Abstract Objective In December 2019, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection was first reported in Wuhan city, China, which had rapidly spread as a global pandemic. This infection was commonly presented by respiratory and /or gastrointestinal symptoms. However, it is still unclear whether COVID-19 infection could be associated with central nervous system (CNS) damage which would result in development of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Method A total of five cases of suddenly emerged manic episodes during the pandemic of COVID-19 were extensively described. We presented the symptoms and described the diagnosis, clinical course, and treatment of each case. Results All patients had positive findings of ribonucleic acid (RNA) tests for COVID-19 in specimens of their sputum. The patients later developed manic symptoms during and after the recovering period of their illness. Conclusions The case series of newly emerged manic symptoms associated with COVID-19 infection highlights the essential need for evaluation of mental health status and would contribute to our understanding of the potential risk of CNS affection by COVID-19 infection. The limited number of cases would limit the generalizability of association. Future research should investigate the behavioral changes accompanying and following COVID-19 infection.
Within the context of SEIR models, we consider a lockdown that is both imposed and lifted at an early stage of an epidemic. We show that, in these models, although such a lockdown may delay deaths, it eventually does not avert a significant number of fatalities. Therefore, in these models, the efficacy of a lockdown cannot be gauged by simply comparing figures for the deaths at the end of the lockdown with the projected figure for deaths by the same date without the lockdown. We provide a simple but robust heuristic argument to explain why this conclusion should generalize to more elaborate compartmental models. We qualitatively discuss some important effects of a lockdown, which go beyond the scope of simple models, but could cause it to increase or decrease an epidemic's final toll. Given the significance of these effects in India, and the limitations of currently available data, we conclude that simple epidemiological models cannot be used to reliably quantify the impact of the Indian lockdown on fatalities caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. 23 pages; v2: refs added; minor textual updates
Knowledge about the daily number of new infections of Covid-19 is important because it is the basis for political decisions resulting in lockdowns and urgent health care measures. We use Germany as an example to illustrate shortcomings of official numbers, which are, at least in Germany, disclosed only with several days of delay and severely underreported on weekends (more than 40%). These shortcomings outline an urgent need for alternative data sources. The other widely cited source provided by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) also deviates for Germany on average by 79% from the official numbers. We argue that Google Search and Twitter data should complement official numbers. They predict even better than the original values from Johns Hopkins University and do so several days ahead. These two data sources could also be used in parts of the world where official numbers do not exist or are perceived to be unreliable. Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Country: United Kingdom
AbstractMuch research has shown that the first lockdowns imposed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with changes in routine activities and, therefore, changes in crime. While several types of violent and property crime decreased immediately after the first lockdown, online crime rates increased. Nevertheless, little research has explored the relationship between multiple lockdowns and crime in the mid-term. Furthermore, few studies have analysed potentially contrasting trends in offline and online crimes using the same dataset. To fill these gaps in research, the present article employs interrupted time-series analysis to examine the effects on offline and online crime of the three lockdown orders implemented in Northern Ireland. We analyse crime data recorded by the police between April 2015 and May 2021. Results show that many types of traditional offline crime decreased after the lockdowns but that they subsequently bounced back to pre-pandemic levels. In contrast, results appear to indicate that cyber-enabled fraud and cyber-dependent crime rose alongside lockdown-induced changes in online habits and remained higher than before COVID-19. It is likely that the pandemic accelerated the long-term upward trend in online crime. We also find that lockdowns with stay-at-home orders had a clearer impact on crime than those without. Our results contribute to understanding how responses to pandemics can influence crime trends in the mid-term as well as helping identify the potential long-term effects of the pandemic on crime, which can strengthen the evidence base for policy and practice.
Abstract. The world experienced the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic by the end of 2019 to the beginning of 2020. Governments implemented strategies to contain it, most based on lockdowns. Mexico was no exception. The lockdown was initiated in March 2020, and with it, a reduction in the seismic noise level was witnessed by the seismic stations of the national and Valley of Mexico networks. Stations located in municipalities with more than 50 000 people usually experience larger seismic noise levels at frequencies between 1 and 5 Hz, associated with human activity. The largest noise levels are recorded in Mexico City, which has the largest population in the country. The largest drop was observed in Hermosillo, Sonora; however, it was also the city with the fastest return to activities, which seems to correlate with a quick increase in confirmed COVID-19 cases. Mexico initiated a traffic-light system to modulate the re-opening of economic activities for each state. Therefore, since 1 June, noise levels have generally reflected the colour of the state traffic light. Furthermore, the reduction in the noise level at seismic stations has allowed identification of smaller earthquakes without signal processing. Also, people in cities have perceived smaller or more distant quakes.
Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
The massive spread of false information on social media has become a global risk especially in a global pandemic situation like COVID-19. False information detection has thus become a surging research topic in recent months. NLP4IF-2021 shared task on fighting the COVID-19 infodemic has been organised to strengthen the research in false information detection where the participants are asked to predict seven different binary labels regarding false information in a tweet. The shared task has been organised in three languages; Arabic, Bulgarian and English. In this paper, we present our approach to tackle the task objective using transformers. Overall, our approach achieves a 0.707 mean F1 score in Arabic, 0.578 mean F1 score in Bulgarian and 0.864 mean F1 score in English ranking 4th place in all the languages. Accepted to Workshop on NLP for Internet Freedom (NLP4IF) at NAACL 2021
Abstract Objective: To estimate the weekly excess all-cause mortality in Norway and Sweden, and to estimate the years of life lost (YLL) attributed to COVID-19 in Sweden and the significance of mortality displacement. Methods: We found expected mortality by taking the declining trend and the seasonality in mortality into account. From the excess mortality in Sweden in 2019/20, we estimated the YLL attributed to COVID-19 using the life expectancy in different age groups. We adjusted this estimate for possible displacement using an auto-regressive model for the year-to-year variations in excess mortality. Results: We found that excess all-cause mortality over the epidemic year (July to July) 2019/20 was 517 (95%CI -12, 1074) in Norway and 4329 (3331, 5325) in Sweden. There were reported 255 COVID-19 related deaths in Norway, and 5741 in Sweden, that year. During the epidemic period March 11 – November 11, there were 6247 reported COVID-19 deaths and 5517 (4701, 6330) excess deaths in Sweden. The estimated number of life-years lost attributed to the more relaxed Swedish strategy was 45850 (13915, 80276) without adjusting for mortality displacement and 43073 (12160, 85451) after adjusting for possible displacement.
Purpose There has been increased interest in using telepractice for involving more diverse children in research and clinical services, as well as when in-person assessment is challenging, such as during COVID-19. Little is known, however, about the feasibility, reliability, and validity of language samples when conducted via telepractice. Method Child language samples from parent–child play were recorded either in person in the laboratory or via video chat at home, using parents' preferred commercially available software on their own device. Samples were transcribed and analyzed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts software. Analyses compared measures between-subjects for 46 dyads who completed video chat language samples versus 16 who completed in-person samples; within-subjects analyses were conducted for a subset of 13 dyads who completed both types. Groups did not differ significantly on child age, sex, or socioeconomic status. Results The number of usable samples and percent of utterances with intelligible audio signal did not differ significantly for in-person versus video chat language samples. Child speech and language characteristics (including mean length of utterance, type–token ratio, number of different words, grammatical errors/omissions, and child speech intelligibility) did not differ significantly between in-person and video chat methods. This was the case for between-group analyses and within-child comparisons. Furthermore, transcription reliability (conducted on a subset of samples) was high and did not differ between in-person and video chat methods. Conclusions This study demonstrates that child language samples collected via video chat are largely comparable to in-person samples in terms of key speech and language measures. Best practices for maximizing data quality for using video chat language samples are provided.
The recent COVID-19 pandemic has created havoc across the globe. Although there are several controversies regarding its origin, the worldwide scientific fraternity currently indulges in developing various therapeutic strategies to combat this threat. Consequently, we aimed to provide a comprehensive evaluation of this pandemic’s global transmission landscape to get an insight into its imminent fate on global populations. For this, we have analyzed the data on daily reported COVID-19 cases for 294 days since inception, i.e., from 31 December 2019 to 19 October 2020, in 210 countries across the five continents available in the ECDC database. Additionally, we have summarised an up-to-date list of currently available/under trial 23 drugs and vaccines to provide a consolidated reference to those who have a growing interest in knowing the status of related repurposed drugs and vaccines and to become acquainted with their mechanism of actions for preventing the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 into the human host. We performed an extensive literature review to justify our findings and get the latest know-how on the COVID-19 pathogenesis. Our findings show that India is presently in the most critical condition, where the maximum COVID-19 cases (19.37%) are reported globally in the last 14 days, which has turned into a major concern. So the government should give priority to deal with this pandemic. Besides, American and European countries are also in a risky position, as they harbor 33.31% and 34.52% of total COVID-19 cases in the last 14 days, respectively. The sudden spurt in the number of COVID-19 cases in Europe due to the beginning of extensive testing probably reflects the relaxation in policies for controlling this pandemic. Nevertheless, we should make predictions on how this virus would evolve further, which might help us design a ‘magic compound’ that can prevent any likely situation.
Background: In the current era of globalization, the Indonesian government's problem today is the weakening of nationalism and patriotism among the millennial generation. The large number of foreign cultures that have entered Indonesia has caused a sense of nationalism and patriotism. In addition, Indonesia is also facing the problem of spreading the Covid-19 virus. During the pandemic, various policies set by the government received protests from some circles because they felt their freedom was restricted. Therefore, the awareness of millennial generation nationalism is needed, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic like today. This research aims to make millennials aware of nationalism sense, which mainly to prevent the spread of Covid-19. This research is used to answer the questions of what the problems that arise due to the waning of the spirit of nationalism during the pandemic are? and what efforts should be made to maintain the spirit of nationalism? Methods: This research is a qualitative study using the literature review method. The articles used are research published in 2019 to 2021 in Google Scholar, with keywords that match the topic of millennial generation nationalism in the Covid-19 pandemic. Results and Discussion: The results of the study found that the spirit of Indonesian nationalism during the Covid-19 pandemic was decreasing. The decline in the sense of nationalism is due to several government policies that impact the psychology of society and the Indonesian economy. As a result, society, particularly the millennial generation, must play a role in breaking the chain of the Covid-19 virus's propagation by following the government's health standards. Conclusion: The government and society need to work together to understand nationalism in the millennial generation, especially in dealing with problems caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on this, various efforts need to be made to foster the spirit of nationalism and overcome the Covid-19 pandemic. So that later, it can produce a generation that upholds the value of nationalism in everyday life.