Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
47,140 Research products, page 1 of 4,714

  • Publications
  • Other research products
  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
  • Article
  • Preprint
  • IL

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ivano Baronchelli; G. Rodighiero; Harry I. Teplitz; Claudia Scarlata; Alberto Franceschini; S. Berta; Laia Barrufet; Mattia Vaccari; Matteo Bonato; Laure Ciesla; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Italy, United States
    Project: EC | HELP (607254)

    For a sample of star forming galaxies in the redshift interval 0.15$<$z$<$0.3, we study how both the relative strength of the AGN infra-red emission, compared to that due to the star formation (SF), and the numerical fraction of AGNs, change as a function of the total stellar mass of the hosting galaxy group (M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$), between $10^{10.25}$ and $10^{11.9}$M$_{\odot}$. Using a multi-component SED fitting analysis, we separate the contribution of stars, AGN torus and star formation to the total emission at different wavelengths. This technique is applied to a new multi-wavelength data-set in the SIMES field (23 not redundant photometric bands), spanning the wavelength range from the UV (GALEX) to the far-IR (Herschel) and including crucial AKARI and WISE mid-IR observations (4.5 \mu m$<\lambda<$24 \mu m), where the BH thermal emission is stronger. This new photometric catalog, that includes our best photo-z estimates, is released through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). Groups are identified through a friends of friends algorithm ($\sim$62% purity, $\sim$51% completeness). We identified a total of 45 galaxies requiring an AGN emission component, 35 of which in groups and 10 in the field. We find BHAR$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.21\pm0.27}$ and (BHAR/SFR)$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.04\pm0.24}$ while, in the same range of M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$, we do not observe any sensible change in the numerical fraction of AGNs. Our results indicate that the nuclear activity (i.e. the BHAR and the BHAR/SFR ratio) is enhanced when galaxies are located in more massive and richer groups. Comment: 31 pages, 23 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Edgar Eduardo Alayón Rodríguez;
    Publisher: INDTEC, C.A.

    La transformación digital ya no es solo un cambio importante para las empresas de tecnología o startups (emprendimientos), esta se ha convertido en una importante ventaja competitiva para el posicionamiento de una empresa en un determinado mercado. Este ensayo se fundamenta en las investigaciones de autores como Arias (2018); Camargo-Vega, Camargo-Ortega y Joyanes-Aguilar (2015); Rouhiainen (2018); y Tascón (2013). El objetivo de este ensayo presenta dos vértices, por un lado, pretende describir que tecnologías claves existen hoy y como implementarlas exitosamente en las organizaciones para lograr dicha transformación; por otro lado, intentar transmitir un pensamiento de innovación para poder aprovechar al mínimo las nuevas tecnologías. Lo que conlleva que se vea la transformación digital no como una simple implementación de nuevas tecnologías sino como “educación digital”, ya que una vez que somos capaces de entender cómo funcionan también seremos capaces de poder aplicarla. Por ello es imprescindible entenderlas y saber cómo aplicarlas para avanzar hacia las siguientes tecnologías en la industria 4.0.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yitschak Biton; Jason Costa; Wojciech Zareba; Jayson R. Baman; Ilan Goldenberg; Scott McNitt; Scott D. Solomon; Bronislava Polonsky; Valentina Kutyifa;
    Publisher: Wiley

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is highly beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) and left bundle branch block (LBBB); however, up to 30% of patients in this selected group are nonresponders. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that clinical and echocardiographic variables can be used to develop a simple mortality risk stratification score in CRT. METHODS: Best‐subsets proportional‐hazards regression analysis was used to develop a simple clinical risk score for all‐cause mortality in 756 patients with LBBB allocated to the CRT with defibrillator (CRT‐D) group enrolled in the multicenter automatic defibrillator implantation trial with cardiac resynchronization therapy. The score was used to assess the mortality risk within the CRT‐D group and the associations with mortality reduction with CRT‐D vs implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in each risk category. RESULTS: Four clinical variables comprised the risk score: age ≥ 65, creatinine ≥ 1.4 mg/dL, history of coronary artery bypass graft, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 26%. Every 1 point increase in the score was associated with 2‐fold increased mortality within the CRT‐D arm (P < 0.001). CRT‐D was associated with mortality reduction as compared with ICD only in patients with moderate risk: score 0 (HR = 0.80, P = 0.615), score 1 (HR = 0.54, P = 0.019), score 2 (HR = 0.54, P = 0.016), score 3‐4 risk factors (HR = 1.08, P = 0.811); however, the device by score interaction was not significant (P = 0.306). The score was also significantly predictive of left ventricular reverse remodeling (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Four clinical variables can be used for improved mortality risk stratification in mild HF patients with LBBB implanted with CRT‐D.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sher Bahadur Poudel; Manisha Dixit; Maria Neginskaya; Karthik Nagaraj; Evgeny Pavlov; Haim Werner; Shoshana Yakar;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    The mitochondria are key organelles regulating vital processes in the eukaryote cell. A decline in mitochondrial function is one of the hallmarks of aging. Growth hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are somatotropic hormones that regulate cellular homeostasis and play significant roles in cell differentiation, function, and survival. In mammals, these hormones peak during puberty and decline gradually during adulthood and aging. Here, we review the evidence that GH and IGF-1 regulate mitochondrial mass and function and contribute to specific processes of cellular aging. Specifically, we discuss the contribution of GH and IGF-1 to mitochondrial biogenesis, respiration and ATP production, oxidative stress, senescence, and apoptosis. Particular emphasis was placed on how these pathways intersect during aging.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Golan Miller; Avital Beery; Prashant Kumar Singh; Fengde Wang; Rotem Zelingher; Etel Motenko; Michal Lieberman-Lazarovich;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Country: France

    Abstract Climate change is causing temperature increment in crop production areas worldwide, generating conditions of heat stress that negatively affect crop productivity. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a major vegetable crop, is highly susceptible to conditions of heat stress. When tomato plants are exposed to ambient day/night temperatures that exceed 32 °C/20 °C, respectively, during the reproductive phase, fruit set and fruit weight are reduced, leading to a significant decrease in yield. Processing tomato cultivars are cultivated in open fields, where environmental conditions are not controlled; therefore, plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses, including heat stress. Nonetheless, information on stress response in processing tomatoes is very limited. Understanding the physiological response of modern processing tomato cultivars to heat stress may facilitate the development of thermotolerant cultivars. Here, we compared two tomato processing cultivars, H4107 and H9780, that we found to be constantly differing in yield performance. Using field and temperature-controlled greenhouse experiments, we show that the observed difference in yield is attributed to the occurrence of heat stress conditions. In addition, fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in the thermotolerant cultivar H4107, compared with H9780. Despite the general acceptance of pollen viability as a measure of thermotolerance, there was no difference in the percentage of viable pollen between H4107 and H9780 under either of the conditions tested. In addition to observations of similar pollen germination and bud abscission rates, our results suggest that processing tomato cultivars may present a particular case, in which pollen performance is not determining reproductive thermotolerance. Our results also demonstrate the value of combining controlled and uncontrolled experimental settings, in order to validate and identify heat stress-related responses, thus facilitating the development of thermotolerant processing tomato cultivars. Our paper deals with the response of tomato plants to high temperatures. Tomato is an important crop, and tomato plants are very sensitive to high temperatures. Therefore, the increase in temperatures due to climate change poses a threat to tomato production. We found that a specific tomato cultivar is heat stress-tolerant, with better productivity under high temperatures. Usually, such tolerance is linked with pollen grains viability. Interestingly, in our case, pollen characteristics were eliminated as a causal factor for heat stress tolerance, meaning that other factors are involved. Follow-up studies are performed towards the development of heat-tolerant tomato.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Igarashi, Ayumi; Izsak, Rani; Elkind, Edith;
    Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | ACCORD (639945)

    Cooperative games provide a framework to study cooperation among self-interested agents. They offer a number of solution concepts describing how the outcome of the cooperation should be shared among the players. Unfortunately, computational problems associated with many of these solution concepts tend to be intractable---NP-hard or worse. In this paper, we incorporate complexity measures recently proposed by Feige and Izsak (2013), called dependency degree and supermodular degree, into the complexity analysis of cooperative games. We show that many computational problems for cooperative games become tractable for games whose dependency degree or supermodular degree are bounded. In particular, we prove that simple games admit efficient algorithms for various solution concepts when the supermodular degree is small; further, we show that computing the Shapley value is always in FPT with respect to the dependency degree. Finally, we note that, while determining the dependency among players is computationally hard, there are efficient algorithms for special classes of games. 10 pages, full version of accepted AAAI-18 paper

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Omer Edhan; Ziv Hellman; Ilan Nehama;
    Publisher: The Royal Society
    Country: United Kingdom

    AbstractWe consider genotypic convergence of populations and show that under fixed fitness asexual and haploid sexual populations attain monomorphic convergence (even under genetic linkage between loci) to basins of attraction with locally exponential convergence rates; the same convergence obtains in single locus diploid sexual reproduction but to polymorphic populations. Furthermore, we show that there is a unified underlying theory underlying these convergences: all of them can be interpreted as instantiations of players in a potential game implementing a multiplicative weights updating algorithm to converge to equilibrium, making use of the Baum–Eagon Theorem. To analyse varying environments, we introduce the concept of ‘virtual convergence’, under which, even if fixation is not attained, the population nevertheless achieves the fitness growth rate it would have had under convergence to an optimal genotype. Virtual convergence is attained by asexual, haploid sexual, and multi-locus diploid reproducing populations, even if environments vary arbitrarily. We also study conditions for true monomorphic convergence in asexually reproducing populations in varying environments.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Barbara Walther; Aaron M. Lett; Alessandra Bordoni; Lidia Tomás-Cobos; Juan Antonio Nieto; Didier Dupont; Francesca Danesi; Danit R. Shahar; Ana Echaniz; Roberta Re; +5 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: France, Italy, Switzerland, United Kingdom

    Abstract Nutritional research is currently entering the field of personalized nutrition, to a large extent driven by major technological breakthroughs in analytical sciences and biocomputing. An efficient launching of the personalized approach depends on the ability of researchers to comprehensively monitor and characterize interindividual variability in the activity of the human gastrointestinal tract. This information is currently not available in such a form. This review therefore aims at identifying and discussing published data, providing evidence on interindividual variability in the processing of the major nutrients, i.e., protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals, along the gastrointestinal tract, including oral processing, intestinal digestion, and absorption. Although interindividual variability is not a primary endpoint of most studies identified, a significant number of publications provides a wealth of information on this topic for each category of nutrients. This knowledge remains fragmented, however, and understanding the clinical relevance of most of the interindividual responses to food ingestion described in this review remains unclear. In that regard, this review has identified a gap and sets the base for future research addressing the issue of the interindividual variability in the response of the human organism to the ingestion of foods. Despite numerous examples of interindividual variability in the processing of food by the human gastrointestinal tract, the knowledge on this topic, as illustrated for polymorphisms in mineral absorption, remains fragmented. The GutSelf review sets the base for motivating future research specifically addressing the issue of the interindividual variability in the response of the human organism to the ingestion of foods.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adi Lahiani; Dikla Haham-Geula; David Lankri; Susan Cornell-Kennon; Erik Schaefer; Dmitry Tsvelikhovsky; Philip Lazarovici;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society

    Polyneuropathy is a disease involving multiple peripheral nerves injuries. Axon regrowth remains the major prerequisite for plasticity, regeneration, circuit formation, and eventually functional recovery and therefore, regulation of neurite outgrowth might be a candidate for treating polyneuropathies. In a recent study, we synthesized and established the methylene-cycloalkylacetate (MCAs) pharmacophore as a lead for the development of a neurotropic drug (inducing neurite/axonal outgrowth) using the PC12 neuronal model. In the present study we extended the characterizations of the in vitro neurotropic effect of the derivative 3-(3-allyl-2-methylenecyclohexyl) propanoic acid (MCA-13) on dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord neuronal cultures and analyzed its safety properties using blood biochemistry and cell counting, acute toxicity evaluation in mice and different in vitro "off-target" pharmacological evaluations. This MCA derivative deserves further preclinical mechanistic pharmacological characterizations including therapeutic efficacy in in vivo animal models of polyneuropathies, toward development of a clinically relevant neurotropic drug.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Irena Voinsky; David Gurwitz;
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Abstract Uncertainties remain concerning the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and potential therapeutics for COVID‐19. Among unsettled controversies is whether tobacco smoking increases or protects from severe COVID‐19. Several epidemiological studies reported reduced COVID‐19 hospitalizations among smokers, while other studies reported the opposite trend. Some authors assumed that smokers have elevated airway expression of ACE2, the cell recognition site of the SARS‐Cov‐2 spike protein, but this suggestion remains unverified. We therefore performed data mining of two independent NCBI GEO genome‐wide RNA expression files (GSE7894 and GSE994) and report that in both data sets, current smokers and never smokers have, on average, closely similar bronchial epithelial cell mRNA levels of ACE2, as well as TMPRSS2, coding for a serine protease priming SARS‐Cov‐2 for cell entry, and ADAM17, coding for a protease implicated in ACE2 membrane shedding. In contrast, the expression levels of TMPRSS4, coding for a protease that primes SARS‐CoV‐2 for cell entry similarly to TMPRSS2, were elevated in bronchial epithelial cells from current smokers compared with never smokers, suggesting that higher bronchial TMPRSS4 levels in smokers might put them at higher SARS‐Cov‐2 infection risk. The effects of smoking on COVID‐19 severity need clarification with larger studies. Additionally, the postulated protective effects of nicotine and nitric oxide, which may presumably reduce the risk of a “cytokine storm” in infected individuals, deserve assessment by controlled clinical trials.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
47,140 Research products, page 1 of 4,714
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ivano Baronchelli; G. Rodighiero; Harry I. Teplitz; Claudia Scarlata; Alberto Franceschini; S. Berta; Laia Barrufet; Mattia Vaccari; Matteo Bonato; Laure Ciesla; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Italy, United States
    Project: EC | HELP (607254)

    For a sample of star forming galaxies in the redshift interval 0.15$<$z$<$0.3, we study how both the relative strength of the AGN infra-red emission, compared to that due to the star formation (SF), and the numerical fraction of AGNs, change as a function of the total stellar mass of the hosting galaxy group (M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$), between $10^{10.25}$ and $10^{11.9}$M$_{\odot}$. Using a multi-component SED fitting analysis, we separate the contribution of stars, AGN torus and star formation to the total emission at different wavelengths. This technique is applied to a new multi-wavelength data-set in the SIMES field (23 not redundant photometric bands), spanning the wavelength range from the UV (GALEX) to the far-IR (Herschel) and including crucial AKARI and WISE mid-IR observations (4.5 \mu m$<\lambda<$24 \mu m), where the BH thermal emission is stronger. This new photometric catalog, that includes our best photo-z estimates, is released through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). Groups are identified through a friends of friends algorithm ($\sim$62% purity, $\sim$51% completeness). We identified a total of 45 galaxies requiring an AGN emission component, 35 of which in groups and 10 in the field. We find BHAR$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.21\pm0.27}$ and (BHAR/SFR)$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.04\pm0.24}$ while, in the same range of M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$, we do not observe any sensible change in the numerical fraction of AGNs. Our results indicate that the nuclear activity (i.e. the BHAR and the BHAR/SFR ratio) is enhanced when galaxies are located in more massive and richer groups. Comment: 31 pages, 23 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Edgar Eduardo Alayón Rodríguez;
    Publisher: INDTEC, C.A.

    La transformación digital ya no es solo un cambio importante para las empresas de tecnología o startups (emprendimientos), esta se ha convertido en una importante ventaja competitiva para el posicionamiento de una empresa en un determinado mercado. Este ensayo se fundamenta en las investigaciones de autores como Arias (2018); Camargo-Vega, Camargo-Ortega y Joyanes-Aguilar (2015); Rouhiainen (2018); y Tascón (2013). El objetivo de este ensayo presenta dos vértices, por un lado, pretende describir que tecnologías claves existen hoy y como implementarlas exitosamente en las organizaciones para lograr dicha transformación; por otro lado, intentar transmitir un pensamiento de innovación para poder aprovechar al mínimo las nuevas tecnologías. Lo que conlleva que se vea la transformación digital no como una simple implementación de nuevas tecnologías sino como “educación digital”, ya que una vez que somos capaces de entender cómo funcionan también seremos capaces de poder aplicarla. Por ello es imprescindible entenderlas y saber cómo aplicarlas para avanzar hacia las siguientes tecnologías en la industria 4.0.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yitschak Biton; Jason Costa; Wojciech Zareba; Jayson R. Baman; Ilan Goldenberg; Scott McNitt; Scott D. Solomon; Bronislava Polonsky; Valentina Kutyifa;
    Publisher: Wiley

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is highly beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) and left bundle branch block (LBBB); however, up to 30% of patients in this selected group are nonresponders. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that clinical and echocardiographic variables can be used to develop a simple mortality risk stratification score in CRT. METHODS: Best‐subsets proportional‐hazards regression analysis was used to develop a simple clinical risk score for all‐cause mortality in 756 patients with LBBB allocated to the CRT with defibrillator (CRT‐D) group enrolled in the multicenter automatic defibrillator implantation trial with cardiac resynchronization therapy. The score was used to assess the mortality risk within the CRT‐D group and the associations with mortality reduction with CRT‐D vs implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in each risk category. RESULTS: Four clinical variables comprised the risk score: age ≥ 65, creatinine ≥ 1.4 mg/dL, history of coronary artery bypass graft, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 26%. Every 1 point increase in the score was associated with 2‐fold increased mortality within the CRT‐D arm (P < 0.001). CRT‐D was associated with mortality reduction as compared with ICD only in patients with moderate risk: score 0 (HR = 0.80, P = 0.615), score 1 (HR = 0.54, P = 0.019), score 2 (HR = 0.54, P = 0.016), score 3‐4 risk factors (HR = 1.08, P = 0.811); however, the device by score interaction was not significant (P = 0.306). The score was also significantly predictive of left ventricular reverse remodeling (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Four clinical variables can be used for improved mortality risk stratification in mild HF patients with LBBB implanted with CRT‐D.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sher Bahadur Poudel; Manisha Dixit; Maria Neginskaya; Karthik Nagaraj; Evgeny Pavlov; Haim Werner; Shoshana Yakar;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    The mitochondria are key organelles regulating vital processes in the eukaryote cell. A decline in mitochondrial function is one of the hallmarks of aging. Growth hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are somatotropic hormones that regulate cellular homeostasis and play significant roles in cell differentiation, function, and survival. In mammals, these hormones peak during puberty and decline gradually during adulthood and aging. Here, we review the evidence that GH and IGF-1 regulate mitochondrial mass and function and contribute to specific processes of cellular aging. Specifically, we discuss the contribution of GH and IGF-1 to mitochondrial biogenesis, respiration and ATP production, oxidative stress, senescence, and apoptosis. Particular emphasis was placed on how these pathways intersect during aging.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Golan Miller; Avital Beery; Prashant Kumar Singh; Fengde Wang; Rotem Zelingher; Etel Motenko; Michal Lieberman-Lazarovich;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Country: France

    Abstract Climate change is causing temperature increment in crop production areas worldwide, generating conditions of heat stress that negatively affect crop productivity. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a major vegetable crop, is highly susceptible to conditions of heat stress. When tomato plants are exposed to ambient day/night temperatures that exceed 32 °C/20 °C, respectively, during the reproductive phase, fruit set and fruit weight are reduced, leading to a significant decrease in yield. Processing tomato cultivars are cultivated in open fields, where environmental conditions are not controlled; therefore, plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses, including heat stress. Nonetheless, information on stress response in processing tomatoes is very limited. Understanding the physiological response of modern processing tomato cultivars to heat stress may facilitate the development of thermotolerant cultivars. Here, we compared two tomato processing cultivars, H4107 and H9780, that we found to be constantly differing in yield performance. Using field and temperature-controlled greenhouse experiments, we show that the observed difference in yield is attributed to the occurrence of heat stress conditions. In addition, fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in the thermotolerant cultivar H4107, compared with H9780. Despite the general acceptance of pollen viability as a measure of thermotolerance, there was no difference in the percentage of viable pollen between H4107 and H9780 under either of the conditions tested. In addition to observations of similar pollen germination and bud abscission rates, our results suggest that processing tomato cultivars may present a particular case, in which pollen performance is not determining reproductive thermotolerance. Our results also demonstrate the value of combining controlled and uncontrolled experimental settings, in order to validate and identify heat stress-related responses, thus facilitating the development of thermotolerant processing tomato cultivars. Our paper deals with the response of tomato plants to high temperatures. Tomato is an important crop, and tomato plants are very sensitive to high temperatures. Therefore, the increase in temperatures due to climate change poses a threat to tomato production. We found that a specific tomato cultivar is heat stress-tolerant, with better productivity under high temperatures. Usually, such tolerance is linked with pollen grains viability. Interestingly, in our case, pollen characteristics were eliminated as a causal factor for heat stress tolerance, meaning that other factors are involved. Follow-up studies are performed towards the development of heat-tolerant tomato.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Igarashi, Ayumi; Izsak, Rani; Elkind, Edith;
    Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | ACCORD (639945)

    Cooperative games provide a framework to study cooperation among self-interested agents. They offer a number of solution concepts describing how the outcome of the cooperation should be shared among the players. Unfortunately, computational problems associated with many of these solution concepts tend to be intractable---NP-hard or worse. In this paper, we incorporate complexity measures recently proposed by Feige and Izsak (2013), called dependency degree and supermodular degree, into the complexity analysis of cooperative games. We show that many computational problems for cooperative games become tractable for games whose dependency degree or supermodular degree are bounded. In particular, we prove that simple games admit efficient algorithms for various solution concepts when the supermodular degree is small; further, we show that computing the Shapley value is always in FPT with respect to the dependency degree. Finally, we note that, while determining the dependency among players is computationally hard, there are efficient algorithms for special classes of games. 10 pages, full version of accepted AAAI-18 paper

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Omer Edhan; Ziv Hellman; Ilan Nehama;
    Publisher: The Royal Society
    Country: United Kingdom

    AbstractWe consider genotypic convergence of populations and show that under fixed fitness asexual and haploid sexual populations attain monomorphic convergence (even under genetic linkage between loci) to basins of attraction with locally exponential convergence rates; the same convergence obtains in single locus diploid sexual reproduction but to polymorphic populations. Furthermore, we show that there is a unified underlying theory underlying these convergences: all of them can be interpreted as instantiations of players in a potential game implementing a multiplicative weights updating algorithm to converge to equilibrium, making use of the Baum–Eagon Theorem. To analyse varying environments, we introduce the concept of ‘virtual convergence’, under which, even if fixation is not attained, the population nevertheless achieves the fitness growth rate it would have had under convergence to an optimal genotype. Virtual convergence is attained by asexual, haploid sexual, and multi-locus diploid reproducing populations, even if environments vary arbitrarily. We also study conditions for true monomorphic convergence in asexually reproducing populations in varying environments.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Barbara Walther; Aaron M. Lett; Alessandra Bordoni; Lidia Tomás-Cobos; Juan Antonio Nieto; Didier Dupont; Francesca Danesi; Danit R. Shahar; Ana Echaniz; Roberta Re; +5 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: France, Italy, Switzerland, United Kingdom

    Abstract Nutritional research is currently entering the field of personalized nutrition, to a large extent driven by major technological breakthroughs in analytical sciences and biocomputing. An efficient launching of the personalized approach depends on the ability of researchers to comprehensively monitor and characterize interindividual variability in the activity of the human gastrointestinal tract. This information is currently not available in such a form. This review therefore aims at identifying and discussing published data, providing evidence on interindividual variability in the processing of the major nutrients, i.e., protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals, along the gastrointestinal tract, including oral processing, intestinal digestion, and absorption. Although interindividual variability is not a primary endpoint of most studies identified, a significant number of publications provides a wealth of information on this topic for each category of nutrients. This knowledge remains fragmented, however, and understanding the clinical relevance of most of the interindividual responses to food ingestion described in this review remains unclear. In that regard, this review has identified a gap and sets the base for future research addressing the issue of the interindividual variability in the response of the human organism to the ingestion of foods. Despite numerous examples of interindividual variability in the processing of food by the human gastrointestinal tract, the knowledge on this topic, as illustrated for polymorphisms in mineral absorption, remains fragmented. The GutSelf review sets the base for motivating future research specifically addressing the issue of the interindividual variability in the response of the human organism to the ingestion of foods.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adi Lahiani; Dikla Haham-Geula; David Lankri; Susan Cornell-Kennon; Erik Schaefer; Dmitry Tsvelikhovsky; Philip Lazarovici;
    Publisher: American Chemical Society

    Polyneuropathy is a disease involving multiple peripheral nerves injuries. Axon regrowth remains the major prerequisite for plasticity, regeneration, circuit formation, and eventually functional recovery and therefore, regulation of neurite outgrowth might be a candidate for treating polyneuropathies. In a recent study, we synthesized and established the methylene-cycloalkylacetate (MCAs) pharmacophore as a lead for the development of a neurotropic drug (inducing neurite/axonal outgrowth) using the PC12 neuronal model. In the present study we extended the characterizations of the in vitro neurotropic effect of the derivative 3-(3-allyl-2-methylenecyclohexyl) propanoic acid (MCA-13) on dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord neuronal cultures and analyzed its safety properties using blood biochemistry and cell counting, acute toxicity evaluation in mice and different in vitro "off-target" pharmacological evaluations. This MCA derivative deserves further preclinical mechanistic pharmacological characterizations including therapeutic efficacy in in vivo animal models of polyneuropathies, toward development of a clinically relevant neurotropic drug.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Irena Voinsky; David Gurwitz;
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Abstract Uncertainties remain concerning the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and potential therapeutics for COVID‐19. Among unsettled controversies is whether tobacco smoking increases or protects from severe COVID‐19. Several epidemiological studies reported reduced COVID‐19 hospitalizations among smokers, while other studies reported the opposite trend. Some authors assumed that smokers have elevated airway expression of ACE2, the cell recognition site of the SARS‐Cov‐2 spike protein, but this suggestion remains unverified. We therefore performed data mining of two independent NCBI GEO genome‐wide RNA expression files (GSE7894 and GSE994) and report that in both data sets, current smokers and never smokers have, on average, closely similar bronchial epithelial cell mRNA levels of ACE2, as well as TMPRSS2, coding for a serine protease priming SARS‐Cov‐2 for cell entry, and ADAM17, coding for a protease implicated in ACE2 membrane shedding. In contrast, the expression levels of TMPRSS4, coding for a protease that primes SARS‐CoV‐2 for cell entry similarly to TMPRSS2, were elevated in bronchial epithelial cells from current smokers compared with never smokers, suggesting that higher bronchial TMPRSS4 levels in smokers might put them at higher SARS‐Cov‐2 infection risk. The effects of smoking on COVID‐19 severity need clarification with larger studies. Additionally, the postulated protective effects of nicotine and nitric oxide, which may presumably reduce the risk of a “cytokine storm” in infected individuals, deserve assessment by controlled clinical trials.

Send a message
How can we help?
We usually respond in a few hours.