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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Péter Bálint; Ian Melbourne;
    Publisher: Springer New York LLC
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | STOCHEXTHOMOG (320977), EC | STOCHEXTHOMOG (320977)

    For geometric Lorenz attractors (including the classical Lorenz attractor) we obtain a greatly simplified proof of the central limit theorem which applies also to the more general class of codimension two singular hyperbolic attractors. We also obtain the functional central limit theorem and moment estimates, as well as iterated versions of these results. A consequence is deterministic homogenisation (convergence to a stochastic differential equation) for fast-slow dynamical systems whenever the fast dynamics is singularly hyperbolic of codimension two. Minor corrections. Published online in J. Stat. Phys

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Research . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Melo da Costa, Eliza; Brandao Malbouisson, Helena; Tomei, Thiago; de Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; de Souza Lemos, Dener; Garcia Fuentes, Francisco Ignacio; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Brom, Jean-Marie; +279 more
    Countries: Italy, Finland, Croatia, Croatia, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, Belgium, Turkey ...
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730)

    Measurements of the second Fourier harmonic coefficient (v2) of the azimuthal distributions of prompt and nonprompt D0 mesons produced in pp and pPb collisions are presented. Nonprompt D0 mesons come from beauty hadron decays. The data samples are collected by the CMS experiment at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies of 13 and 8.16 TeV, respectively. In high multiplicity pp collisions, v2 signals for prompt charm hadrons are reported for the first time, and are found to be comparable to those for light-flavor hadron species over a transverse momentum (pT) range of 2–6 GeV. Compared at similar event multiplicities, the prompt D0 meson v2 values in pp and pPb collisions are similar in magnitude. The v2 values for open beauty hadrons are extracted for the first time via nonprompt D0 mesons in pPb collisions. For pT in the range of 2–5 GeV, the results suggest that v2 for nonprompt D0 mesons is smaller than that for prompt D0 mesons. These new measurements indicate a positive charm hadron v2 in pp collisions and suggest a mass dependence in v2 between charm and beauty hadrons in the pPb system. These results provide insights into the origin of heavy-flavor quark collectivity in small systems. Individuals have received support from the Marie-Curie program and the European Research Council and Horizon 2020 Grant, contract Nos. 675440, 752730, and 765710 (European Union); CERN; the Programa Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia María de Maeztu, grant MDM-2015-0509 and the Programa Severo Ochoa del Principado de Asturias. CMS Collaboration: et al. Funded by SCOAP3. Peer reviewed

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valentin Bellassen; Marion Drut; Federico Antonioli; Ružica Brečić; Michele Donati; Hugo Ferrer-Pérez; Lisa Gauvrit; Viet Hoang; Kamilla Knutsen Steinnes; Apichaya Lilavanichakul; +11 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Croatia, Netherlands, France
    Project: EC | Strength2Food (678024)

    Abstract The carbon and land footprint of 26 certified food products – geographical indications and organic products and their conventional references are assessed. This assessment goes beyond existing literature by (1) designing a calculation method fit for the comparison between certified food and conventional production, (2) using the same calculation method and parameters for 52 products – 26 Food Quality Schemes and their reference products – to allow for a meaningful comparison, (3) transparently documenting this calculation method and opening access to the detailed results and the underlying data, and (4) providing the first assessment of the carbon and land footprint of geographical indications. The method used is Life Cycle Assessment, largely relying on the Cool Farm Tool for the impact assessment. The most common indicator of climate impact, the carbon footprint expressed per ton of product, is not significantly different between certified foods and their reference products. The only exception to this pattern are vegetal organic products, whose carbon footprint is 16% lower. This is because the decrease in greenhouse gas emissions from the absence of mineral fertilizers is never fully offset by the associated lower yield. The climate impact of certified food per hectare is however 26% than their reference and their land footprint is logically 24% higher. Technical specifications directly or indirectly inducing a lower use of mineral fertilizers are a key driver of this pattern. So is yield, which depends both on terroir and farming practices. Overall, this assessment reinforces the quality policy of the European Union: promoting certified food is not inconsistent with mitigating climate change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kathrin Wimmer; W. Korten; T. Arici; P. Doornenbal; P. Aguilera; Alejandro Algora; Toshiaki Ando; H. Baba; B. Blank; A. Boso; +23 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Germany
    Project: UKRI | Nuclear Physics Consolida... (ST/L005727/1), EC | MINOS (258567), UKRI | Nuclear Physics Consolida... (ST/P003885/1), UKRI | Nuclear Physics Consolida... (ST/L005727/1), EC | MINOS (258567), UKRI | Nuclear Physics Consolida... (ST/P003885/1)

    Excited states in the $T_z=-1$ nucleus $^{70}$Kr have been populated using inelastic scattering of a radioactive $^{70}$Kr beam as well as one- and two-neutron removal reactions from $^{71,72}$Kr at intermediate beam energies. The level scheme of $^{70}$Kr was constructed from the observed $\gamma$-ray transitions and coincidences. Tentative spin and parity assignments were made based on comparison with the mirror nucleus $^{70}$Se. A second $2^+$ state and a candidate for the corresponding $4^+_2$ state suggest shape coexistence in $^{70}$Kr. Comment: accepted Phys. Lett. B

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2019 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Itai Benjamini; Ádám Timár;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: EC | NOISE (772466)

    Consider an ergodic unimodular random one-ended planar graph $\G$ of finite expected degree. We prove that it has an isometry-invariant locally finite embedding in the Euclidean plane if and only if it is invariantly amenable. By "locally finite" we mean that any bounded open set intersects finitely many embedded edges. In particular, there exist invariant embeddings in the Euclidean plane for the Uniform Infinite Planar Triangulation and for the critical Augmented Galton-Watson Tree conditioned to survive. Roughly speaking, a unimodular embedding of $\G$ is one that is jointly unimodular with $\G$ when viewed as a decoration. We show that $\G$ has a unimodular embedding in the hyperbolic plane if it is invariantly nonamenable, and it has a unimodular embedding in the Euclidean plane if and only if it is invariantly amenable. Similar claims hold for representations by tilings instead of embeddings. Comment: 24 pages, 4 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Davín, Adrián A.; Tannier, Eric; Williams, Tom A.; Boussau, Bastien; Daubin, Vincent; Szöllősi, Gergely J.;
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
    Project: EC | GENECLOCKS (714774)

    Biodiversity has always been predominantly microbial and the scarcity of fossils from bacteria, archaea and microbial eukaryotes has prevented a comprehensive dating of the tree of life. Here we show that patterns of lateral gene transfer deduced from the analysis of modern genomes encode a novel and abundant source of information about the temporal coexistence of lineages throughout the history of life. We use new phylogenetic methods to reconstruct the history of thousands of gene families and demonstrate that dates implied by gene transfers are consistent with estimates from relaxed molecular clocks in Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes. An inspection of discrepancies between transfers and clocks and a comparison with mammal fossils show that gene transfer in microbes is potentially as informative for dating the tree of life as the geological record in macroorganisms.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Dániel Gerbner; Balázs Keszegh; Dömötör Pálvölgyi; Balázs Patkós; Máté Vizer; Gábor Wiener;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | DISCONV (267165)

    Abstract Suppose we are given a set of n balls { b 1 , … , b n } each colored either red or blue in some way unknown to us. To find out some information about the colors, we can query any triple of balls { b i 1 , b i 2 , b i 3 } . As an answer to such a query we obtain (the index of) a majority ball, that is, a ball whose color is the same as the color of another ball from the triple. Our goal is to find a non-minority ball, that is, a ball whose color occurs at least n 2 times among the n balls. We show that the minimum number of queries needed to solve this problem is Θ ( n ) in the adaptive case and Θ ( n 3 ) in the non-adaptive case. We also consider some related problems.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    John Michael; Luke McEllin; Annalena Felber;
    Project: EC | Sense of Commitment (679092)

    A wealth of research in recent decades has investigated the effects of various forms of coordination upon prosocial attitudes and behavior. To structure and constrain this research, we provide a framework within which to distinguish and interrelate different hypotheses about the psychological mechanisms underpinning various prosocial effects of various forms of coordination. To this end, we introduce a set of definitions and distinctions that can be used to tease apart various forms of prosociality and coordination. We then identify a range of psychological mechanisms that may underpin the effects of coordination upon prosociality. We show that different hypotheses about the underlying psychological mechanisms motivate different predictions about the effects of various forms of coordination in different circumstances.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michael Hattersley; Gordon D. A. Brown; John Michael; Elliot Ludvig;
    Publisher: Center for Open Science
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | RRTJDM (788826), EC | RRTJDM (788826)

    Abstract People who strongly endorse conspiracy theories typically exhibit biases in domain-general reasoning. We describe an overfitting hypothesis, according to which (a) such theories overfit conspiracy-related data at the expense of wider generalisability, and (b) reasoning biases reflect, at least in part, the need to reduce the resulting dissonance between the conspiracy theory and wider data. This hypothesis implies that reasoning biases should be more closely associated with belief in implausible conspiracy theories (e.g., the moon landing was faked) than with more plausible ones (e.g., the Russian Federation orchestrated the attack on Sergei Skripal). In two pre-registered studies, we found that endorsement of implausible conspiracy theories, but not plausible ones, was associated with reduced information sampling in an information-foraging task and with less reflective reasoning. Thus, the relationship between belief in conspiracy theories and reasoning is not homogeneous, and reasoning is not linked specifically to the “conspiracy” aspect of conspiracy theories. Instead, it may reflect an adaptive response to the tension between implausible theories and other beliefs and data.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Teruel, María; Barturen, Guillermo; Martínez Bueno, Manuel; Castellini Pérez, Olivia; Barroso Gil, Miguel; Povedano, Elena; Kerick, Martin; Català Moll, Francesc; Makowska, Zuzanna; Buttgereit, Anne; +100 more
    Publisher: Nature
    Countries: Spain, Spain, Hungary, Spain, Spain
    Project: EC | NECESSITY (806975), EC | NECESSITY (806975)

    Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and damage of exocrine salivary and lacrimal glands. The etiology of SS is complex with environmental triggers and genetic factors involved. By conducting an integrated multi-omics study, we confirmed a vast coordinated hypomethylation and overexpression effects in IFN-related genes, what is known as the IFN signature. Stratified and conditional analyses suggest a strong interaction between SS-associated HLA genetic variation and the presence of Anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies in driving the IFN epigenetic signature and determining SS. We report a novel epigenetic signature characterized by increased DNA methylation levels in a large number of genes enriched in pathways such as collagen metabolism and extracellular matrix organization. We identified potential new genetic variants associated with SS that might mediate their risk by altering DNA methylation or gene expression patterns, as well as disease-interacting genetic variants that exhibit regulatory function only in the SS population. Our study sheds new light on the interaction between genetics, autoantibody profiles, DNA methylation and gene expression in SS, and contributes to elucidate the genetic architecture of gene regulation in an autoimmune population. Funding for the preparation of this manuscript has received support from the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking under grant agreement no 115,565, resources composed of the financial contribution from the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) and the EFPIA companies' in kind contribution. MT is supported by a Spanish grant from Health Department, Junta de Andalucia (PI/0017/2016) and through the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 806975. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and EFPIA. EC-M was funded by the Postdoctoral Training Subprogramme Juan de la Cierva-Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (FJCI_2014_20652). We thank Ralf Lesche for the production of RNASeq data and Marc Torres Ciuro for design support. Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking from the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) 115,565 Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking 806975 European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme Postdoctoral Training Subprogramme Juan de la Cierva-Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness FJCI_2014_20652 Junta de Andalucia PI/0017/2016 EFPIA companies EFPIA

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