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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Richard Ian Laming; Michalis N. Zervas; David N. Payne;
    Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Country: United Kingdom

    It is shown that for practical pump powers ( 33 dB) and low noise figure (3 dB) cannot simultaneously be achieved with a conventional codirectionally pumped EDFA. However, using a codirectionally pumped composite EDFA incorporating an isolator overcomes the problem, and an amplifier with 51 dB (54 dB) gain and 3.1 dB noise figure (NF) for only 45 mW (93 mW) of pump power is demonstrated. >

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Xiaowei Feng; Susan Gourvenec; David White;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract Floating structures are often secured in position with a taut mooring system and suction caissons. Large seabed trenches have been observed adjacent to some suction caisson anchors with taut-line mooring systems. The trenches may jeopardise the geotechnical capacity of the caissons and in turn the stationkeeping of the floating structures. Finite-element method is employed to examine the geotechnical capacity of suction caissons in a trenching seabed. The results show that the reduction in the geotechnical capacity becomes more significant with increasing trench width due to the loss of soil support and a change in failure mechanism as the caisson rotates into the trench. For a given trench width, the reduction in capacity becomes more significant as the load inclination angle to the horizontal decreases. However, the shape of the normalised failure envelopes for combined vertical and horizontal load is insensitive to trench width. A strategy to design for inevitable trenching by moving the padeye shallower to reduce the depth of trench formation is not straightforward. The gain from a shallower trench may often be outweighed by the reduction in capacity from rotation of the caisson at failure for loading angles typical of taut moorings.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chia-Fen Hsu; Edmund J.S. Sonuga-Barke;
    Countries: Belgium, United Kingdom, Belgium

    fMRI studies have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe, components of the default mode network (DMN), in episodic prospection. This study compared quantitative EEG localized to these DMN regions during prospection and during resting and while waiting for rewards. EEG was recorded in twenty-two adults while they were asked to (i) envision future monetary episodes; (ii) wait for rewards and (iii) rest. Activation sources were localized to core DMN regions. EEG power and phase coherence were compared across conditions. Prospection, compared to resting and waiting, was associated with reduced power in the medial prefrontal gyrus and increased power in the bilateral medial temporal gyrus across frequency bands as well as greater phase synchrony between these regions in the delta band. The current quantitative EEG analysis confirms prior fMRI research suggesting that medial prefrontal and medial temporal gyrus interactions are central to the capacity for episodic prospection.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    N.G. Stephen;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Transfer matrices are used widely for the dynamic analysis of engineering structures, increasingly so for static analysis, and are particularly useful in the treatment of repetitive structures for which, in general, the behaviour of a complete structure can be determined through the analysis of a single repeating cell, together with boundary conditions if the structure is not of infinite extent. For elastostatic analyses, non-unity eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of a repeating cell are the rates of decay of self-equilibrated loading, as anticipated by Saint-Venant's principle. Multiple unity eigenvalues pertain to the transmission of load, e.g. tension, or bending moment, and equivalent (homogenized) continuum properties, such as cross-sectional area, second moment of area and Poisson's ratio, can be determined from the associated eigen- and principal vectors. Various disparate results, the majority new, others drawn from diverse sources, are presented. These include calculation of principal vectors using the Moore–Penrose inverse, bi- and symplectic orthogonality and relationship with the reciprocal theorem, restrictions on complex unity eigenvalues, effect of cell left-to-right symmetry on both the stiffness and transfer matrices, eigenvalue veering in the absence of translational symmetry and limitations on possible Jordan canonical forms. It is shown that only a repeating unity eigenvalue can lead to a non-trivial Jordan block form, so degenerate decay modes cannot exist. The present elastostatic analysis complements Langley's (Langley 1996 Proc. R. Soc. A 452 , 1631–1648) transfer matrix analysis of wave motion energetics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yang Dong; Yi Tang; Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow; Weisha Wang; Wei-Yang Dong;
    Country: United Kingdom

    This study investigated the correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. To address the correlation picture under Chinese logographical scripts, the researchers investigated the potential explanation for the correlation via Reading Stage, Information Gap, Content-based Approach, and Cognition and Creativity Theory approaches. This study undertook a meta-analysis to synthesize 89 independent samples from primary school stage to Master's degree stage. Results showed the correlation picture as an inverted U-shape, supporting the idea that vocabulary knowledge contributed a large proportion of variance on text comprehension and might also support the independent hypothesis of the impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension. In each education stage, the correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension was independent in that it did not interact with any significant moderators. This study informed that the vocabulary knowledge not only determined text comprehension progress through facial semantic meaning identification but also suggested that the coordinate development of vocabulary knowledge, grammatical knowledge, and inference would be better in complexity comprehension task performance.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marta Meazza; Maria Ashe; Hun Yi Shin; Hye Sung Yang; Andrea Mazzanti; Jung Woon Yang; Ramon Rios;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society (ACS)
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, Italy

    Herein, we describe the first enantioselective cyclopropanation of enals using benzyl chlorides as bifunctional (nucleophilic and electrophilic) reagents. The reaction is simply catalyzed by chiral secondary amines to afford the formyl cyclopropane derivatives in good yields with moderate to excellent stereoselectivities.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sally Curtis; Heather Mozley; Chloe Langford; Joseph Hartland; Jacquie Kelly;
    Country: United Kingdom

    IntroductionDespite the increasing diversity of UK medical students, students from low-socioeconomic backgrounds, some minority groups and members of communities with protected identities remain under-represented in medicine. In trying to ascertain why this under-representation persists, literature focuses on the barriers and challenges faced by under-represented students as opposed to the institution’s responsibility to remove or mitigate these obstacles. One UK University created a reverse mentoring scheme enabling students to mentor senior members of the medical faculty to help them understand the perspectives and experiences of students from minority backgrounds. This paper explores whether changes in staff perceptions of under-represented students resulted from engaging with reverse mentoring.MethodsThis qualitative study explored the impact of the reverse mentoring scheme. Staff mentees were required to write a narrative text about the Higher Education journey of an under-represented medical student before and after the reverse mentoring intervention. These texts were compared using discourse analysis to identify shifts in language use that demonstrated a change in perceptions.ResultsThe key themes from five senior staff members indicate a positive change in staff characterisation of the students and an acceptance of institutional responsibility for challenges faced. Initial texts revealed a superficial understanding of the student journey that focused on individual deficit but had fairy tale endings depicting the medical school as benevolent. The follow-up texts revealed a deeper understanding reflected by the portrayal of students as capable agents and containing pragmatic endings acknowledging the responsibility of the medical school.ConclusionThese findings highlight how removed senior staff can be from the reality of the student experience and that engaging with reverse mentoring helps to raise awareness and challenges the students face. This suggests a route for constructive change in medical schools and endorses the benefits of facilitating open discussion around educational inequity.

  • Publication . Article . 1981
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    P.-L. Francois; I. Sasaki; Michael J. Adams;
    Publisher: Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
    Country: United Kingdom

    Results are reported of three-dimensional profiling of fibre preforms from deflection function measurements. We demonstrate the importance of performing the integration involved with a sufficient number of points and show how the systematic use of interpolation allows this number of points to be obtained from a few preform projections.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Peter Griffiths; Alison Richardson; Rebecca Blackwell;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background: there is long standing interest in identifying patient outcomes that are sensitive to nursing care and an increasing number of systems that include outcomes in order to demonstrate or monitor the quality of nursing care.Objective: we undertook scoping reviews of the literature in order to identify patient outcomes sensitive to the quality of nursing services in ambulatory cancer chemotherapy settings to guide the development of an outcomes based quality measurement system.Methods: a 2 stage scoping review to identify potential outcome areas which were subsequently assessed for their sensitivity to nursing. Data sources included the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, the British Nursing Index, Google and Google scholarResults: we identified a broad range of outcomes potentially sensitive to nursing. Individual trials support many nursing interventions but we found relatively little clear evidence of effect on outcomes derived from a systematic reviews and no evidence associating characteristics of nursing services with outcomes. Conclusion: the purpose of identifying a set of outcomes as specifically nurse-sensitive for quality measurement is to give clear responsibility and create an expectation of strong clinical leadership by nurses in terms of monitoring and acting on results. It is important to select those outcomes that nurses have most impact upon. .Patient experience, nausea and vomiting, mucositis and safe medication administration were outcome areas most likely to yield sensitive measures of nursing service quality in ambulatory cancer chemotherapy

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hiromi W. L. Koh; Damian Fermin; Christine Vogel; Kwok Pui Choi; Rob M. Ewing; Hyungwon Choi;
    Country: United Kingdom

    Abstract Computational tools for multiomics data integration have usually been designed for unsupervised detection of multiomics features explaining large phenotypic variations. To achieve this, some approaches extract latent signals in heterogeneous data sets from a joint statistical error model, while others use biological networks to propagate differential expression signals and find consensus signatures. However, few approaches directly consider molecular interaction as a data feature, the essential linker between different omics data sets. The increasing availability of genome-scale interactome data connecting different molecular levels motivates a new class of methods to extract interactive signals from multiomics data. Here we developed iOmicsPASS, a tool to search for predictive subnetworks consisting of molecular interactions within and between related omics data types in a supervised analysis setting. Based on user-provided network data and relevant omics data sets, iOmicsPASS computes a score for each molecular interaction, and applies a modified nearest shrunken centroid algorithm to the scores to select densely connected subnetworks that can accurately predict each phenotypic group. iOmicsPASS detects a sparse set of predictive molecular interactions without loss of prediction accuracy compared to alternative methods, and the selected network signature immediately provides mechanistic interpretation of the multiomics profile representing each sample group. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate clear benefit of interaction-level modeling. iOmicsPASS analysis of TCGA/CPTAC breast cancer data also highlights new transcriptional regulatory network underlying the basal-like subtype as positive protein markers, a result not seen through analysis of individual omics data.

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