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170 Research products, page 1 of 17

  • Publications
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  • 2018-2022
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jenny Roselli; Tommaso Innocenti; E.N. Lynch; L. Parisio; Giuseppe Macrì; Monica Milla; Tommaso Mello; Andrea Galli; Stefano Milani; Mirko Tarocchi;
    Country: Italy

    Azathioprine is a cornerstone of the therapy of Crohn’s disease. Unfortunately, infections and malignancies are relatively common adverse effects related to this drug; however, cirrhosis is exceptionally reported as a side effect. We report the case of a 49-year-old male patient with ileocolonic steno-penetrating Crohn’s disease who developed hepatic cirrhosis while treated with azathioprine. After taking azathioprine for 3 years with regular follow-up, he developed pancytopenia, and liver cirrhosis was diagnosed with ultrasound, abdomen computed tomography scan, transient elastography, and liver biopsy. As all other causes of liver damage were excluded, azathioprine was believed to be the cause of liver injury and therefore was interrupted.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefano Bertocci; Monica Bercigli; Matteo Bigongiari; Vincenzo Moschetti;
    Publisher: Athens Institute for Education and Research
    Country: Italy

    The contribution concerns the possibilities of utilization of the digital technologies focused on the documentation of the historical centers. The aim of the project is to evaluate the conservation status of the Heritage and the possibilities and opportunities of valorization and requalification of the historical urban core through projects that show a high level of compatibility with the environment. In relation to these methodologies grows the need to take the inhabitants back to live again the historical center creating spots of complete requalification through the instruments of the architecture. The reading of the places in complete or partial decay and abandon status wants, hence, to get the basis for the preservation of them through precise interventions so that they can create significant synergies in which the inhabitants – through the architecture and their life – come back to inhabit that is to live again those places that, otherwise, time would take away letting forget and lose to the world extraordinary parties of landscape.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Benedetta Pioppi; Ilaria Pigliautile; Cristina Piselli; Anna Laura Pisello;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | HERACLES (700395)

    Abstract Microclimate change related events affect cities total environment and therefore citizens’ wellbeing. In a framework of urban resilience challenge, it is important to guarantee thermally comfortable conditions to dwellers in outdoors but also to preserve cultural heritage masterpieces for tourism and local socio-cultural identity. This work couples an innovative field monitoring at multiple scales and a validated numerical modelling effort to identify indoor and outdoor critical conditions at the present time and in the future, according to IPCC climate change forecast scenarios. The authors focused the attention on the overheating risk of Gubbio historical city center, in central Italy. Experimental data analysis highlights the microclimate granularity of the case study with detected temperature discrepancies up to 2.5 °C observed at pedestrian height during the hottest hour, i.e. 2p.m. Collected data are then used to validate the numerical models of (i) the most significant building of the city and (ii) its surroundings to investigate indoor/outdoor thermal comfort stress due to climate change and local overheating. The combined analysis shows that indoor operative temperature reaches 32 °C on average in 80 years, compared to the current 29 °C value. In the outdoors, apparent temperature increases by about 10 °C on 2100, being responsible for a serious threat compromising socio-cultural life, human health and outdoor and recreational activities.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Manuela Incerti; Gaia Lavoratti; Sara D'Amico; Stefano Giannetti;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Italy

    The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia is one of Ravenna’s UNESCO protected monuments, globally renowned for the extraordinary mosaic decorations that cover the internal surfaces. The famous starry vault profoundly engages and inspires the observer. It has been studied for its accuracy in the representation of the real sky, but also because of its mystical and symbolic meaning in relation to the iconographic tradition of the time. The building has also been subject of archeoastronomical research (Romano in Orientamenti ad sidera. Astronomia, riti e calendari per la fondazione di templi e citta. Un esempio a Ravenna. Edizioni Essegi, Ravenna, 1995), which is here presented in depth. The present contribution also examines other architectural elements beyond orientation: particular attention is payed to the small slit windows of the building to investigate their possible archaeoastronomical significance. In the study of these elements, particular attention should be payed to the elaboration of architectural survey data, which has to be produced following established procedures and techniques. A functional 3D model will be developed from the data of the archaeoastronomical analysis to display the original morphology of the building (the floor was about 1.4 m lower because of subsidence movements), astronomical phenomena, and allow for multimedia communication of the scientific content produced. Finally, the related issues will be investigated: the geometric and projective transformations of the starry dome, the geometric shape of space also in relation to the unit of measurement used.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zaroui Pogossian;
    Publisher: Universität Hamburg, Hiob Ludolf Centre for Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies
    Country: Italy

    Research for this article had the purpose of exploring medieval Armenian–Ethiopian connections. The investigations revealed three main contexts where Ethiopia and Ethiopians feature in the Armenian sources of the first millennium, without necessarily implying real-life encounters. Firstly, the earliest Armenian texts locate Ethiopia and discuss the genealogy of its people in line with the biblical account of the Diamerismos, as well as notions based on Eusebius of Caesarea’s Chronicle translated into Armenian from Syriac in the fifth century. Each author, then, interpreted this information according to his narrative needs or the purpose of a given composition. The discussion of these sources reveals the circulation of classical and Hellenistic notions on Ethiopia and the Ethiopians in Armenian, too, such as the confusion between Ethiopia, Arabia, and India, as well as anthropological or spiritual features attributed to Ethiopians already by classical authors. Secondly, the article analyses a series of calendrical treatises, starting with one authored by the seventh-century polymath Anania Širakac‘i, that passed on a short tale about a sixth-century gathering of scholars in Alexandria in order to determine the date of the Easter and establish tables for its calculation in the future. An Ethiopian wise man Abdiē was part of this international endeavour too, according to this tradition, and his presence marked Ethiopia as part of the eastern Mediterranean learned world, with its own cultural traditions. Armenian language hemerologia also preserved month names in Gǝʿǝz, reproduced in the Appendix. Thirdly, the article draws attention to a completely new way of viewing Ethiopia in ninth- to eleventh-century Armenian anti-dyophysite (antiByzantine) treatises where the Armenian Church and its doctrines or ritual practices were imagined as part of a vast, non-dyophysite orthodox world that included the Ethiopian Church. Intriguingly, this argumentative technique, formulated in terms that one may callanti-colonial ante litteram, may be traced among Coptic and Syriac polemicists as well, a subject of research that would benefit from further analysis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pamela Ferrari; David Chelazzi; Nicole Bonelli; Antonio Mirabile; Rodorico Giorgi; Piero Baglioni;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | NANORESTART (646063)

    Abstract The removal of aged pressure sensitive tapes (PSTs) from contemporary drawings is a frequent and challenging task for paper conservators: in this work, an innovative method to overcome this issue is presented. Aged PSTs are largely found on paper artworks due to their use for mending, mounting and framing operations. Nevertheless, they may provoke several drawbacks on artworks (e.g. media bleeding and adhesive mass migration): the necessity of their removal promoted the development of several methodologies, but they all pose risks to both artefacts and conservation professionals. We propose a method involving polymeric gels able to load a “green” solvent, pertaining to the class of alkyl carbonates, which efficiently interacts with PSTs components; the embedment of the solvent into the gel network allows a feasible and effective intervention where the gel is directly applied on the top surface of the PST: the solvent gradually penetrates through the plastic layer of the PST (as proved by laser scanning confocal microscopy measures), swelling the underlying adhesive. In this way, the solvent-artwork contact is controlled. In order to optimize the processing costs and final properties of the gels, three formulations of poly (ethyl methacrylate)-diethyl carbonate (PEMA-DEC) organogels were synthesized, using different diluents and additives. A thorough physicochemical investigation of the systems was performed by means of rheology, gravimetric analysis, thermogravimetry, and IR Spectroscopy. After assessment on representative mock-up samples, the developed systems were successfully used for the removal of six aged PSTs from a drawing on paper by Keith Haring.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gustavo Hassemer; Jefferson Prado; Riccardo M. Baldini;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: Italy
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ahmadreza Shirvani Dastgerdi; Giuseppe De Luca;
    Country: Italy

    The inscription of historic urban quarters on the World Heritage List can be considered as a double-edged sword. On the one hand, UNESCO's Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention has been introduced as the most effective international instrument for the conservation and sustainable development of cultural heritage. On the other hand, many researchers have been discussing the many problems faced by the World Heritage Sites. This descriptive-analytic study aims to examine the effects of the inscription of historic urban quarters on the World Heritage List on the conservation and sustainable development of these sites. The research population consisted of 36 university professors, experts of cultural heritage and UNESCO experts. The measurement tool was a questionnaire with 34 questions that examined the factors affecting inscription on the World Heritage List by four indicators, including conservation, facilities, cultural sustainability and economic sustainability, in the form of a SWOT model using the Delphi method. Data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results of the study showed protection of the cultural heritage against unnatural hazards as the most important positive point; the threat to the local community life due to tourist crowds as the most important disadvantage; increased investment in the historical context as the best opportunity; and a weak recognition of the tastes of foreign tourists as the most important threat. Also, in prioritization of the indicators, indicators of conservation and cultural sustainability were more effective than others.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ahmadreza Shirvani Dastgerdi; Giuseppe De Luca;
    Country: Italy

    Heritage planning is the preservation, conservation, rehabilitation, restoration and management of heritage resources. This paper aims to propose an approach for specifying the values and importance of historic sites. In this study, the Historic Ur­ban Landscape approach is taken as the research framework. This approach mo­ves beyond the preservation of the physical environment and focuses on the entire human environment with all its tangible and intangible qualities. It seeks to increa­se the sustainability of planning and design interventions by taking into account the existing built environment, intangible heritage, cultural diversity, socio-economic and environmental factors along with local community values. This study indicates that a values-centered planning approach has emerged as a way of formalizing strategies for dealing with preservation challenges. The importance of values-centered preserva­tion is the framework it offers for dealing holistically with historic sites and addressing both the contemporary and historic values of a place, a task which includes a report comprising written material and graphic material. The contents of the report should be arranged to suit the site and the limitations on the task, but it will generally be in two sections: first, the assessment of cultural significance and second, the statement of cultural significance. Therefore, determining the significance of historic places is to be considered as the basis for planning and implementing management strategies and sustainable development. Furthermore, heritage planning needs a progression that goes from identification, to evaluation, to management and together form a basis for preservation policies. Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage, Vol 18 (2018)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Francesco Boschin; Federico Bernardini; Elena Pilli; Stefania Vai; Clément Zanolli; Antonio Tagliacozzo; Rosario Fico; Mariaelena Fedi; Julien Corny; Diego Dreossi; +8 more
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group UK
    Countries: France, Italy

    International audience; The identification of the earliest dogs is challenging because of the absence and/or mosaic pattern of morphological diagnostic features in the initial phases of the domestication process. Furthermore, the natural occurrence of some of these characters in Late Pleistocene wolf populations and the time it took from the onset of traits related to domestication to their prevalence remain indefinite. For these reasons, the spatiotemporal context of the early domestication of dogs is hotly debated. Our combined molecular and morphological analyses of fossil canid remains from the sites of Grotta Paglicci and Grotta Romanelli, in southern Italy, attest of the presence of dogs at least 14,000 calibrated years before present. This unambiguously documents one of the earliest occurrence of domesticates in the Upper Palaeolithic of Europe and in the Mediterranean. The genetic affinity between the Palaeolithic dogs from southern Italy and contemporaneous ones found in Germany also suggest that these animals were an important common adjunct during the Late Glacial, when strong cultural diversification occurred between the Mediterranean world and European areas north of the Alps. Additionally, aDNA analyses indicate that this Upper Palaeolithic dog lineage from Italy may have contributed to the genetic diversity of living dogs. Dogs were the first animals domesticated by humans, long before the advent of agriculture 1. Besides occupying a special place in our present day lives, dogs had important functional and symbolic roles throughout human history. However, the spatiotemporal context of their early domestication is debated from both archaeological and genetic perspectives: there is scant consensus on the location of first domestication centres, and the presence of one or more domestication events 1-5 , as well as a debate on the correct identification of the oldest archaeological specimens considered to represent dogs 6-11. Latest genetic models suggest the presence of dogs in Europe at least 15,000 years ago, and a divergence between dogs and wolves between about 20,000 and 40,000 years ago 5,12. Earlier potential dog domestication attempts may be represented by canid remains from Northern and Eastern Europe, and Russia 6-9,13-15 , even if their attribution to dogs or wolves is debated 5,10,16-20. The earliest archaeological specimens unequivocally attributed to dogs lived around 16,000 years ago 21-23 , and were related to Magdalenian contexts in Western Europe. Available genetic evidence suggests that the domestication process open 1

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