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  • 2012-2021
  • Preprint
  • Hal-Diderot
  • Hyper Article en Ligne - Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société
  • COVID-19
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • English
    Authors: 
    Edmond, Jennifer; Basaraba, Nicole; Doran, Michelle; Garnett, Vicky; Grile, Courtney Helen; Papaki, Eliza; Tóth-Czifra, Erzsébet;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Raj Ratn Pranesh; Mehrdad Farokhnejad; Ambesh Shekhar; Genoveva Vargas-Solar;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: France

    International audience; This paper presents the Multilingual COVID-19 Analysis Method (CMTA) for detecting and observing the spread of misinformation about this disease within texts. CMTA proposes a data science (DS) pipeline that applies machine learning models for processing, classifying (Dense-CNN) and analyzing (MBERT) multilingual (micro)-texts. DS pipeline data preparation tasks extract features from multilingual textual data and categorize it into specific information classes (i.e., 'false', 'partly false', 'misleading'). The CMTA pipeline has been experimented with multilingual micro-texts (tweets), showing misinformation spread across different languages. To assess the performance of CMTA and put it in perspective, we performed a comparative analysis of CMTA with eight monolingual models used for detecting misinformation. The comparison shows that CMTA has surpassed various monolingual models and suggests that it can be used as a general method for detecting misinformation in multilingual micro-texts. CMTA experimental results show misinformation trends about COVID-19 in different languages during the first pandemic months.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jocelyn Raude; Marion Debin; Cécile Souty; Caroline Guerris; Iclement Turbelin; Alessandra Falchi; Isabelle Bonmarin; Daniela Paolotti; Yamir Moreno; Chinelo Obi; +5 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The recent emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 in China has raised the spectre of a novel, potentially catastrophic pandemic in both scientific and lay communities throughout the world. In this particular context, people have been accused of being excessively pessimistic regarding the future consequences of this emerging health threat. However, consistent with previous research in social psychology, a large survey conducted in Europe in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic shows that the majority of respondents was actually overly optimistic about the risk of infection. https://psyarxiv.com/364qj/

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cédric Gil-Jardiné; Gabrielle Chenais; Catherine Pradeau; Eric Tentillier; Philipe Revel; Xavier Combes; Michel Galinski; Eric Tellier; Emmanuel Lagarde;
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC
    Country: France

    Abstract Objectives During periods such as the COVID-19 crisis, there is a need for responsive public health surveillance indicators related to the epidemic and to preventative measures such as lockdown. The automatic classification of the content of calls to emergency medical communication centers could provide relevant and responsive indicators. Methods We retrieved all 796,209 free-text call reports from the emergency medical communication center of the Gironde department, France, between 2018 and 2020. We trained a natural language processing neural network model with a mixed unsupervised/supervised method to classify all reasons for calls in 2020. Validation and parameter adjustment were performed using a sample of 20,000 manually-coded free-text reports. Results The number of daily calls for flu-like symptoms began to increase from February 21, 2020 and reached an unprecedented level by February 28, 2020 and peaked on March 14, 2020, 3 days before lockdown. It was strongly correlated with daily emergency room admissions, with a delay of 14 days. Calls for chest pain, stress, but also those mentioning dyspnea, ageusia and anosmia peaked 12 days later. Calls for malaises with loss of consciousness, non-voluntary injuries and alcohol intoxications sharply decreased, starting one month before lockdown. Discussion This example of the COVID-19 crisis shows how the availability of reliable and unbiased surveillance platforms can be useful for a timely and relevant monitoring of all events with public health consequences. The use of an automatic classification system using artificial intelligence makes it possible to free itself from the context that could influence a human coder, especially in a crisis situation. Conclusion The content of calls to emergency medical communication centers is an efficient epidemiological surveillance data source that provides insights into the societal upheavals induced by a health crisis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elizabeth Wrigley-Field; Mathew V. Kiang; Alicia R Riley; Magali Barbieri; Yea-Hung Chen; Kate A. Duchowny; Ellicott C. Matthay; David Van Riper; Kirrthana Jegathesan; Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo; +1 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, United States

    COVID-19 mortality increases markedly with age and is also substantially higher among Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) populations in the United States. These two facts can have conflicting implications because BIPOC populations are younger than white populations. In analyses of California and Minnesota—demographically divergent states—we show that COVID vaccination schedules based solely on age benefit the older white populations at the expense of younger BIPOC populations with higher risk of death from COVID-19. We find that strategies that prioritize high-risk geographic areas for vaccination at all ages better target mortality risk than age-based strategies alone, although they do not always perform as well as direct prioritization of high-risk racial/ethnic groups. Vaccination schemas directly implicate equitability of access, both domestically and globally. Age-based COVID-19 vaccination prioritizes white people above higher-risk others; geographic prioritization improves equity. Description

Advanced search in
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arrow_drop_down
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5 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • English
    Authors: 
    Edmond, Jennifer; Basaraba, Nicole; Doran, Michelle; Garnett, Vicky; Grile, Courtney Helen; Papaki, Eliza; Tóth-Czifra, Erzsébet;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Raj Ratn Pranesh; Mehrdad Farokhnejad; Ambesh Shekhar; Genoveva Vargas-Solar;
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: France

    International audience; This paper presents the Multilingual COVID-19 Analysis Method (CMTA) for detecting and observing the spread of misinformation about this disease within texts. CMTA proposes a data science (DS) pipeline that applies machine learning models for processing, classifying (Dense-CNN) and analyzing (MBERT) multilingual (micro)-texts. DS pipeline data preparation tasks extract features from multilingual textual data and categorize it into specific information classes (i.e., 'false', 'partly false', 'misleading'). The CMTA pipeline has been experimented with multilingual micro-texts (tweets), showing misinformation spread across different languages. To assess the performance of CMTA and put it in perspective, we performed a comparative analysis of CMTA with eight monolingual models used for detecting misinformation. The comparison shows that CMTA has surpassed various monolingual models and suggests that it can be used as a general method for detecting misinformation in multilingual micro-texts. CMTA experimental results show misinformation trends about COVID-19 in different languages during the first pandemic months.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jocelyn Raude; Marion Debin; Cécile Souty; Caroline Guerris; Iclement Turbelin; Alessandra Falchi; Isabelle Bonmarin; Daniela Paolotti; Yamir Moreno; Chinelo Obi; +5 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The recent emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 in China has raised the spectre of a novel, potentially catastrophic pandemic in both scientific and lay communities throughout the world. In this particular context, people have been accused of being excessively pessimistic regarding the future consequences of this emerging health threat. However, consistent with previous research in social psychology, a large survey conducted in Europe in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic shows that the majority of respondents was actually overly optimistic about the risk of infection. https://psyarxiv.com/364qj/

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cédric Gil-Jardiné; Gabrielle Chenais; Catherine Pradeau; Eric Tentillier; Philipe Revel; Xavier Combes; Michel Galinski; Eric Tellier; Emmanuel Lagarde;
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC
    Country: France

    Abstract Objectives During periods such as the COVID-19 crisis, there is a need for responsive public health surveillance indicators related to the epidemic and to preventative measures such as lockdown. The automatic classification of the content of calls to emergency medical communication centers could provide relevant and responsive indicators. Methods We retrieved all 796,209 free-text call reports from the emergency medical communication center of the Gironde department, France, between 2018 and 2020. We trained a natural language processing neural network model with a mixed unsupervised/supervised method to classify all reasons for calls in 2020. Validation and parameter adjustment were performed using a sample of 20,000 manually-coded free-text reports. Results The number of daily calls for flu-like symptoms began to increase from February 21, 2020 and reached an unprecedented level by February 28, 2020 and peaked on March 14, 2020, 3 days before lockdown. It was strongly correlated with daily emergency room admissions, with a delay of 14 days. Calls for chest pain, stress, but also those mentioning dyspnea, ageusia and anosmia peaked 12 days later. Calls for malaises with loss of consciousness, non-voluntary injuries and alcohol intoxications sharply decreased, starting one month before lockdown. Discussion This example of the COVID-19 crisis shows how the availability of reliable and unbiased surveillance platforms can be useful for a timely and relevant monitoring of all events with public health consequences. The use of an automatic classification system using artificial intelligence makes it possible to free itself from the context that could influence a human coder, especially in a crisis situation. Conclusion The content of calls to emergency medical communication centers is an efficient epidemiological surveillance data source that provides insights into the societal upheavals induced by a health crisis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elizabeth Wrigley-Field; Mathew V. Kiang; Alicia R Riley; Magali Barbieri; Yea-Hung Chen; Kate A. Duchowny; Ellicott C. Matthay; David Van Riper; Kirrthana Jegathesan; Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo; +1 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, United States

    COVID-19 mortality increases markedly with age and is also substantially higher among Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) populations in the United States. These two facts can have conflicting implications because BIPOC populations are younger than white populations. In analyses of California and Minnesota—demographically divergent states—we show that COVID vaccination schedules based solely on age benefit the older white populations at the expense of younger BIPOC populations with higher risk of death from COVID-19. We find that strategies that prioritize high-risk geographic areas for vaccination at all ages better target mortality risk than age-based strategies alone, although they do not always perform as well as direct prioritization of high-risk racial/ethnic groups. Vaccination schemas directly implicate equitability of access, both domestically and globally. Age-based COVID-19 vaccination prioritizes white people above higher-risk others; geographic prioritization improves equity. Description

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