political participation rate is higher. Personal choice or lack of interest is a major cause of their inactivity in political, social and cultural activities. Almost every second of the political inactive adult with epilepsy is apolitical. Most of people with epilepsy who are not involved in activities of nonprofit organizations do not want to belong to any organization. The data analysis makes it possible to conclude that the disease factors (characteristics of epilepsy) do not affect political, social or cultural participation strongly. Only comorbid medical conditions impact significantly on lower social participation of people with epilepsy. The results of the research show that the impact of personal factors such as age and education on the political, social and cultural participation among people with epilepsy is strong. Stigma of epilepsy and emotional state of people with epilepsy also appear to be significant factors restricting successful participation in political, social and cultural activities too.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tvaronavičienė, Manuela; Grybaitė, Virginija; Tunčikienė, Živilė;
  • Open Access Polish
    Authors: 
    Stopka, Krzysztof;

    Armenians living in Kingdom of Poland and Great Duchy of Lithuania were mostly burghers, however, cases of social advancement were noted on Ruthenian territory officially belonging to the Crown. Initially, the advancement was possible only for royal court-based Armenian translators, but later also for those with merits for the country’s defence. Another way to advance socially was to marry a Polish nobleman. In such marriages religious differences rarely posed a serious problem; generally, females did not need to convert from their Christian Armenian denomination. Nevertheless, ennoblement was rarely attractive for Polish Armenians at that time; trade and other typically burgher activities brought more profit than the landownership privilege. For this reason ennobled men and their descendants often took on those activities anyway and pleaded their noble status only to escape inconvenient legal consequences or town court. A few Polish noble families of Armenian origin are dated back to that time: the Tyszkiewicz, the Siekierzyński, the Balicki, the Zwartowski, the Sołtanowicz-Chalepsk, the Lenkowicz-Ipohorski, the Iwaszkiewicz, the Makarowicz, the Domażyrski, the Pleszkowski.

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16,345 Research products, page 1 of 1,635
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rowell, Stephen Christopher;

    In 1935 a politically active physician was exiled from his urban home in northern Italy to the countryside several hundred kilometres away. There he found himself in a world of squabbling petty gentry, overworked peasants and negligent, fornicating clergy. Ordinary people had recourse in their spiritual life more often to folklore, witchcraft and superstition, the exile noted, than to the parish church and its despised priest. The people placed their faith in gnomes and magic spells. They even said of themselves that Christianity (and hence Civilization) had never reached as far as their land. Even so those same apparent pagans did attend Mass on high holidays and venerated the Blessed Virgin Mary. The physician in question was the Italian anti-fascist Carlo Levi; the apparently God-forsaken land was Lucania (Basilicata), in southern Italy, not Lithuania. Similar stories of the remnants of ancient arcane behaviour might be told of peasants in other western European countries. When reading sixteenth-century Protestant polemical literature such as the De diis Samagitiarum caeterorumque sarmatarum et falsorum christianorum of Jan Łaski with its list of the pagan deities and of the Žemaitijans and Sarmatians and other false Christians, or the Annual Reports sent to Rome by Lithuanian Jesuits describing their missionary efforts in the Lithuanian and Livonian countryside, we might wonder whether for them Christ had stopped at the Polish border.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Baliulė, Irena;
  • Other research product . 2017
    Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Girininkaitė, Veronika;

    Straipsnyje aptartas emocijų verbalizavimas daugiakalbių asmenų diskurse. Straipsnio pradžioje apžvelgiami kai kurie kalbininkų tyrimai, skirti pažinti emocijų ir kalbos sąryšius. Remiantis tais tyrimais pastebėta, kad kiekvienoje etninėje kalboje emocijų įvardijimai gali būti netikslūs, be to, emocijų įvardijimai įvairiose kalbose dažniausiai nėra tapatūs. Tai gali sudaryti nepatogumų dvikalbiams, kurie bando savo jausmus, emocijas išreikšti negimtosios kalbos priemonėmis. Vėliau pereinama prie atvejo analizės. Nagrinėti pavyzdžiai iš XX a. pr. egodokumento, Dienoraščio (1904-1910) rankraščio, kurį kelioms kalbomis rašė studentas Vytautas Civinskis. Didžioji Dienoraščio dalis parašyta lenkų, rusų, lietuvių kalbomis. Kurį laiką studijavęs psichologiją, Civinskis susidomėjo savo emocijų sekimu ir klasifikavimu. Pateikti pavyzdžiai parodė, kad rašydamas apie savo emocijas, dienoraštininkas pavartodavo įvairių kalbų leksiką (lenkų, rusų, lietuvių, prancūzų, vokiečių). Dažnai emociją įvardijantis žodis nesutapo su sakinio kalba. Manoma, kad jis nevertė leksemų, esančių idiominių frazeologizmų sudėtyje, ir tais atvejais, kai emocija kurioje nors kalboje įvardijama ypatingai raiškiai (salient). Taip pat buvo pastebėtas individualus dienoraštininko polinkis cituoti literatūrinės ir kitokios kilmės tekstus. Savo jauseną Civinskis kartais apibūdindavo ir žinomo eilėraščio ar dainos eilute. Įvardydamas savo emocijas, Civinskis buvo linkęs kaitalioti kodą (kalbą). Tai atitinka dvikalbystės tyrėjų eksperimentų duomenis. Atvejo analizė taip pat parodė, kad tirdami tokį specifinį reiškinį, kaip keliakalbių asmenų emocijų verbalizavimas, turėtume įvertinti ir papildomus leksikos junglumo, semantikos, psichologijos duomenis. The article aims to discuss the verbalisation of emotions in the discourse of a multilingual person. First, an overview of linguistic investigation in the field of emotions is presented. Notably, linguistic expression of feelings in every given language sometimes lacks precision; moreover, the names of emotions in various languages do not correspond. This poses some problems for multilinguals who try to express their emotions in L2. Later, the paper focuses on a case study, mainly on a series of examples from the manuscript of Diary (1904–1910), an egodocument from the beginning of the 20thcentury written by a multilingual student Vytautas Civinskis. The Diary was written mainly in Polish, Russian and Lithuanian. Civinskis was inspired to classify his own emotions by his studies in psychology. The examples show that while writing about his emotions the diarist makes use of lexical units from various languages (Polish, Russian, German, French, Lithuanian), often not matching the language of the sentence. Presumably, he chooses not to translate the words incorporated in idioms or collocations and avoids translating the names of emotions, which are especially salient in some given language. The diarist is keen to quote the texts of literary and other origin; therefore, he sometimes names his emotion after the line of a wellknown poem or a song (such quotations are also kept in the original). The observed tendency to code-switch while talking about emotions corresponds to the results of some experiments carried out by the researchers of bilingualism. The case study also shows that research into emotion names in the discourse of multilinguals should rely on the results of research from the fields of lexical valency, semantics and psychology.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Burvytė, Sigita;

    Gyvenimo kokybė, arba gerovė, dažnai apibrėžiama ne tik kaip gera žmogaus emocinė būsena, bet ir adekvatus jo socialinis statusas visuomenėje, fizinė aplinka. Gyvenimo kokybė įvairiais aspektais analizuota užsienio mokslininkų straipsniuose, disertacijose (Campbell, Converse ir Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 ir kt.). Tačiau skirtingi autoriai įvairiai interpretuoja gyvenimo kokybę ir vis dar trūksta šios temos teorinio pagrindimo. Mokslinėje literatūroje iki šiol nėra pateikta vienareikšmiškos gyvenimo kokybės sampratos, nesutariama dėl gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo, metodologijos, pateikiami skirtingi vertinimo rodikliai. Iki šiol nėra vieno atsakymo į klausimą, kokie yra gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo komponentai bei sritys. Problema – žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajų vertinimo socialiniu aspektu tyrimų stoka. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajas socialiniu aspektu, remiantis tyrimo rezultatais. Life quality is defined not only as a good emotional condition of a person, but also as his/her adequate social status in the society and physical environment. Different aspects of life quality are analysed by a number of scholars (Campbell, Converse, & Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 and others). Lithuanian authors also pay attention to the conception of life quality (Bagdonienė, 2000), links link the life quality and regional competition (Černiūtė, 2001), analyse the influence of human health on life quality (Rėklaitienė & Juozulynas, 2003; Jatulienė, Čepienė, Kalibatas, & Juozulynas, 2003), as well as conduct research on youth life quality (Bartkutė, 2005), children’s socialisation and adult life quality (Kvieskienė & Kvieska, 2012). Scholarly literature does not provide a single conception of life quality; there is a disagreement regarding the assessment methodology of life quality; as well as different assessment criteria are presented. There is no unanimous answer to the question what components and areas of life quality assessment are. The problem is that a more exhaustive social research on the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences has not been conducted yet. The aim of the research is to present the links between human life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint on the basis of the research results. The following objectives are posed for the attainment of the aim: 1. To make a theoretical review of the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint; 2. To reveal the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint. The following methods of data collection were applied: scientific literature analysis and interview. The methods of data analysis included open-ended questions used in the interview. The answers were analysed employing content analysis. The research results demonstrated that self-assessment of the quality of social life is related to childhood experiences in the social sphere. Childhood experiences are associated with other persons, which directly determines the development of social skills and life quality experiences in social sphere.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Jokūbaitė, Rasa;

    Straipsnyje analizuojami veiksniai, didinantys ir mažinantys rizikingo elgesio raišką internete. Skiriami vidiniai ir aplinkos veiksniai, skatinantys tokį elgesį. Vidiniai veiksniai struktūruojami individualiu lygmeniu, kuriame skiriama amžiaus ypatumų, asmenybės savybių ir elgesio problemų reikšmė rizikingo elgesio raiškai internete. Aplinkos įtaka – taip pat svarbus veiksnys paauglio rizikingam elgesiui internete. Aplinkos veiksniai struktūruojami šeimos, bendraamžių, mokyklos lygmenimis. Šeimos santykių kokybė, šeimos sudėtis, materialinė padėtis gali tapti rizikingo elgesio internete veiksniu. Reikšmingą vaidmenį paauglystėje atlieka neigiama bendraamžių įtaka, patiriama socialinė atskirtis gali būti susijusi su paauglių polinkiu į rizikingą veiklą internete. Psichologiniai ir socialiniai mokyklos aspektai, akademiniai rezultatai, savirealizacijos galimybės mokyklos veikloje išskiriami kaip tokio elgesio veiksniai. Paauglių rizikingo elgesio internete veiksnių analizė atskleidė, kad svarbu ieškoti teoriškai pagrįstų ir praktiškai patikrintų paauglių saugumą virtualioje erdvėje užtikrinančių būdų. Today’s technological advance and rapid development provide teenagers with a lot of opportunities for learning, free time and self-expression. Main factors encouraging teenagers’ risky behavior online are distinguished into internal and environmental. Internal factors are structured in accordance to the individual level, which distinguishes the significance of age characteristics, personal features and behavior problems in regard to the expression of risky actions on the internet. Environmental influence is an important factor in point of risky actions of teenagers on the internet as well. Environmental factors are structured into the levels of family, peers and school. Quality of family relations, family context and circumstance may become a factor of risky behavior online. Negative influence of peers plays a significant role during the adolescence. Social isolation experienced among peers may have coherence with teenagers’ tendency to the risky behavior online. Psychological and social school aspects, academic achievements and self-realization opportunities through school work are also distinguished as factors of such behavior. Analysis of teenagers’ risky behavior online showed that it is important to look for theoretically grounded and practically checked ways of ensuring teenagers’ safety in virtual reality.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Mozūraitis, Giedrius;

    Paciento privataus gyvenimo neliečiamumą saugo tarptautiniai ir nacionaliniai teisės aktai, tačiau neretai paciento sveikatos informacija turi būti atskleista valstybės institucijoms. Straipsnyje atskleidžiama Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucinio Teismo jurisprudencija pacientų privataus gyvenimo neliečiamumo srityje. Remiantis teisės aktais, Konstitucinio Teismo, Europos Žmogaus Teisių Teismo praktika, teisės doktrina analizuojami valstybės institucijų teisės gauti paciento konfidencialią informaciją teisiniai pagrindai, formos, informacijos teikimo procedūra. Pateikiama atvejų analizė, kuomet asmens sveikatos priežiūros įstaigos negali valstybės institucijoms teikti paciento konfidencialią informaciją. The private life of a patient is protected by international and national legal acts, however, often the information on a patient’s health must be revealed to state institutions. The article reveals the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania in the field of the immunity of patients’ private life. Basing on legal acts, the practice of the Constitutional Court and the European Court of Human Rights, the doctrine of law, the basis of state institutions’ right to obtain confidential information on patients were analyzed as well as the forms and procedure of the provision of information. The analysis of cases is provided when health care institutions cannot provide confidential information on patients to state institutions. A conclusion is drawn that the state’s duty to ensure the protection of human dignity and security also means that state institutions and officers may not restrict human rights and liberties unfoundedly. In each case, a human being must be considered as a free person, whose dignity should be respected. State institutions and officers have the duty to respect human dignity as especial value. Violation of a person’s rights and liberties may violate a person’s dignity as well.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Tereškinas, Artūras;

    Analizuojant pusiau struktūruotus interviu su jaunais bedarbiais vyrais1 siekiama parodyti, kaip, viena vertus, buvimas bedarbiu vyru skatina socialinę atskirtį ir izoliaciją, kita vertus, kaip prisirišimas prie normatyvinio vyriškumo veikia jų atskirties mastą ir intensyvumą. Pagal savo požiūrį į vyriškumą, darbo vaidmenį ir šeiminio gyvenimo supratimą 18 tyrime dalyvavusių vyrų suskirstyti į dvi grupes. Pirmoji didžiausia grupė, sąlygiškai pavadinta „toksiškai normatyvūs vyrai“, buvo aistringai prisirišusi prie hegemoninio vyriškumo normos. Būti vyru jiems reiškė pirmiausia būti šeimos maitintoju, dirbančiu subjektu, kurio ekonominė sėkmė lemia ir pasitenkinimą asmeniniais santykiais. Šiems vyrams svarbiausia buvo išlikti ištikimiems vyriškumo versijai, kuri leidžia palaikyti orumo ir pripažinimo iliuziją. Antroji informantų grupė, pavadinta „akligatvio vyrais“, kurių dauguma turėjo tik vidurinį išsilavinimą ir atsitiktinio nelegalaus darbo patirtį, nelaikė šeimos maitintojo vaidmens ir darbo savo vyriškos tapatybės dominante. Šiems vyrams darbas – tik vartojimo poreikių patenkinimo garantas, todėl jie nekūrė aiškesnių strategijų, kurios remtųsi pripažinimo troškimu. Nors ir dalyvaudami galios, kuri vienus vyriškus subjektus padaro vertingus, o kitus nuvertina, lauke, šie vyrai savo abejingumu apmokamu darbu paremtai tapatybei iš dalies kvestionavo vyraujančias lyčių normas. Paradoksalu, kad dėl savo beatodairiško prisirišimo prie normatyvinio vyriškumo pirmosios grupės informantai artikuliavo stipresnį socialinės atskirties pojūtį negu „akligatvio vyrai“. The article focuses on the relationship between young unemployed men’s social exclusion, recognition and gender normativity. It argues that the desire for recognition is crucial in self-construction of male subjects. In order to become “real” men, they must be recognized as effective and viable subjects defined by the norm of employment and work. According to their attitudes towards masculinity, work and family, two groups of respondents were distinguished. The first biggest group called “men of toxic normativity” was passionately attached to the norm of hegemonic masculinity that enabled them to sustain the illusion of both respectability and recognition. However, this attachment negatively affected their lives and deepened their sense of social exclusion and isolation despite the fact that the majority were university-educated and had well-developed networks of social support. The second group of the respondents called “impasse men” largely comprised of men with high school education and the experience of illegal temporary jobs did not regard work and breadwinner role as an essence of their male identity. They thought of work as merely a means of satisfying their consumer needs. Furthermore, these men did not construct any specific strategies of future employment. Paradoxically, their negligent attitude towards work and recognition enabled them to live a carefree life that resisted the overpowering norm of hegemonic masculinity and instead relied on dreaming about the uncertain future as a way of everyday survival. The research results suggest that by analyzing a complex relation between masculinity, recognition, normativity and social exclusion, it is necessary to rethink what kind of male subjects are recognized as valuable in specific social fields and how their (mis) recognition can deconstruct the established gender norms that affect men’s experiences of social exclusion and isolation.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Krutulienė, Sandra;

    The article analyses political, cultural and social participation of adults with epilepsy. Research goal: to assess peculiarities of participation and its factors among adults with epilepsy. This article is based on the findings of the survey of 220 adults with epilepsy aged 18–85 years old. Secondary data analysis of departmental (state) statistics is also applied in the article, which enables to compare the participation trends of the people with epilepsy to Lithuanian population participation in political, social and cultural activities. The research results reveal that every fourth respondent tends to be politically inactive and only every tenth respondent tends to be very politically active. More than 80 percent of adults with epilepsy do not participate in social activities (the extent to which people with epilepsy participate in formal and informal organizations is an indicator of social participation in our study). The survey demonstrates low participation rates in cultural activities, especially in those requiring financial expenditures, e.g. ballet, concert, cinema or theatre. The research results disclose low participation rates in social and cultural activities of adults with epilepsy though political participation rate is higher. Personal choice or lack of interest is a major cause of their inactivity in political, social and cultural activities. Almost every second of the political inactive adult with epilepsy is apolitical. Most of people with epilepsy who are not involved in activities of nonprofit organizations do not want to belong to any organization. The data analysis makes it possible to conclude that the disease factors (characteristics of epilepsy) do not affect political, social or cultural participation strongly. Only comorbid medical conditions impact significantly on lower social participation of people with epilepsy. The results of the research show that the impact of personal factors such as age and education on the political, social and cultural participation among people with epilepsy is strong. Stigma of epilepsy and emotional state of people with epilepsy also appear to be significant factors restricting successful participation in political, social and cultural activities too.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tvaronavičienė, Manuela; Grybaitė, Virginija; Tunčikienė, Živilė;
  • Open Access Polish
    Authors: 
    Stopka, Krzysztof;

    Armenians living in Kingdom of Poland and Great Duchy of Lithuania were mostly burghers, however, cases of social advancement were noted on Ruthenian territory officially belonging to the Crown. Initially, the advancement was possible only for royal court-based Armenian translators, but later also for those with merits for the country’s defence. Another way to advance socially was to marry a Polish nobleman. In such marriages religious differences rarely posed a serious problem; generally, females did not need to convert from their Christian Armenian denomination. Nevertheless, ennoblement was rarely attractive for Polish Armenians at that time; trade and other typically burgher activities brought more profit than the landownership privilege. For this reason ennobled men and their descendants often took on those activities anyway and pleaded their noble status only to escape inconvenient legal consequences or town court. A few Polish noble families of Armenian origin are dated back to that time: the Tyszkiewicz, the Siekierzyński, the Balicki, the Zwartowski, the Sołtanowicz-Chalepsk, the Lenkowicz-Ipohorski, the Iwaszkiewicz, the Makarowicz, the Domażyrski, the Pleszkowski.

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