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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rowell, Stephen Christopher;

    In 1935 a politically active physician was exiled from his urban home in northern Italy to the countryside several hundred kilometres away. There he found himself in a world of squabbling petty gentry, overworked peasants and negligent, fornicating clergy. Ordinary people had recourse in their spiritual life more often to folklore, witchcraft and superstition, the exile noted, than to the parish church and its despised priest. The people placed their faith in gnomes and magic spells. They even said of themselves that Christianity (and hence Civilization) had never reached as far as their land. Even so those same apparent pagans did attend Mass on high holidays and venerated the Blessed Virgin Mary. The physician in question was the Italian anti-fascist Carlo Levi; the apparently God-forsaken land was Lucania (Basilicata), in southern Italy, not Lithuania. Similar stories of the remnants of ancient arcane behaviour might be told of peasants in other western European countries. When reading sixteenth-century Protestant polemical literature such as the De diis Samagitiarum caeterorumque sarmatarum et falsorum christianorum of Jan Łaski with its list of the pagan deities and of the Žemaitijans and Sarmatians and other false Christians, or the Annual Reports sent to Rome by Lithuanian Jesuits describing their missionary efforts in the Lithuanian and Livonian countryside, we might wonder whether for them Christ had stopped at the Polish border.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Andriulis, Vytautas;

    The research of the 16th c. Lithuanian cultural heritage points out many prominent personalities of that time, who very actively and positively acted in the state, political and social life. Pedro Ruiz de Moros was one of these personalities. He was directly involved in the improvement of one of the major monuments of the Lithuanian law, i.e. the First Lithuanian Statute (1529), and contributed to the process of editing and compiling the Second Lithuanian Statute (1566), establishing in it new legal norms demonstrating transposition of the world outlook propagated by the Renaissance, which was characteristic of almost the entire Western Europe. The author presents the main facts from the biography of Pedro Ruiz de Moros, his relations with the contemporary prominent figures, as well as his contribution to the culture, law and social life of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL). The publication also overviews the studies carried out by different authors as well as conclusions related to the public life of Pedro Ruiz de Moros. The author widely describes “Decisiones Lituanicae” [The Lithuanian Decisions] – one of the most significant works of Pedro Ruiz de Moros, analyses its significance for the further development of law in the state as well as the attention paid to this work by authors and researchers in later periods. The paper attempts to reveal the reasons for the appearance of this work as well as the motives and intentions of Pedro Ruiz de Moros. The translation of this work into Lithuanian would create the conditions for researchers to learn new facts about the dissemination of the connections of the old State of Lithuania with Western European culture, its status, and would become an accessible source for deeper knowledge of the nation’s history.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Komskienė, Diana; Čingienė, Vilma; Jacikaitė, Evelina;

    Kiekvienos šalies sporto sistemos sukuriamas ir teikiamas paslaugas galima būtų priskirti valstybiniamviešajam, nevyriausybiniam ir privačiam sektoriui. Mažai turima informacijos apie jų veiklą, finansavimo šaltinius ir tikslų realizavimo patirtį. Šiame straipsnyje nagrinėjama nevyriausybinių vaikų ir jaunimo sporto organizacijų finansavimo galimybių panaudojimo patirtis. Atliktas interviu su trijų, didžiausias pajamas sukaupiančių Lietuvos sporto organizacijų vadovais. Visos nevyriausybinės sporto organizacijos turi viešosios įstaigos juridinį statusą ir teikia populiariausių šalyje sporto šakų paslaugas: dvi atstovauja krepšiniui, trečia - futbolui. Bendras sportuojančių vaikus skaičius yra didesnis nei 2000 (LSIC, 2009), arba 4,5 proc. nuo bendro užimtų vaikų irjaunimo skaičiaus valstybinėse sporto mokymo įstaigose. Nevyriausybinių vaikų ir jaunimo sporto organizacijų finansavimo galimybės yra nario mokestis, fondai, komercinė veikla, rėmėjai, valstybės lėšos, 2 proc. nuo gyventojų pajamų mokesčio, projektai pagal tarptautines ir nacionalines programas ir kt. Pastaruoju metu didžiausią organizacijų biudžeto dalį sudaro nario mokesčiai ir verslo įmonių parama. Organizacijos daugiau lėšų galėtų sukaupti tikslingai vystydamos komercinę veiklą, aktyviau dalyvaudamos teikiant projektus šalies ir tarptautiniams fondams, įsitraukdamos į valstybės inicijuotas bendruomenines programas. Gaunamų pajamų panaudojimo racionalumas ir finansavimo galimybių plėtros perspektyva yra organizacijų vidinės brandos ir išorinės aplinkos sąveikos rezultatas. This article focuses on the experience of financial possibilities of non-governmental children and youth sport organizations. An interview was used with the heads of three biggest Lithuanian non-governmental sport organizations. The result of the investigation has shown that the respondents have a clear enough understanding of the concept of non-governmental organizations. However, most of the respondents emphasize sources of financing rather than tasks and activities of the organization. On the another hand, society is lacking knowledge about activities of non-governmental organizations due to the opinion that engagement of children and youth deals only on private initiative. An adequate point of view and responsibility for young generation development are not enough as well. Some respondents said that private initiative is dominating, and it is due to passive behaviour of the State, lack of its initiative. It was also highlighted that States effective social policy is important for the development of private philanthropic initiative. According to the respondents' opinion, society has limited view on these organizations, there is not enough relationship based on communication and cooperation. Having generalized theory and experience in foreign countries it became clear that children and youth non-governmental organizations can be financed from: membership/participation fee, sponsors, State budget, commercial activities, 2% income tax, international and national programs and projects, charity funds, other. The investigation showed that financing comes from the same sources in all three organizations and only a weighted percentage is wearying. It was noticed that all respondents mentioned sharp changes in the sources of financing. Research results show that income is generated using different financial sources where membership/participation fees and sponsors are the main ones. Discussions with the respondents led to the opinion that all of them have a quite narrow understanding of commercial activities i.e. main attention is drawn rent of premises, organization of events or camps. However, other possibilities, such as licensing, sales of merchandize, etc. were forgotten. None of the respondents could point main factors, which could develop commercial activity. The investigation disclosed that non-governmental children and youth organizations do not rely on projects explaining it as a lack of time and no possibilities of financing of non-governmental children and youth sport organizations showed, that the organizations admit they have not used all possibilities. However, they don't see their fault or problem in it. Insisting, that far not everything depends on activities and efforts of the organization, standpoint of society on activities, functions and financing of non-governmental organizations influences as well. The respondents set their hopes on changes of State's and society understanding. They stated that changes in the way of thinking of people may change financial status as well. Future financial resources will depend not only on the internal efforts of the organization, but also on interest and maturity of society.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Rimas, Juozas;

    Straipsnio tikslas - panagrinėti finansinės pagalbos sampratą, specialaus reguliavimo pagrindimą, finansinės pagalbos teisės pažeidimų pasekmes ir apibendrinti argumentus už visišką finansinės pagalbos reguliavimo panaikinimą. Suvokti finansinės pagalbos sampratą, kuri nebuvo analizuota Lietuvos teisinėje literatūroje, svarbu siekiant tinkamai reguliuoti Lietuvos privataus kapitalo sandorių rinką. Straipsnio aktualumą patvirtina tai, kad nuo 2008 m. liepos 1 d., įgyvendinus Direktyvą 2006/68/EB, pakeičiančią Antrąją Įmonių Direktyvą 77/91/EEB ("Direktyva"), Lietuvoje išlieka finansinės pagalbos draudimas, nepaisant to, kad Direktyva suteikė įstatymų leidėjui galimybę pakeisti draudimą liberalizuota procedūra. Specialaus finansinės pagalbos reguliavimo pagrindimas neįtikinamas, nes į bendrovės elgesio problemas žvelgiama per kapitalo pakankamumo prizmę, užuot taikius bendrovių ir civilinės teisės nuostatas dėl taikinio valdymo organų fiduciarinių pareigų ir kreditorių interesų apsaugos. Finansinės pagalbos reguliavimas ne tik bereikalingas, dažnai nelogiškas, bet ir žalingas tinkamam privataus kapitalo sandorių rinkos funkcionavimui. Straipsnyje siūloma imtis finansinės pagalbos režimo liberalizavimo veiksmų, kurie turėtų teigiamą poveikį Lietuvos sandorių rinkai, neviršijant Direktyvos suteiktos veikimo laisvės ribos. In the absence of a legal definition of financial assistance, the concept should be understood as any actions by the target which aim at providing the acquirer with the funds needed to acquire shares in the target, and should include post-acquisition assistance, as well as direct and indirect provision and reception of assistance. On the other hand, the concept of financial assistance should be subject to restrictive interpretation, first of all, by testing of the causal relationship between the target's assisting actions and acquisition of the shares, and, secondly, by applying the test of greater purpose as well as specific exemptions. The restrictive interpretation by Lithuanian courts is instrumental to prevent abuse by the creditors of the target who may decide to challenge the transaction on the grounds of the financial assistance prohibition. Although no criminal or administrative liability is established in Lithuanian law for violation of the financial assistance procedure, the nullity of the infringing transactions may be argued to follow as a civil consequence of the violation of mandatory provisions of law. The rationale for a specific regime of financial assistance has been found unconvincing, as addressing problems of corporate conduct in terms of capital maintenance, instead of relying on general corporate and civil law on fiduciary duties of the management bodies of the target and creditors' protection, and insolvency laws. The regime has been found to be not only unnecessary and often illogical, but also detrimental to the proper functioning of private equity market. Regrettably, the relaxation of the financial assistance regime is phrased as an option rather than an obligation in the Directive. It is precisely because of this that the Lithuanian legislator, after implementing the financial assistance rules more strictly than it was required by the Directive, has been given an opportunity to refuse to rectify the consequences of its overzealousness, and to maintain a restriction that it would likely have never devised by itself, without an impetus from the EU law and, indirectly, UK law. It is concluded that the Lithuanian transactional market would benefit from the following steps in liberalisation of the financial assistance regime without going beyond the simplification possibilities allowed by the Directive: 1. Complete abolition of the applicability of financial assistance rules to private companies. 2. Enacting of an explicit list of actions not to be regarded as financial assistance, including implementation of Art. 23(2) of the Directive which provides for exceptions with regard to financial institutions and employees. 3. Restrictive interpretation of the concept of financial assistance by Lithuanian courts. 4. Explicit non-applicability of financial assistance regulation to upstream and downstream post-acquisition mergers. It is only to be hoped that the financial assistance regulations will be abolished from the EU legislation and, consecutively, from Lithuanian law before any leveraged buyouts in the Lithuanian transactional market are hindered by means of the financial assistance formalities.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Ubartaitė-Vingienė, Dalina;

    Tautinio ugdymo problema aktuali visais Lietuvos istoriniais tarpsniais. Be tautinio ugdymo nebus ir tautos. Straipsnyje siekiama atskleisti tautinio bei pilietinio ugdymo svarbą XXI a. Lietuvos mokykloje. Tuo tikslu atlikta mokslinės literatūros bei švietimo dokumentų analizė, išryškinusi švietimo kaitą, veikiamą globalizacijos ir Lietuvos integracijos į europines struktūras procesų. Remiantis metaanalizės metodu, atskleista tautinio ugdymo reikšmė tarpukario Lietuvoje bei tautinio ugdymo nuvertinimo tendencijos XXI a. Lietuvos mokykloje. […]On the one hand, this article aims to reveal the meaning of national upbringing in inter-war Lithuania on the basis of S. Šalkauskis', A. Maceina's works and the results of V. Raudis' (1998) researches on national upbringing in Lithuanian primary schools in the years 1918–1940. The author looks for an answer to the problematic question whether Lithuania is not going to lose national identity in the process of widespread globalization in A. Maceina's work "National upbringing". On the other hand this work aims to emphasize the loss of value of national Upbringing in the 21st century, Lithuanian schools. Basic education standards for I-Х forms, history teaching standards for V–X forms (1998), history state and school examination tests, A. Poviliūnas' (1998) carried out research "Lithuanian Students' Historical Self-awareness and Educational Reform Data", 1993 results of the European educational institutions consortium CIDREE performed research on history teaching in the Central and Eastern European states. Scientific literature and educational documents analysis proved that in the years 1918–1940 a considerable attention was given to national upbringing in Lithuania. National upbringing seeks to develop man capable of implementing the nation's mission and its ideal – harmonic, strong and prosperous state. National and patriotic upbringing, as S. Šalkauskis, A. Maceina point out, create conditions to seek for such cultural level that the nation would deserve to be called a nation. V. Raudis' performed ethnographic research evidenced that due to reinforced national upbringing in inter-war period the individuals who remained in Lithuania directly influenced the formation of national consciousness during the years of occupation fighting actively and passively for the nation's freedom, independence which, due to favorable historical conditions, was finally achieved on 11 March 1990. Restoration of Lithuania's independence urged the necessity to reorganize Lithuanian educational system. The educational reform started in 1988 had to overcome complex stages of permanent education system creation. And nowdays we have to strengthen the principles of nationalism, reinforce civil upbringing. While integration into the European structures is taking place, the danger of losing national self-awareness, our culture, traditions, customs and language exists. A. Poviliūnas carried out a research on school students' historic self-awareness shows that students are strongly influenced by historic historiography, which emphasizes the role of the state. It may be argued, if such a state as Lithuania is today, could help developing national self-awareness. Thus, education in the conditions of globalization has to develop dynamic "modern Lithuanian consciousness", modern man's nationalism and national respect. At the same time it has to instill respect to other cultures and civilizations, people of other cultures. The main method of modern individual upbringing is organizing independent, creative learning seeking to develop critical thinking. This helps to develop moral, social, cultural, economic values, which serve the nation and humanity.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Daukšaitė, Inga;

    Straipsnyje siekiama atskleisti, koks teisinis statusas neteisėto aborto sudėtyje pripažįstamas nėščiajai pagal Lietuvos baudžiamąjį įstatymą ir kokį statusą nėščiajai suteikia kitų – užsienio – valstybių įstatymai. Straipsnyje taip pat vertinamos nėščiosios baudžiamosios atsakomybės už neteisėtą abortą nustatymo galimybės Lietuvos baudžiamojoje teisėje. Siekiant minėtų tikslų, straipsnyje daugiausia analizuojami Lietuvos ir kai kurių užsienio valstybių (Maltos, Airijos, Suomijos, Vokietijos, Italijos, Austrijos, Vengrijos, Belgijos, Estijos) baudžiamieji ir kiti įstatymai. The article deals with question what legal status is recognized to pregnant woman under the elements of illegal abortion according to criminal law of Lithuania, as well as laws of foreign countries. The status of pregnant woman depends in part on matter of priority: whether the priority is given to pregnant woman’s right to self-determination, right to respect for her private life or to right to life of the unborn. Pursuant to general rules of criminal liability and accompliceship and considering that illegal abortion is performed on pregnant women’s request and with her consent, it seems that she should be treated to be accomplice to illegal abortion and therefore should be treated to be criminally liable for this offense. This fact notwithstanding, according to the Criminal code of Lithuania it is recognized that pregnant woman is illegal abortion victim. The criminal and other laws of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Hungary, Estonia and other countries are analysed in the article. The present analysis shows that pregnant woman under the elements of illegal abortion can be treated otherwise – not only as a victim. In some countries pregnant woman, as well as anyone who has performed an illegal abortion, is brought to criminal liability for illegal termination of her pregnancy. Moreover, in some countries criminal laws provides for pregnant woman’s liabi- lity for giving consent to illegal termination of her pregnancy. It is come to a conclusion that recognition of the right to abortion does not mean by itself that woman cannot be punished if she intentionally breaches certain statutory conditions of termination of pregnancy. In that regard in the article possibility to change the current status being recognized to pregnant woman according to the Criminal code of Lithuania is also analysed.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Baliulė, Irena;
  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Jurkuvienė, Teresė;

    The article is focused on the analysis of one major aspect of the national costume - its relation with the authentic folk outfit. The national costume has to be a follower of the folk costume, therefore, it is possible to produce it only on the ground of the preserved historical material. Since this material is exceptionally from the 19th century, the folk costume of this period in particular became the background of the national costume in various countries. The history of the Lithuanian national costume ought to be conceived as part of all-European cultural process. In fact, a great number of ideas and problems raised in Lithuania were characteristic of Central and Eastern Europe and at times included even broader regions. From the very beginning of the 20th century and on, the national costume bore a naive character and was interpreted by Lithuanians in a romantic spirit. The costume gained an assessment as of a symbol of the related form rather than the reconstruction of actual folk fashion. The former 20th century model as well as later interpretations of the folk dress were influenced by this approach, therefore, the spread of new ideas gained less intensity in Lithuania in comparison with the advanced countries, and out-of-date interpretations found an easier way to be canonized. In Lithuania research on the Lithuanian folk dress, which gained ground in the second half of the 20th century, had no direct links with practice of creating the national costume. Due to this tendency the type of the national costume, which was precisely reconstructing the folk dress and was prevalent throughout the entire Europe, encountered the delay of its dissemination.

  • Other research product . 2017
    Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Girininkaitė, Veronika;

    Straipsnyje aptartas emocijų verbalizavimas daugiakalbių asmenų diskurse. Straipsnio pradžioje apžvelgiami kai kurie kalbininkų tyrimai, skirti pažinti emocijų ir kalbos sąryšius. Remiantis tais tyrimais pastebėta, kad kiekvienoje etninėje kalboje emocijų įvardijimai gali būti netikslūs, be to, emocijų įvardijimai įvairiose kalbose dažniausiai nėra tapatūs. Tai gali sudaryti nepatogumų dvikalbiams, kurie bando savo jausmus, emocijas išreikšti negimtosios kalbos priemonėmis. Vėliau pereinama prie atvejo analizės. Nagrinėti pavyzdžiai iš XX a. pr. egodokumento, Dienoraščio (1904-1910) rankraščio, kurį kelioms kalbomis rašė studentas Vytautas Civinskis. Didžioji Dienoraščio dalis parašyta lenkų, rusų, lietuvių kalbomis. Kurį laiką studijavęs psichologiją, Civinskis susidomėjo savo emocijų sekimu ir klasifikavimu. Pateikti pavyzdžiai parodė, kad rašydamas apie savo emocijas, dienoraštininkas pavartodavo įvairių kalbų leksiką (lenkų, rusų, lietuvių, prancūzų, vokiečių). Dažnai emociją įvardijantis žodis nesutapo su sakinio kalba. Manoma, kad jis nevertė leksemų, esančių idiominių frazeologizmų sudėtyje, ir tais atvejais, kai emocija kurioje nors kalboje įvardijama ypatingai raiškiai (salient). Taip pat buvo pastebėtas individualus dienoraštininko polinkis cituoti literatūrinės ir kitokios kilmės tekstus. Savo jauseną Civinskis kartais apibūdindavo ir žinomo eilėraščio ar dainos eilute. Įvardydamas savo emocijas, Civinskis buvo linkęs kaitalioti kodą (kalbą). Tai atitinka dvikalbystės tyrėjų eksperimentų duomenis. Atvejo analizė taip pat parodė, kad tirdami tokį specifinį reiškinį, kaip keliakalbių asmenų emocijų verbalizavimas, turėtume įvertinti ir papildomus leksikos junglumo, semantikos, psichologijos duomenis. The article aims to discuss the verbalisation of emotions in the discourse of a multilingual person. First, an overview of linguistic investigation in the field of emotions is presented. Notably, linguistic expression of feelings in every given language sometimes lacks precision; moreover, the names of emotions in various languages do not correspond. This poses some problems for multilinguals who try to express their emotions in L2. Later, the paper focuses on a case study, mainly on a series of examples from the manuscript of Diary (1904–1910), an egodocument from the beginning of the 20thcentury written by a multilingual student Vytautas Civinskis. The Diary was written mainly in Polish, Russian and Lithuanian. Civinskis was inspired to classify his own emotions by his studies in psychology. The examples show that while writing about his emotions the diarist makes use of lexical units from various languages (Polish, Russian, German, French, Lithuanian), often not matching the language of the sentence. Presumably, he chooses not to translate the words incorporated in idioms or collocations and avoids translating the names of emotions, which are especially salient in some given language. The diarist is keen to quote the texts of literary and other origin; therefore, he sometimes names his emotion after the line of a wellknown poem or a song (such quotations are also kept in the original). The observed tendency to code-switch while talking about emotions corresponds to the results of some experiments carried out by the researchers of bilingualism. The case study also shows that research into emotion names in the discourse of multilinguals should rely on the results of research from the fields of lexical valency, semantics and psychology.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Burvytė, Sigita;

    Gyvenimo kokybė, arba gerovė, dažnai apibrėžiama ne tik kaip gera žmogaus emocinė būsena, bet ir adekvatus jo socialinis statusas visuomenėje, fizinė aplinka. Gyvenimo kokybė įvairiais aspektais analizuota užsienio mokslininkų straipsniuose, disertacijose (Campbell, Converse ir Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 ir kt.). Tačiau skirtingi autoriai įvairiai interpretuoja gyvenimo kokybę ir vis dar trūksta šios temos teorinio pagrindimo. Mokslinėje literatūroje iki šiol nėra pateikta vienareikšmiškos gyvenimo kokybės sampratos, nesutariama dėl gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo, metodologijos, pateikiami skirtingi vertinimo rodikliai. Iki šiol nėra vieno atsakymo į klausimą, kokie yra gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo komponentai bei sritys. Problema – žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajų vertinimo socialiniu aspektu tyrimų stoka. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajas socialiniu aspektu, remiantis tyrimo rezultatais. Life quality is defined not only as a good emotional condition of a person, but also as his/her adequate social status in the society and physical environment. Different aspects of life quality are analysed by a number of scholars (Campbell, Converse, & Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 and others). Lithuanian authors also pay attention to the conception of life quality (Bagdonienė, 2000), links link the life quality and regional competition (Černiūtė, 2001), analyse the influence of human health on life quality (Rėklaitienė & Juozulynas, 2003; Jatulienė, Čepienė, Kalibatas, & Juozulynas, 2003), as well as conduct research on youth life quality (Bartkutė, 2005), children’s socialisation and adult life quality (Kvieskienė & Kvieska, 2012). Scholarly literature does not provide a single conception of life quality; there is a disagreement regarding the assessment methodology of life quality; as well as different assessment criteria are presented. There is no unanimous answer to the question what components and areas of life quality assessment are. The problem is that a more exhaustive social research on the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences has not been conducted yet. The aim of the research is to present the links between human life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint on the basis of the research results. The following objectives are posed for the attainment of the aim: 1. To make a theoretical review of the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint; 2. To reveal the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint. The following methods of data collection were applied: scientific literature analysis and interview. The methods of data analysis included open-ended questions used in the interview. The answers were analysed employing content analysis. The research results demonstrated that self-assessment of the quality of social life is related to childhood experiences in the social sphere. Childhood experiences are associated with other persons, which directly determines the development of social skills and life quality experiences in social sphere.

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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rowell, Stephen Christopher;

    In 1935 a politically active physician was exiled from his urban home in northern Italy to the countryside several hundred kilometres away. There he found himself in a world of squabbling petty gentry, overworked peasants and negligent, fornicating clergy. Ordinary people had recourse in their spiritual life more often to folklore, witchcraft and superstition, the exile noted, than to the parish church and its despised priest. The people placed their faith in gnomes and magic spells. They even said of themselves that Christianity (and hence Civilization) had never reached as far as their land. Even so those same apparent pagans did attend Mass on high holidays and venerated the Blessed Virgin Mary. The physician in question was the Italian anti-fascist Carlo Levi; the apparently God-forsaken land was Lucania (Basilicata), in southern Italy, not Lithuania. Similar stories of the remnants of ancient arcane behaviour might be told of peasants in other western European countries. When reading sixteenth-century Protestant polemical literature such as the De diis Samagitiarum caeterorumque sarmatarum et falsorum christianorum of Jan Łaski with its list of the pagan deities and of the Žemaitijans and Sarmatians and other false Christians, or the Annual Reports sent to Rome by Lithuanian Jesuits describing their missionary efforts in the Lithuanian and Livonian countryside, we might wonder whether for them Christ had stopped at the Polish border.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Andriulis, Vytautas;

    The research of the 16th c. Lithuanian cultural heritage points out many prominent personalities of that time, who very actively and positively acted in the state, political and social life. Pedro Ruiz de Moros was one of these personalities. He was directly involved in the improvement of one of the major monuments of the Lithuanian law, i.e. the First Lithuanian Statute (1529), and contributed to the process of editing and compiling the Second Lithuanian Statute (1566), establishing in it new legal norms demonstrating transposition of the world outlook propagated by the Renaissance, which was characteristic of almost the entire Western Europe. The author presents the main facts from the biography of Pedro Ruiz de Moros, his relations with the contemporary prominent figures, as well as his contribution to the culture, law and social life of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL). The publication also overviews the studies carried out by different authors as well as conclusions related to the public life of Pedro Ruiz de Moros. The author widely describes “Decisiones Lituanicae” [The Lithuanian Decisions] – one of the most significant works of Pedro Ruiz de Moros, analyses its significance for the further development of law in the state as well as the attention paid to this work by authors and researchers in later periods. The paper attempts to reveal the reasons for the appearance of this work as well as the motives and intentions of Pedro Ruiz de Moros. The translation of this work into Lithuanian would create the conditions for researchers to learn new facts about the dissemination of the connections of the old State of Lithuania with Western European culture, its status, and would become an accessible source for deeper knowledge of the nation’s history.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Komskienė, Diana; Čingienė, Vilma; Jacikaitė, Evelina;

    Kiekvienos šalies sporto sistemos sukuriamas ir teikiamas paslaugas galima būtų priskirti valstybiniamviešajam, nevyriausybiniam ir privačiam sektoriui. Mažai turima informacijos apie jų veiklą, finansavimo šaltinius ir tikslų realizavimo patirtį. Šiame straipsnyje nagrinėjama nevyriausybinių vaikų ir jaunimo sporto organizacijų finansavimo galimybių panaudojimo patirtis. Atliktas interviu su trijų, didžiausias pajamas sukaupiančių Lietuvos sporto organizacijų vadovais. Visos nevyriausybinės sporto organizacijos turi viešosios įstaigos juridinį statusą ir teikia populiariausių šalyje sporto šakų paslaugas: dvi atstovauja krepšiniui, trečia - futbolui. Bendras sportuojančių vaikus skaičius yra didesnis nei 2000 (LSIC, 2009), arba 4,5 proc. nuo bendro užimtų vaikų irjaunimo skaičiaus valstybinėse sporto mokymo įstaigose. Nevyriausybinių vaikų ir jaunimo sporto organizacijų finansavimo galimybės yra nario mokestis, fondai, komercinė veikla, rėmėjai, valstybės lėšos, 2 proc. nuo gyventojų pajamų mokesčio, projektai pagal tarptautines ir nacionalines programas ir kt. Pastaruoju metu didžiausią organizacijų biudžeto dalį sudaro nario mokesčiai ir verslo įmonių parama. Organizacijos daugiau lėšų galėtų sukaupti tikslingai vystydamos komercinę veiklą, aktyviau dalyvaudamos teikiant projektus šalies ir tarptautiniams fondams, įsitraukdamos į valstybės inicijuotas bendruomenines programas. Gaunamų pajamų panaudojimo racionalumas ir finansavimo galimybių plėtros perspektyva yra organizacijų vidinės brandos ir išorinės aplinkos sąveikos rezultatas. This article focuses on the experience of financial possibilities of non-governmental children and youth sport organizations. An interview was used with the heads of three biggest Lithuanian non-governmental sport organizations. The result of the investigation has shown that the respondents have a clear enough understanding of the concept of non-governmental organizations. However, most of the respondents emphasize sources of financing rather than tasks and activities of the organization. On the another hand, society is lacking knowledge about activities of non-governmental organizations due to the opinion that engagement of children and youth deals only on private initiative. An adequate point of view and responsibility for young generation development are not enough as well. Some respondents said that private initiative is dominating, and it is due to passive behaviour of the State, lack of its initiative. It was also highlighted that States effective social policy is important for the development of private philanthropic initiative. According to the respondents' opinion, society has limited view on these organizations, there is not enough relationship based on communication and cooperation. Having generalized theory and experience in foreign countries it became clear that children and youth non-governmental organizations can be financed from: membership/participation fee, sponsors, State budget, commercial activities, 2% income tax, international and national programs and projects, charity funds, other. The investigation showed that financing comes from the same sources in all three organizations and only a weighted percentage is wearying. It was noticed that all respondents mentioned sharp changes in the sources of financing. Research results show that income is generated using different financial sources where membership/participation fees and sponsors are the main ones. Discussions with the respondents led to the opinion that all of them have a quite narrow understanding of commercial activities i.e. main attention is drawn rent of premises, organization of events or camps. However, other possibilities, such as licensing, sales of merchandize, etc. were forgotten. None of the respondents could point main factors, which could develop commercial activity. The investigation disclosed that non-governmental children and youth organizations do not rely on projects explaining it as a lack of time and no possibilities of financing of non-governmental children and youth sport organizations showed, that the organizations admit they have not used all possibilities. However, they don't see their fault or problem in it. Insisting, that far not everything depends on activities and efforts of the organization, standpoint of society on activities, functions and financing of non-governmental organizations influences as well. The respondents set their hopes on changes of State's and society understanding. They stated that changes in the way of thinking of people may change financial status as well. Future financial resources will depend not only on the internal efforts of the organization, but also on interest and maturity of society.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Rimas, Juozas;

    Straipsnio tikslas - panagrinėti finansinės pagalbos sampratą, specialaus reguliavimo pagrindimą, finansinės pagalbos teisės pažeidimų pasekmes ir apibendrinti argumentus už visišką finansinės pagalbos reguliavimo panaikinimą. Suvokti finansinės pagalbos sampratą, kuri nebuvo analizuota Lietuvos teisinėje literatūroje, svarbu siekiant tinkamai reguliuoti Lietuvos privataus kapitalo sandorių rinką. Straipsnio aktualumą patvirtina tai, kad nuo 2008 m. liepos 1 d., įgyvendinus Direktyvą 2006/68/EB, pakeičiančią Antrąją Įmonių Direktyvą 77/91/EEB ("Direktyva"), Lietuvoje išlieka finansinės pagalbos draudimas, nepaisant to, kad Direktyva suteikė įstatymų leidėjui galimybę pakeisti draudimą liberalizuota procedūra. Specialaus finansinės pagalbos reguliavimo pagrindimas neįtikinamas, nes į bendrovės elgesio problemas žvelgiama per kapitalo pakankamumo prizmę, užuot taikius bendrovių ir civilinės teisės nuostatas dėl taikinio valdymo organų fiduciarinių pareigų ir kreditorių interesų apsaugos. Finansinės pagalbos reguliavimas ne tik bereikalingas, dažnai nelogiškas, bet ir žalingas tinkamam privataus kapitalo sandorių rinkos funkcionavimui. Straipsnyje siūloma imtis finansinės pagalbos režimo liberalizavimo veiksmų, kurie turėtų teigiamą poveikį Lietuvos sandorių rinkai, neviršijant Direktyvos suteiktos veikimo laisvės ribos. In the absence of a legal definition of financial assistance, the concept should be understood as any actions by the target which aim at providing the acquirer with the funds needed to acquire shares in the target, and should include post-acquisition assistance, as well as direct and indirect provision and reception of assistance. On the other hand, the concept of financial assistance should be subject to restrictive interpretation, first of all, by testing of the causal relationship between the target's assisting actions and acquisition of the shares, and, secondly, by applying the test of greater purpose as well as specific exemptions. The restrictive interpretation by Lithuanian courts is instrumental to prevent abuse by the creditors of the target who may decide to challenge the transaction on the grounds of the financial assistance prohibition. Although no criminal or administrative liability is established in Lithuanian law for violation of the financial assistance procedure, the nullity of the infringing transactions may be argued to follow as a civil consequence of the violation of mandatory provisions of law. The rationale for a specific regime of financial assistance has been found unconvincing, as addressing problems of corporate conduct in terms of capital maintenance, instead of relying on general corporate and civil law on fiduciary duties of the management bodies of the target and creditors' protection, and insolvency laws. The regime has been found to be not only unnecessary and often illogical, but also detrimental to the proper functioning of private equity market. Regrettably, the relaxation of the financial assistance regime is phrased as an option rather than an obligation in the Directive. It is precisely because of this that the Lithuanian legislator, after implementing the financial assistance rules more strictly than it was required by the Directive, has been given an opportunity to refuse to rectify the consequences of its overzealousness, and to maintain a restriction that it would likely have never devised by itself, without an impetus from the EU law and, indirectly, UK law. It is concluded that the Lithuanian transactional market would benefit from the following steps in liberalisation of the financial assistance regime without going beyond the simplification possibilities allowed by the Directive: 1. Complete abolition of the applicability of financial assistance rules to private companies. 2. Enacting of an explicit list of actions not to be regarded as financial assistance, including implementation of Art. 23(2) of the Directive which provides for exceptions with regard to financial institutions and employees. 3. Restrictive interpretation of the concept of financial assistance by Lithuanian courts. 4. Explicit non-applicability of financial assistance regulation to upstream and downstream post-acquisition mergers. It is only to be hoped that the financial assistance regulations will be abolished from the EU legislation and, consecutively, from Lithuanian law before any leveraged buyouts in the Lithuanian transactional market are hindered by means of the financial assistance formalities.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Ubartaitė-Vingienė, Dalina;

    Tautinio ugdymo problema aktuali visais Lietuvos istoriniais tarpsniais. Be tautinio ugdymo nebus ir tautos. Straipsnyje siekiama atskleisti tautinio bei pilietinio ugdymo svarbą XXI a. Lietuvos mokykloje. Tuo tikslu atlikta mokslinės literatūros bei švietimo dokumentų analizė, išryškinusi švietimo kaitą, veikiamą globalizacijos ir Lietuvos integracijos į europines struktūras procesų. Remiantis metaanalizės metodu, atskleista tautinio ugdymo reikšmė tarpukario Lietuvoje bei tautinio ugdymo nuvertinimo tendencijos XXI a. Lietuvos mokykloje. […]On the one hand, this article aims to reveal the meaning of national upbringing in inter-war Lithuania on the basis of S. Šalkauskis', A. Maceina's works and the results of V. Raudis' (1998) researches on national upbringing in Lithuanian primary schools in the years 1918–1940. The author looks for an answer to the problematic question whether Lithuania is not going to lose national identity in the process of widespread globalization in A. Maceina's work "National upbringing". On the other hand this work aims to emphasize the loss of value of national Upbringing in the 21st century, Lithuanian schools. Basic education standards for I-Х forms, history teaching standards for V–X forms (1998), history state and school examination tests, A. Poviliūnas' (1998) carried out research "Lithuanian Students' Historical Self-awareness and Educational Reform Data", 1993 results of the European educational institutions consortium CIDREE performed research on history teaching in the Central and Eastern European states. Scientific literature and educational documents analysis proved that in the years 1918–1940 a considerable attention was given to national upbringing in Lithuania. National upbringing seeks to develop man capable of implementing the nation's mission and its ideal – harmonic, strong and prosperous state. National and patriotic upbringing, as S. Šalkauskis, A. Maceina point out, create conditions to seek for such cultural level that the nation would deserve to be called a nation. V. Raudis' performed ethnographic research evidenced that due to reinforced national upbringing in inter-war period the individuals who remained in Lithuania directly influenced the formation of national consciousness during the years of occupation fighting actively and passively for the nation's freedom, independence which, due to favorable historical conditions, was finally achieved on 11 March 1990. Restoration of Lithuania's independence urged the necessity to reorganize Lithuanian educational system. The educational reform started in 1988 had to overcome complex stages of permanent education system creation. And nowdays we have to strengthen the principles of nationalism, reinforce civil upbringing. While integration into the European structures is taking place, the danger of losing national self-awareness, our culture, traditions, customs and language exists. A. Poviliūnas carried out a research on school students' historic self-awareness shows that students are strongly influenced by historic historiography, which emphasizes the role of the state. It may be argued, if such a state as Lithuania is today, could help developing national self-awareness. Thus, education in the conditions of globalization has to develop dynamic "modern Lithuanian consciousness", modern man's nationalism and national respect. At the same time it has to instill respect to other cultures and civilizations, people of other cultures. The main method of modern individual upbringing is organizing independent, creative learning seeking to develop critical thinking. This helps to develop moral, social, cultural, economic values, which serve the nation and humanity.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Daukšaitė, Inga;

    Straipsnyje siekiama atskleisti, koks teisinis statusas neteisėto aborto sudėtyje pripažįstamas nėščiajai pagal Lietuvos baudžiamąjį įstatymą ir kokį statusą nėščiajai suteikia kitų – užsienio – valstybių įstatymai. Straipsnyje taip pat vertinamos nėščiosios baudžiamosios atsakomybės už neteisėtą abortą nustatymo galimybės Lietuvos baudžiamojoje teisėje. Siekiant minėtų tikslų, straipsnyje daugiausia analizuojami Lietuvos ir kai kurių užsienio valstybių (Maltos, Airijos, Suomijos, Vokietijos, Italijos, Austrijos, Vengrijos, Belgijos, Estijos) baudžiamieji ir kiti įstatymai. The article deals with question what legal status is recognized to pregnant woman under the elements of illegal abortion according to criminal law of Lithuania, as well as laws of foreign countries. The status of pregnant woman depends in part on matter of priority: whether the priority is given to pregnant woman’s right to self-determination, right to respect for her private life or to right to life of the unborn. Pursuant to general rules of criminal liability and accompliceship and considering that illegal abortion is performed on pregnant women’s request and with her consent, it seems that she should be treated to be accomplice to illegal abortion and therefore should be treated to be criminally liable for this offense. This fact notwithstanding, according to the Criminal code of Lithuania it is recognized that pregnant woman is illegal abortion victim. The criminal and other laws of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Hungary, Estonia and other countries are analysed in the article. The present analysis shows that pregnant woman under the elements of illegal abortion can be treated otherwise – not only as a victim. In some countries pregnant woman, as well as anyone who has performed an illegal abortion, is brought to criminal liability for illegal termination of her pregnancy. Moreover, in some countries criminal laws provides for pregnant woman’s liabi- lity for giving consent to illegal termination of her pregnancy. It is come to a conclusion that recognition of the right to abortion does not mean by itself that woman cannot be punished if she intentionally breaches certain statutory conditions of termination of pregnancy. In that regard in the article possibility to change the current status being recognized to pregnant woman according to the Criminal code of Lithuania is also analysed.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Baliulė, Irena;
  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Jurkuvienė, Teresė;

    The article is focused on the analysis of one major aspect of the national costume - its relation with the authentic folk outfit. The national costume has to be a follower of the folk costume, therefore, it is possible to produce it only on the ground of the preserved historical material. Since this material is exceptionally from the 19th century, the folk costume of this period in particular became the background of the national costume in various countries. The history of the Lithuanian national costume ought to be conceived as part of all-European cultural process. In fact, a great number of ideas and problems raised in Lithuania were characteristic of Central and Eastern Europe and at times included even broader regions. From the very beginning of the 20th century and on, the national costume bore a naive character and was interpreted by Lithuanians in a romantic spirit. The costume gained an assessment as of a symbol of the related form rather than the reconstruction of actual folk fashion. The former 20th century model as well as later interpretations of the folk dress were influenced by this approach, therefore, the spread of new ideas gained less intensity in Lithuania in comparison with the advanced countries, and out-of-date interpretations found an easier way to be canonized. In Lithuania research on the Lithuanian folk dress, which gained ground in the second half of the 20th century, had no direct links with practice of creating the national costume. Due to this tendency the type of the national costume, which was precisely reconstructing the folk dress and was prevalent throughout the entire Europe, encountered the delay of its dissemination.

  • Other research product . 2017
    Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Girininkaitė, Veronika;

    Straipsnyje aptartas emocijų verbalizavimas daugiakalbių asmenų diskurse. Straipsnio pradžioje apžvelgiami kai kurie kalbininkų tyrimai, skirti pažinti emocijų ir kalbos sąryšius. Remiantis tais tyrimais pastebėta, kad kiekvienoje etninėje kalboje emocijų įvardijimai gali būti netikslūs, be to, emocijų įvardijimai įvairiose kalbose dažniausiai nėra tapatūs. Tai gali sudaryti nepatogumų dvikalbiams, kurie bando savo jausmus, emocijas išreikšti negimtosios kalbos priemonėmis. Vėliau pereinama prie atvejo analizės. Nagrinėti pavyzdžiai iš XX a. pr. egodokumento, Dienoraščio (1904-1910) rankraščio, kurį kelioms kalbomis rašė studentas Vytautas Civinskis. Didžioji Dienoraščio dalis parašyta lenkų, rusų, lietuvių kalbomis. Kurį laiką studijavęs psichologiją, Civinskis susidomėjo savo emocijų sekimu ir klasifikavimu. Pateikti pavyzdžiai parodė, kad rašydamas apie savo emocijas, dienoraštininkas pavartodavo įvairių kalbų leksiką (lenkų, rusų, lietuvių, prancūzų, vokiečių). Dažnai emociją įvardijantis žodis nesutapo su sakinio kalba. Manoma, kad jis nevertė leksemų, esančių idiominių frazeologizmų sudėtyje, ir tais atvejais, kai emocija kurioje nors kalboje įvardijama ypatingai raiškiai (salient). Taip pat buvo pastebėtas individualus dienoraštininko polinkis cituoti literatūrinės ir kitokios kilmės tekstus. Savo jauseną Civinskis kartais apibūdindavo ir žinomo eilėraščio ar dainos eilute. Įvardydamas savo emocijas, Civinskis buvo linkęs kaitalioti kodą (kalbą). Tai atitinka dvikalbystės tyrėjų eksperimentų duomenis. Atvejo analizė taip pat parodė, kad tirdami tokį specifinį reiškinį, kaip keliakalbių asmenų emocijų verbalizavimas, turėtume įvertinti ir papildomus leksikos junglumo, semantikos, psichologijos duomenis. The article aims to discuss the verbalisation of emotions in the discourse of a multilingual person. First, an overview of linguistic investigation in the field of emotions is presented. Notably, linguistic expression of feelings in every given language sometimes lacks precision; moreover, the names of emotions in various languages do not correspond. This poses some problems for multilinguals who try to express their emotions in L2. Later, the paper focuses on a case study, mainly on a series of examples from the manuscript of Diary (1904–1910), an egodocument from the beginning of the 20thcentury written by a multilingual student Vytautas Civinskis. The Diary was written mainly in Polish, Russian and Lithuanian. Civinskis was inspired to classify his own emotions by his studies in psychology. The examples show that while writing about his emotions the diarist makes use of lexical units from various languages (Polish, Russian, German, French, Lithuanian), often not matching the language of the sentence. Presumably, he chooses not to translate the words incorporated in idioms or collocations and avoids translating the names of emotions, which are especially salient in some given language. The diarist is keen to quote the texts of literary and other origin; therefore, he sometimes names his emotion after the line of a wellknown poem or a song (such quotations are also kept in the original). The observed tendency to code-switch while talking about emotions corresponds to the results of some experiments carried out by the researchers of bilingualism. The case study also shows that research into emotion names in the discourse of multilinguals should rely on the results of research from the fields of lexical valency, semantics and psychology.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Burvytė, Sigita;

    Gyvenimo kokybė, arba gerovė, dažnai apibrėžiama ne tik kaip gera žmogaus emocinė būsena, bet ir adekvatus jo socialinis statusas visuomenėje, fizinė aplinka. Gyvenimo kokybė įvairiais aspektais analizuota užsienio mokslininkų straipsniuose, disertacijose (Campbell, Converse ir Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 ir kt.). Tačiau skirtingi autoriai įvairiai interpretuoja gyvenimo kokybę ir vis dar trūksta šios temos teorinio pagrindimo. Mokslinėje literatūroje iki šiol nėra pateikta vienareikšmiškos gyvenimo kokybės sampratos, nesutariama dėl gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo, metodologijos, pateikiami skirtingi vertinimo rodikliai. Iki šiol nėra vieno atsakymo į klausimą, kokie yra gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo komponentai bei sritys. Problema – žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajų vertinimo socialiniu aspektu tyrimų stoka. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajas socialiniu aspektu, remiantis tyrimo rezultatais. Life quality is defined not only as a good emotional condition of a person, but also as his/her adequate social status in the society and physical environment. Different aspects of life quality are analysed by a number of scholars (Campbell, Converse, & Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 and others). Lithuanian authors also pay attention to the conception of life quality (Bagdonienė, 2000), links link the life quality and regional competition (Černiūtė, 2001), analyse the influence of human health on life quality (Rėklaitienė & Juozulynas, 2003; Jatulienė, Čepienė, Kalibatas, & Juozulynas, 2003), as well as conduct research on youth life quality (Bartkutė, 2005), children’s socialisation and adult life quality (Kvieskienė & Kvieska, 2012). Scholarly literature does not provide a single conception of life quality; there is a disagreement regarding the assessment methodology of life quality; as well as different assessment criteria are presented. There is no unanimous answer to the question what components and areas of life quality assessment are. The problem is that a more exhaustive social research on the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences has not been conducted yet. The aim of the research is to present the links between human life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint on the basis of the research results. The following objectives are posed for the attainment of the aim: 1. To make a theoretical review of the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint; 2. To reveal the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint. The following methods of data collection were applied: scientific literature analysis and interview. The methods of data analysis included open-ended questions used in the interview. The answers were analysed employing content analysis. The research results demonstrated that self-assessment of the quality of social life is related to childhood experiences in the social sphere. Childhood experiences are associated with other persons, which directly determines the development of social skills and life quality experiences in social sphere.

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