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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Ledstrup;
    Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
    Country: Denmark

    Unless they are luxurious, one rarely stares at cars. Unless they are broken, one rarely reflects about them. Cars pass by. They are driven. They take us from A to B and back. The car, because it is such a habitual vehicle, surrounding us with its unremarkable ubiquity, seems like an obvious metaphor for ordinary life.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Stina Teilmann-Lock; Trine Brun Petersen;
    Country: Denmark

    This article investigates fashion theoretical perspectives on European and US litigation over Louboutin’s red sole mark. It argues that fashion has logics that make it a special case with respect to intellectual property law.In recent disputes over Louboutin’s red sole mark including cases heard by the Court of Justice of the European Union and the US Second Circuit Court of Appeals a number of assumptions as to how fashions emerge and are disseminated are made. We test these assumptions against current fashion theory. In a fashion theoretical perspective the red sole is a polysemic gesture involving both branding and aesthetic communication through specific design features, which endows the shoe with aesthetic, social and economic value on the high fashion market. Accordingly, Louboutin’s red sole may be said to serve an aesthetic purpose and to work as an indicator of source at the same time.In our view, fashion is a special case in relation to intellectual property law for two reasons in particular: (i) the temporal logic of fashion is different from that of most other products because fashion is change and (ii) fashion has logics where design features are utterly self-referential: for example, one purpose of the red sole is to announce that ‘this is fashion’. Strong protection of fashion stifles both of these logics and is, therefore, not good for the fashion market as a whole.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Søren Askegaard; Linda M. Scott;
    Country: Denmark

    This special issue grows out of a set of debates on the challenges to and limitations of current consumer culture theory (CCT) research in academic journals including the present one (e.g. Askegaard and Linnet, 2011) as well as two sessions devoted to epistemological perspectives— past, present and future—at the CCT Conference held at Oxford in August 2012. From the papers presented at this conference, we have selected three and added two more for this issue of Marketing Theory. As it turned out, the debates—and consequently, the articles in this issue—inadvertently turned toward the role of various crucial events and publications, various manifestary moments (Bode and Ostergaard, this volume) and their consequential historical legacy. We wish to follow up on that unexpected turn in this editorial introduction. We find it an ironic experience to introduce a series of articles that attempt to give an accounting of CCT’s past in order to argue for desired futures. The sense of irony inheres in the fact that we ourselves were actors in the history of events being described and evaluated. However, we also find that some of the evidentiary gaps, rhetorical agendas and theoretical positions create the contradictory echo typical of irony. Much of this noise is attributable to the exclusive use of written documents as an evidentiary base, a problem well recognized in history but not well understood in marketing, since historical method has so little presence in this discipline. So, we decided to do a quick corrective exercise and pose a set of 10 questions to a short list of living sources—people who were instrumental in the birth of CCT, in Europe and America. We got replies from Morris Holbrook, Russ Belk, John Sherry, Craig Thompson, Eric Arnould, Elizabeth Hirschman, Sidney Levy, Dennis Rook, David Mick, Barbara Phillips, Ed McQuarrie, Jeff Murray, Fuat Firat and Markus Giesler in the North American scene as well as Stefania Borghini, Alan Bradshaw, Bernard Cova, Guliz Ger, Jacob Ostberg, Nil Ozcaglar-Toulouse, Stefano Pace, Diego Rinallo, Lorna Stevens, Pauline Maclaran

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Rosa María Rodríguez Porto;
    Country: Denmark

    Despite the wealth of scholarly work that has been done –and is being done– on the ‘Biblias romanceadas’, a systematic survey of the pictorial cycles found in MSS Escorial, I.I.3, I.I.4, I.I.5, I.I.7, Ajuda 52-XIII-1, and the Biblia de Alba remains still lacking. Admittedly, the miniatures of the famous Arragel BibleArragel Bibl have attracted considerable attention since the manuscript was first published by Paz y Meliá in 1922, but in most of cases only inasmuch as their striking features were to be linked to rabbinic traditions. For the rest of the manuscripts, the divide created along the lines of art history and philology has turned them into fragmentary realities devoid of any coherent meaning, further isolating these works from the complex visual culture they belonged to. Besides, both art historians and philologists alike seem to have been more concerned with a search for origins and sources than with an engaged analysis of the subtle interplay of text and images in each individual manuscript. However, the scrutiny of Escorial, I.I.3 [E3] proves to be controversial in more than one sense. Its 65 illustrations display a visual narrative that has nothing to do with the iconographic programme designed for the Biblia de Alba. Even if the biblical version copied in E3 can be considered as ‘the closest textual witness to the traditional Sephardic translation procedures’ (Pueyo – Enrique-Arias, 2013: 203), the accompanying miniatures reveal no significant trace of midrashic elements or any detail akin to the illustrated Haggadot whatsoever. In fact, comparison with the biblical compilation copied and illustrated for Queen María of Portugal after Alfonso X’s General Estoria (Évora, BM, MS CXXV2-3 and Escorial, I.I.2; ca. 1340) points out to the existence of some common trends in the depiction of Old Testament episodes in Late Medieval Castile. Regardless, the patrons of this lavish Bible –certainly Christian and pertaining to the upper nobility– have not been identified yet. There is no agreement on the date of the manuscript, either (ca. 1425-1450 for Avenoza; ca. 1487-1501 for Marchena and Villaseñor), although the miniaturists involved seem to have been worked in the illustration of other religious books for the Cathedral of Seville and the Catholic Kings.Several questions can be posed, then, when looking at E3: To what extent was the ‘Jewishness’ of the text highlighted/nuanced/neutralised by the images (and by appending the deuterocanonical Book of the Maccabees)? Were any of the features of the manuscript perceived as particularly ‘Jewish’ by the audience? In sum, did this manuscript stage any kind of religious dispute or, conversely, did it evince that biblical text could be turned in just historia sagrada?

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Anna Lluveras-Tenorio; F. Parlanti; Ilaria Degano; G. Lorenzetti; D. Demosthenous; Maria Perla Colombini; Kaare Lund Rasmussen;
    Countries: Denmark, Italy

    Abstract The present work reports decisive new data regarding the characterization of the paint materials used by Cypriot icon painters in Orthodox icons from the 12th to the 18th century. Eight samples of red paint, collected from seven different icons originally placed in three different churches in Morphou and Nicosia (Cyprus) have been analysed to identify the painting technique. The identification of pigments and fillers was performed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In order to determine the binding medium, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py/GC/MS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) were used. The study of the organic colorants was performed by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Both inorganic pigments and organic colorants were used to create the red hues in the icons. Cinnabar was identified in almost all the paint samples studied, although in some cases red lead was also found. European cochineal, kermes, redwood and Indian lac were identified in the red paints, in combination with inorganic pigments. Moreover, stratigraphic analyses allowed us to assess that animal glue and calcium sulphate were used for the preparation layers, while egg was used as binding medium in the red paint layers. The identification of Indian lac in a 12th century icon is the first known occurrence reported in the literature of this organic colorant in the European tradition.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Nina Boberg-Fazlic; Paul Sharp;
    Country: Denmark

    In this paper, we examine the long-run social mobility experience in England. We present evidence for surprisingly constant levels of social mobility over the period 1550–1749, despite huge structural changes. Examining regional differences, we show that the North of England exhibited higher rates of social mobility than the South. We link this to the hypothesis that historically high levels of social mobility can lead to a culture of non-acceptance of redistribution and welfare provision. Taking advantage of the fact that welfare provision was determined at the local level at the time, we are able to compare social mobility rates and welfare spending within a single country. Consistent with the hypothesis, we find evidence for historically higher levels of social mobility as well as lower welfare spending and less acceptance of redistribution in the North.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jens Auer; Massimiliano Ditta;
    Country: Denmark

    Although the design and construction of wooden merchant vessels in the nineteenth century is generally considered to be well understood, the excavation and subsequent analysis of the wreck of the wooden Finnish topsail schooner Pettu (1865) revealed a number of unexpected features, which prompted the authors to take a closer look at the ship. In the following study, it will be attempted to gain an insight into the society that produced and used the merchant vessel through a detailed analysis of its construction and an investigation into the concept behind its design. The wreck of the Pettu, which, considering its loss in 1893, is barely covered by the 100 year rule in Danish heritage legislation, is a good example for the archaeological potential of even relatively ‘modern’ wreck sites, adding to their significance. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Søren Kjærgaard; Vladimir Canudas-Romo;
    Country: Denmark

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger people per older person among the analysed countries. We discuss the policy implications implied by our cohort measures.

  • Publication . Article . 2018
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Trine Bottos Olsen; Peter Mygind Leth;
    Country: Denmark

    Freezing as a method for hiding a body is rare. We report here a homicide case in which three bodies were concealed in a freezer. This presented the pathologist with the problem of how to thaw the bodies and simultaneously avoid decomposition of the uppermost body. The problem was solved by slow thawing in a refrigerated morgue and by removing the bodies one after the other from top to bottom. The victims were a 27-year old mother and her two daughters, 7 and 9 years of age. The perpetrator was the 34-year old now-divorced husband and father. All were refugees from Syria. The perpetrator fled back to Syria. He was later arrested in Syria, confessed the crime and was sentenced to life imprisonment. The autopsy findings is discussed and compared to finding reported in the scientific literature.

  • Publication . Article . 2009
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Thomas Pettitt;
    Country: Denmark

    A recent trend in literary history, cultural studies and folkloristics has been a ‘corporeal turn’, which focuses on how bodies are constructed and understood in texts and other cultural productions. A significant contribution from Guillemette Bolens identifies two distinct corporal constructions in medieval narrative: the contained body (an envelope vulnerable to penetration) and the articulated body (limbs and joints designed for motion). This perception is here extended to include narrative constructions of the environment (enclosures versus avenues and junctions). Furthermore Bolens’s suggestion that articulated and contained bodies are mainly to be found, respectively, in oral tradition and textual culture, is elaborated to the thesis that the contained constructions will be particularly at home in the printed book, whose dominance is associated with cultural containment from a variety of perspectives. And a shift from predominantly articulated constructions to predominantly contained is indeed discernible in the wonder tale ‘Red Riding Hood’, as it modulates from oral tradition to printed fairy tale. Concluding speculations suggest that if the cultural dominance of the printed book has been a (‘Gutenberg’) parenthesis, the tale should now be reverting to articulated constructions as it escapes from books into the digital media and Internet technology.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
104 Research products, page 1 of 11
  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2018
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Ledstrup;
    Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
    Country: Denmark

    Unless they are luxurious, one rarely stares at cars. Unless they are broken, one rarely reflects about them. Cars pass by. They are driven. They take us from A to B and back. The car, because it is such a habitual vehicle, surrounding us with its unremarkable ubiquity, seems like an obvious metaphor for ordinary life.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Stina Teilmann-Lock; Trine Brun Petersen;
    Country: Denmark

    This article investigates fashion theoretical perspectives on European and US litigation over Louboutin’s red sole mark. It argues that fashion has logics that make it a special case with respect to intellectual property law.In recent disputes over Louboutin’s red sole mark including cases heard by the Court of Justice of the European Union and the US Second Circuit Court of Appeals a number of assumptions as to how fashions emerge and are disseminated are made. We test these assumptions against current fashion theory. In a fashion theoretical perspective the red sole is a polysemic gesture involving both branding and aesthetic communication through specific design features, which endows the shoe with aesthetic, social and economic value on the high fashion market. Accordingly, Louboutin’s red sole may be said to serve an aesthetic purpose and to work as an indicator of source at the same time.In our view, fashion is a special case in relation to intellectual property law for two reasons in particular: (i) the temporal logic of fashion is different from that of most other products because fashion is change and (ii) fashion has logics where design features are utterly self-referential: for example, one purpose of the red sole is to announce that ‘this is fashion’. Strong protection of fashion stifles both of these logics and is, therefore, not good for the fashion market as a whole.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Søren Askegaard; Linda M. Scott;
    Country: Denmark

    This special issue grows out of a set of debates on the challenges to and limitations of current consumer culture theory (CCT) research in academic journals including the present one (e.g. Askegaard and Linnet, 2011) as well as two sessions devoted to epistemological perspectives— past, present and future—at the CCT Conference held at Oxford in August 2012. From the papers presented at this conference, we have selected three and added two more for this issue of Marketing Theory. As it turned out, the debates—and consequently, the articles in this issue—inadvertently turned toward the role of various crucial events and publications, various manifestary moments (Bode and Ostergaard, this volume) and their consequential historical legacy. We wish to follow up on that unexpected turn in this editorial introduction. We find it an ironic experience to introduce a series of articles that attempt to give an accounting of CCT’s past in order to argue for desired futures. The sense of irony inheres in the fact that we ourselves were actors in the history of events being described and evaluated. However, we also find that some of the evidentiary gaps, rhetorical agendas and theoretical positions create the contradictory echo typical of irony. Much of this noise is attributable to the exclusive use of written documents as an evidentiary base, a problem well recognized in history but not well understood in marketing, since historical method has so little presence in this discipline. So, we decided to do a quick corrective exercise and pose a set of 10 questions to a short list of living sources—people who were instrumental in the birth of CCT, in Europe and America. We got replies from Morris Holbrook, Russ Belk, John Sherry, Craig Thompson, Eric Arnould, Elizabeth Hirschman, Sidney Levy, Dennis Rook, David Mick, Barbara Phillips, Ed McQuarrie, Jeff Murray, Fuat Firat and Markus Giesler in the North American scene as well as Stefania Borghini, Alan Bradshaw, Bernard Cova, Guliz Ger, Jacob Ostberg, Nil Ozcaglar-Toulouse, Stefano Pace, Diego Rinallo, Lorna Stevens, Pauline Maclaran

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Rosa María Rodríguez Porto;
    Country: Denmark

    Despite the wealth of scholarly work that has been done –and is being done– on the ‘Biblias romanceadas’, a systematic survey of the pictorial cycles found in MSS Escorial, I.I.3, I.I.4, I.I.5, I.I.7, Ajuda 52-XIII-1, and the Biblia de Alba remains still lacking. Admittedly, the miniatures of the famous Arragel BibleArragel Bibl have attracted considerable attention since the manuscript was first published by Paz y Meliá in 1922, but in most of cases only inasmuch as their striking features were to be linked to rabbinic traditions. For the rest of the manuscripts, the divide created along the lines of art history and philology has turned them into fragmentary realities devoid of any coherent meaning, further isolating these works from the complex visual culture they belonged to. Besides, both art historians and philologists alike seem to have been more concerned with a search for origins and sources than with an engaged analysis of the subtle interplay of text and images in each individual manuscript. However, the scrutiny of Escorial, I.I.3 [E3] proves to be controversial in more than one sense. Its 65 illustrations display a visual narrative that has nothing to do with the iconographic programme designed for the Biblia de Alba. Even if the biblical version copied in E3 can be considered as ‘the closest textual witness to the traditional Sephardic translation procedures’ (Pueyo – Enrique-Arias, 2013: 203), the accompanying miniatures reveal no significant trace of midrashic elements or any detail akin to the illustrated Haggadot whatsoever. In fact, comparison with the biblical compilation copied and illustrated for Queen María of Portugal after Alfonso X’s General Estoria (Évora, BM, MS CXXV2-3 and Escorial, I.I.2; ca. 1340) points out to the existence of some common trends in the depiction of Old Testament episodes in Late Medieval Castile. Regardless, the patrons of this lavish Bible –certainly Christian and pertaining to the upper nobility– have not been identified yet. There is no agreement on the date of the manuscript, either (ca. 1425-1450 for Avenoza; ca. 1487-1501 for Marchena and Villaseñor), although the miniaturists involved seem to have been worked in the illustration of other religious books for the Cathedral of Seville and the Catholic Kings.Several questions can be posed, then, when looking at E3: To what extent was the ‘Jewishness’ of the text highlighted/nuanced/neutralised by the images (and by appending the deuterocanonical Book of the Maccabees)? Were any of the features of the manuscript perceived as particularly ‘Jewish’ by the audience? In sum, did this manuscript stage any kind of religious dispute or, conversely, did it evince that biblical text could be turned in just historia sagrada?

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Anna Lluveras-Tenorio; F. Parlanti; Ilaria Degano; G. Lorenzetti; D. Demosthenous; Maria Perla Colombini; Kaare Lund Rasmussen;
    Countries: Denmark, Italy

    Abstract The present work reports decisive new data regarding the characterization of the paint materials used by Cypriot icon painters in Orthodox icons from the 12th to the 18th century. Eight samples of red paint, collected from seven different icons originally placed in three different churches in Morphou and Nicosia (Cyprus) have been analysed to identify the painting technique. The identification of pigments and fillers was performed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In order to determine the binding medium, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py/GC/MS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) were used. The study of the organic colorants was performed by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Both inorganic pigments and organic colorants were used to create the red hues in the icons. Cinnabar was identified in almost all the paint samples studied, although in some cases red lead was also found. European cochineal, kermes, redwood and Indian lac were identified in the red paints, in combination with inorganic pigments. Moreover, stratigraphic analyses allowed us to assess that animal glue and calcium sulphate were used for the preparation layers, while egg was used as binding medium in the red paint layers. The identification of Indian lac in a 12th century icon is the first known occurrence reported in the literature of this organic colorant in the European tradition.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Nina Boberg-Fazlic; Paul Sharp;
    Country: Denmark

    In this paper, we examine the long-run social mobility experience in England. We present evidence for surprisingly constant levels of social mobility over the period 1550–1749, despite huge structural changes. Examining regional differences, we show that the North of England exhibited higher rates of social mobility than the South. We link this to the hypothesis that historically high levels of social mobility can lead to a culture of non-acceptance of redistribution and welfare provision. Taking advantage of the fact that welfare provision was determined at the local level at the time, we are able to compare social mobility rates and welfare spending within a single country. Consistent with the hypothesis, we find evidence for historically higher levels of social mobility as well as lower welfare spending and less acceptance of redistribution in the North.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Jens Auer; Massimiliano Ditta;
    Country: Denmark

    Although the design and construction of wooden merchant vessels in the nineteenth century is generally considered to be well understood, the excavation and subsequent analysis of the wreck of the wooden Finnish topsail schooner Pettu (1865) revealed a number of unexpected features, which prompted the authors to take a closer look at the ship. In the following study, it will be attempted to gain an insight into the society that produced and used the merchant vessel through a detailed analysis of its construction and an investigation into the concept behind its design. The wreck of the Pettu, which, considering its loss in 1893, is barely covered by the 100 year rule in Danish heritage legislation, is a good example for the archaeological potential of even relatively ‘modern’ wreck sites, adding to their significance. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Søren Kjærgaard; Vladimir Canudas-Romo;
    Country: Denmark

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger people per older person among the analysed countries. We discuss the policy implications implied by our cohort measures.

  • Publication . Article . 2018
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Trine Bottos Olsen; Peter Mygind Leth;
    Country: Denmark

    Freezing as a method for hiding a body is rare. We report here a homicide case in which three bodies were concealed in a freezer. This presented the pathologist with the problem of how to thaw the bodies and simultaneously avoid decomposition of the uppermost body. The problem was solved by slow thawing in a refrigerated morgue and by removing the bodies one after the other from top to bottom. The victims were a 27-year old mother and her two daughters, 7 and 9 years of age. The perpetrator was the 34-year old now-divorced husband and father. All were refugees from Syria. The perpetrator fled back to Syria. He was later arrested in Syria, confessed the crime and was sentenced to life imprisonment. The autopsy findings is discussed and compared to finding reported in the scientific literature.

  • Publication . Article . 2009
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Thomas Pettitt;
    Country: Denmark

    A recent trend in literary history, cultural studies and folkloristics has been a ‘corporeal turn’, which focuses on how bodies are constructed and understood in texts and other cultural productions. A significant contribution from Guillemette Bolens identifies two distinct corporal constructions in medieval narrative: the contained body (an envelope vulnerable to penetration) and the articulated body (limbs and joints designed for motion). This perception is here extended to include narrative constructions of the environment (enclosures versus avenues and junctions). Furthermore Bolens’s suggestion that articulated and contained bodies are mainly to be found, respectively, in oral tradition and textual culture, is elaborated to the thesis that the contained constructions will be particularly at home in the printed book, whose dominance is associated with cultural containment from a variety of perspectives. And a shift from predominantly articulated constructions to predominantly contained is indeed discernible in the wonder tale ‘Red Riding Hood’, as it modulates from oral tradition to printed fairy tale. Concluding speculations suggest that if the cultural dominance of the printed book has been a (‘Gutenberg’) parenthesis, the tale should now be reverting to articulated constructions as it escapes from books into the digital media and Internet technology.

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