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  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kallis, Ain;
    Publisher: Eesti Loodus
    Country: Estonia
  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Yee-Song Law; Sainan Wang; Yaw Bia Tan; Orion Shih; Age Utt; Wei Yang Goh; Bing-Jun Lian; Ming Wei Chen; U-Ser Jeng; Andres Merits; +1 more
    Publisher: journal of virology
    Country: Estonia
    Project: WT

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for chikungunya fever. Nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2), a multifunctional protein essential for viral replication, has an N-terminal helicase region (nsP2h), which as both nucleotide triphosphatase and RNA triphosphatase activities, as well as a C-terminal cysteine protease region (nsP2p), which is responsible for nonstructural polyprotein processing. The two functional units are connected through a linker of fourteen residues. Although crystal structures of the helicase and protease regions of CHIKV nsP2 have been solved separately, the conformational arrangement of the full-length nsP2 and the biological role of the linker remain elusive. Using the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method, we demonstrated that the full-length nsP2 is elongated and partially folded in solution. The reconstructed model of the structure of nsP2 contains a flexible inter-domain linker, and there is no direct interaction between the two structured regions. To examine the function of the inter-domain linker, we constructed and characterized a set of CHIKV mutants. The deletion of three or five amino acid residues in the linker region resulted in a modest defect in viral RNA replication and transcription but completely abolished viral infectivity. In contrast, increasing the flexibility of nsP2 by lengthening the inter-domain linker increased both genomic RNA replication and viral infectivity. The enzymatic activities of the corresponding mutant proteins were largely unaffected. This work suggests that increasing the inter-domain flexibility of nsP2 could facilitate the assembly of the replication complex (RC) with increased efficiency and promote virus production.IMPORTANCE: CHIKV nsP2 plays multiple roles in viral RNA replication and virus-host interactions. The helicase and protease regions of nsP2 are connected through a short "linker". Here, we determined that the conformation of full-length CHIKV nsP2 is elongated and that the protein is flexible in solution. We also highlight the importance of the flexibility of the inter-domain of nsP2 on viral RNA synthesis and infectivity. CHIKV mutants harboring shortened linkers fail to produce infectious virus particles despite showing only relatively mild defects in genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis. Mutations increasing the length of the inter-domain linker have only mild and generally beneficial impacts on virus replication. Thus, our findings link inter-domain flexibility with the regulation of viral RNA replication and infectivity of the viral genome.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnis;
    Publisher: Agraarteadus
    Country: Estonia

    Article Saabunud / Received 30.05.2019 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 10.06.2019 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 14.06.2019 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Raimo Kõlli e-mail: raimo.kolli@emu.ee By the Estonian Soil Sciences Society for the Year 2014 Soils the Leached soils, for 2015 – Limestone rendzinas, for 2016 – Bog soils, for 2017 – Typical podzols, for 2018 – Pseudopodzolic soils, and for 2019 – Fen soils (M) were elected. As the Year Soil of 2019 was not previously introduced in the Journal of Agricultural Science, in the actual overview was necessary to treat their classification, ecological conditions of their forming and functioning, hydro-physical and ecological properties, association of them with other soil species, distribution and conversion their names into WRB system. In the review, the main morphological properties of fen soils and the principles of their dividing into soil species (identified by soil genesis) and varieties (divided on basis of peat decomposition stage) are treated. Besides that, the fen soils' productivity, peculiarities of their paludification processes, distribution in Estonia and the data about their chemical properties are presented. In the overview, as well, the estimations of organic carbon stocks and assessments of annual organic carbon fluxes in peaty soil cover are presented and discussed. In the final part, the problems connected with environmentally sustainable use in agriculture and forestry and protection of fen soils are treated.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Mare Kalda; Astrid Tuisk;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    Internet memes represent a new vernacular genre, items of which are created and also distributed digitally. Every day, ever new information keeps flowing through the feeds of social media sites. Internet memes, unlike traditional folklore, are not meant to be conveyed from generation to generation, and rarely would one expect a recurrence of a meme that has already been seen and passed forward. New memes are being created constantly, representing every conceivable aspect of physical as well as virtual reality. The external world is represented through a seemingly anything-goes game of combining shapes and forms. Already in the current stage of development of the genre, we can notice that memes correspond to their users’ subcultural and other group-related preferences. Age-group specific meme use is also discernible. This paper focuses on the meme repertoire of schoolchildren in the Tartu region, which is published on special Facebook or Instagram pages. The empirical work consisted in observing the meme sites and interviewing those generating the memes. School memes are presented as depiction of the life in a particular school and used for generating a feeling of belonging within that school. By memeing, schoolchildren apply a certain kind of cultural knowledge, a memetic code, which is not necessarily accessible to adults – indeed, they might not even have encountered it. William Corsaro characterises peer group culture with keywords such as autonomy, control, conflict, and differentiation; the challenge is to make fun of the authority of adults. In school memes, we are witnessing not only a peer group counterculture, but also an endeavour by the group to create a certain distinct world of its own. The novel and youthful memetic form suits well for this project.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu;
    Publisher: Agraarteadus
    Country: Estonia

    Saabunud / Received 19.04.2021 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 11.05.2021 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 12.05.2021 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Raimo Kõlli raimo.kolli@emu.ee In the overview nomenclature, properties, distribution, productivity and usage of ryhky soils, as the Year 2021 Soil of Estonia, are treated. As synonyms of the name ryhky soils, also the names pebble rendzina and gravelly soils have been used in Estonian Soil Classification (ESC). In overview, the main attention is paid to dry, fresh and moist rich in coarse calcareous material mild-humuous (mull-type) soils. After WRB these soils may be characterized by prefix qualifiers as calcaric or eutric, skeletic or hyperskeletic and rendzic or mollic CAMBISOLS, LITHOSOLS or REGOSOLS, whereas all of them have endogleyic versions as well. The wet and eroded ryhky soils have been excluded from the overview as their properties depend not so on the coarse calcareous earth content as on feeding their soil water or water erosion. The area of ryhky soils forms 6.3% from whole Estonian soil cover and 11.1% from the arable land. The main criteria of ryhky soil species' determination are calcareousness, content and shape of coarse soil fragments, and water regime of soil cover. By ESC six soil species have been determined, from which three ones have endogleyic character. The fine earth texture of ryhky soils is mainly loam. From the coarse fractions, the indicative role belongs to the small stones (ryhk, pebble and shingle). The morphology, humus status and suitability of ryhky soils for management are treated on the level of soil species independence of land use (arable, forest or grassland).

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kallis, Ain;
    Publisher: Eesti Loodus
    Country: Estonia
  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Järvan, Malle;
    Publisher: Agraarteadus
    Country: Estonia

    Article Saabunud / Received 12.04.2019 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 29.05.2019 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 29.05.2019 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Malle Järvan e-mail: malle.jarvan@etaki.ee Due to several objective reasons, the sulphur (S) deficiency in agricultural crops in Europe came to the fore in the last decades before the turn of the century. This work gives an overview of the Estonian long-year research concerning winter wheat responses on the S fertilization. This study presents a versatile influence of S application – beginning with the influence on the yield formation, grain yield quantity and quality, followed by the one on the biological quality of wheat proteins, and on the bread-making properties of flour and dough, and ending with the one on the quality indices of baked breads. Field experiments were conducted at two locations on calcaric Cambisol and Podzoluvisol. On the background of N100 or 120 kg ha-1, S was given as granular NS-fertilizers or foliar applied with Sulfur F3000 or with fungicide Thiovit Jet. Flour and dough properties for bread-making were determined by using a farinograph Brabender. The baking tests were carried out in laboratory conditions. The influence of S on the grain yield and quality, and bread-making properties of wheat depended on the year and location. As the average of experiments, the S application significantly increased the grain yield (r = 0.960). The increasing yields were accompanied by decreasing contents of protein and wet gluten. However, due to S application the biological quality of proteins was increasing, because the contents of some essential amino acids were increasing. The significant positive (r = 0.938) effect of the S application on the Gluten index was revealed, which is a good predictor for the baking quality of wheat flour. In addition, some significant positive effects of the S application on the rheological properties of dough and quality indices of baked breads were demonstrated. Thus, the S addition by nitrogen fertilization in parallel with increasing yields improved several bread-making parameters of wheat flour.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kallis, Ain;
    Publisher: Maa Elu
    Country: Estonia
  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Airi Liimets; Külli Erimäe; Kadaka Kindergarten, Tallinn, Estonia;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The central question of our research project was: what is the position and significance of the phenomenon of singing to children in the domestic culture of education in today’s Estonia? Before answering this question, we have to a) define education as a cultural phenomenon, and b) define singing to children and children’s song as cultural phenomena. These are the two aims of our theoretical study. In our empirical research we have additionally sought to find out: a) what can be concluded from the comparison of our data and those of ethnomusicologist Anu Vissel from the 1990–2000, from the perspective of culture of education, and b) whether the results of our empirical research can enrich theoretical treatments of education as a cultural phenomenon. The article has two parts. The first, “Culture of education – a sign of a communicative educational reality”, provides a theoretical analysis of education as a cultural phenomenon. It concludes that the building blocks of culture of education are mediated educational reality, cultural symbols, and rituals. The second major section of the article, “Singing to children in the domestic culture of education”, has two sub-sections. The first, “Singing to children and children’s song within culture”, defines singing to children and children’s song as phenomena, building on the work of international scholars and Estonian folklorists. The second subsection, “Singing to children in Estonian domestic culture of education in 2016 in comparison to the results of Anu Vissel’s research from 1990–2000”, presents the findings of our empirical research. The data was collected with the help of a written questionnaire, compiled on the basis of the questions used by Anu Vissel in her research and international studies. Differently from previous research, we placed a stronger emphasis on the reasons for choosing a specific repertoire. Our respondents were 190 parents of pre-school children from five kindergartens. The questionnaire that included 28 questions (both closed and open-ended) was created using Google Forms. Answers to the closed questions were analysed with the SPSS and Microsoft Excel software. Our quantitative methods of data analysis included frequency and correlation analysis. Responses to the open-ended questions were analysed using summative qualitative content analysis. In the case of questions concerning song choice content categories were created using the inductive method. The comparison of our results and those of Anu Vissel allows us to conclude that singing to children is, without a doubt, a cultural symbol that testifies to the existence of a relatively stable domestic culture of education in Estonia. It can be viewed as a phenomenon of consciousness in people’s subjective reality (attitudes and meanings attributed to singing) and as a specific activity in the domestic reality. This is manifested owing to the communicativeness of reality or interaction between the participants in the culture of education. That is, our study showed that a child and a parent mostly sing together, instead of one taking the role of the singer and the other that of the listener. Parents also perceive singing to children as a dialogic joint activity, even when it is not that in reality. On the level of consciousness, communicativeness is expressed owing to the singer’s connections to cultural memory and meanings therein. Intersubjective communication also entails the interpretation and creation of meanings characteristic of culture, and it is both synchronic and diachronic as people operate within a space of historically developed meanings. The connection to cultural memory can, for example, be seen in the choice of songs sung to children. Parents’ song choices are overall conservative and the repertoire has been relatively unchanged across decades and is derived from the singer’s own childhood. Most of the repertoire has been acquired through life without special study. The comparison of our and Anu Vissel’s results shows that the most popular lullabies and play songs have been the same in families both in 2016 and in the 1990s and early 2000s. The choice of a specific song is not in the song itself (its notes or lyrics) but the cultural context and its significance for the parents as singers. Over decades lullabies have been the predominant type of song. Singing lullabies could also be called a ritual within local culture of education as it has most of the characteristics of a ritual. Lullabies have had a stable function within the culture of education (lulling to sleep, calming) and only these songs could be viewed as global phenomena of the culture of education. Otherwise cultural symbols are linked to local educational traditions and values. Further research is needed to determine which environmental factors and modes of communication within domestic culture of education actualise which different aspects of cultural memory, and whether the potential creativity of parents today is dependent on the scope and meaning cultural memory has for them or whether these links can be established.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kallis, Ain;
    Publisher: Eesti Loodus
    Country: Estonia
Advanced search in
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arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
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arrow_drop_down
Include:
31 Research products, page 1 of 4
  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kallis, Ain;
    Publisher: Eesti Loodus
    Country: Estonia
  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Yee-Song Law; Sainan Wang; Yaw Bia Tan; Orion Shih; Age Utt; Wei Yang Goh; Bing-Jun Lian; Ming Wei Chen; U-Ser Jeng; Andres Merits; +1 more
    Publisher: journal of virology
    Country: Estonia
    Project: WT

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for chikungunya fever. Nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2), a multifunctional protein essential for viral replication, has an N-terminal helicase region (nsP2h), which as both nucleotide triphosphatase and RNA triphosphatase activities, as well as a C-terminal cysteine protease region (nsP2p), which is responsible for nonstructural polyprotein processing. The two functional units are connected through a linker of fourteen residues. Although crystal structures of the helicase and protease regions of CHIKV nsP2 have been solved separately, the conformational arrangement of the full-length nsP2 and the biological role of the linker remain elusive. Using the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method, we demonstrated that the full-length nsP2 is elongated and partially folded in solution. The reconstructed model of the structure of nsP2 contains a flexible inter-domain linker, and there is no direct interaction between the two structured regions. To examine the function of the inter-domain linker, we constructed and characterized a set of CHIKV mutants. The deletion of three or five amino acid residues in the linker region resulted in a modest defect in viral RNA replication and transcription but completely abolished viral infectivity. In contrast, increasing the flexibility of nsP2 by lengthening the inter-domain linker increased both genomic RNA replication and viral infectivity. The enzymatic activities of the corresponding mutant proteins were largely unaffected. This work suggests that increasing the inter-domain flexibility of nsP2 could facilitate the assembly of the replication complex (RC) with increased efficiency and promote virus production.IMPORTANCE: CHIKV nsP2 plays multiple roles in viral RNA replication and virus-host interactions. The helicase and protease regions of nsP2 are connected through a short "linker". Here, we determined that the conformation of full-length CHIKV nsP2 is elongated and that the protein is flexible in solution. We also highlight the importance of the flexibility of the inter-domain of nsP2 on viral RNA synthesis and infectivity. CHIKV mutants harboring shortened linkers fail to produce infectious virus particles despite showing only relatively mild defects in genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis. Mutations increasing the length of the inter-domain linker have only mild and generally beneficial impacts on virus replication. Thus, our findings link inter-domain flexibility with the regulation of viral RNA replication and infectivity of the viral genome.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnis;
    Publisher: Agraarteadus
    Country: Estonia

    Article Saabunud / Received 30.05.2019 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 10.06.2019 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 14.06.2019 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Raimo Kõlli e-mail: raimo.kolli@emu.ee By the Estonian Soil Sciences Society for the Year 2014 Soils the Leached soils, for 2015 – Limestone rendzinas, for 2016 – Bog soils, for 2017 – Typical podzols, for 2018 – Pseudopodzolic soils, and for 2019 – Fen soils (M) were elected. As the Year Soil of 2019 was not previously introduced in the Journal of Agricultural Science, in the actual overview was necessary to treat their classification, ecological conditions of their forming and functioning, hydro-physical and ecological properties, association of them with other soil species, distribution and conversion their names into WRB system. In the review, the main morphological properties of fen soils and the principles of their dividing into soil species (identified by soil genesis) and varieties (divided on basis of peat decomposition stage) are treated. Besides that, the fen soils' productivity, peculiarities of their paludification processes, distribution in Estonia and the data about their chemical properties are presented. In the overview, as well, the estimations of organic carbon stocks and assessments of annual organic carbon fluxes in peaty soil cover are presented and discussed. In the final part, the problems connected with environmentally sustainable use in agriculture and forestry and protection of fen soils are treated.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Mare Kalda; Astrid Tuisk;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    Internet memes represent a new vernacular genre, items of which are created and also distributed digitally. Every day, ever new information keeps flowing through the feeds of social media sites. Internet memes, unlike traditional folklore, are not meant to be conveyed from generation to generation, and rarely would one expect a recurrence of a meme that has already been seen and passed forward. New memes are being created constantly, representing every conceivable aspect of physical as well as virtual reality. The external world is represented through a seemingly anything-goes game of combining shapes and forms. Already in the current stage of development of the genre, we can notice that memes correspond to their users’ subcultural and other group-related preferences. Age-group specific meme use is also discernible. This paper focuses on the meme repertoire of schoolchildren in the Tartu region, which is published on special Facebook or Instagram pages. The empirical work consisted in observing the meme sites and interviewing those generating the memes. School memes are presented as depiction of the life in a particular school and used for generating a feeling of belonging within that school. By memeing, schoolchildren apply a certain kind of cultural knowledge, a memetic code, which is not necessarily accessible to adults – indeed, they might not even have encountered it. William Corsaro characterises peer group culture with keywords such as autonomy, control, conflict, and differentiation; the challenge is to make fun of the authority of adults. In school memes, we are witnessing not only a peer group counterculture, but also an endeavour by the group to create a certain distinct world of its own. The novel and youthful memetic form suits well for this project.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu;
    Publisher: Agraarteadus
    Country: Estonia

    Saabunud / Received 19.04.2021 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 11.05.2021 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 12.05.2021 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Raimo Kõlli raimo.kolli@emu.ee In the overview nomenclature, properties, distribution, productivity and usage of ryhky soils, as the Year 2021 Soil of Estonia, are treated. As synonyms of the name ryhky soils, also the names pebble rendzina and gravelly soils have been used in Estonian Soil Classification (ESC). In overview, the main attention is paid to dry, fresh and moist rich in coarse calcareous material mild-humuous (mull-type) soils. After WRB these soils may be characterized by prefix qualifiers as calcaric or eutric, skeletic or hyperskeletic and rendzic or mollic CAMBISOLS, LITHOSOLS or REGOSOLS, whereas all of them have endogleyic versions as well. The wet and eroded ryhky soils have been excluded from the overview as their properties depend not so on the coarse calcareous earth content as on feeding their soil water or water erosion. The area of ryhky soils forms 6.3% from whole Estonian soil cover and 11.1% from the arable land. The main criteria of ryhky soil species' determination are calcareousness, content and shape of coarse soil fragments, and water regime of soil cover. By ESC six soil species have been determined, from which three ones have endogleyic character. The fine earth texture of ryhky soils is mainly loam. From the coarse fractions, the indicative role belongs to the small stones (ryhk, pebble and shingle). The morphology, humus status and suitability of ryhky soils for management are treated on the level of soil species independence of land use (arable, forest or grassland).

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kallis, Ain;
    Publisher: Eesti Loodus
    Country: Estonia
  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Järvan, Malle;
    Publisher: Agraarteadus
    Country: Estonia

    Article Saabunud / Received 12.04.2019 ; Aktsepteeritud / Accepted 29.05.2019 ; Avaldatud veebis / Published online 29.05.2019 ; Vastutav autor / Corresponding author: Malle Järvan e-mail: malle.jarvan@etaki.ee Due to several objective reasons, the sulphur (S) deficiency in agricultural crops in Europe came to the fore in the last decades before the turn of the century. This work gives an overview of the Estonian long-year research concerning winter wheat responses on the S fertilization. This study presents a versatile influence of S application – beginning with the influence on the yield formation, grain yield quantity and quality, followed by the one on the biological quality of wheat proteins, and on the bread-making properties of flour and dough, and ending with the one on the quality indices of baked breads. Field experiments were conducted at two locations on calcaric Cambisol and Podzoluvisol. On the background of N100 or 120 kg ha-1, S was given as granular NS-fertilizers or foliar applied with Sulfur F3000 or with fungicide Thiovit Jet. Flour and dough properties for bread-making were determined by using a farinograph Brabender. The baking tests were carried out in laboratory conditions. The influence of S on the grain yield and quality, and bread-making properties of wheat depended on the year and location. As the average of experiments, the S application significantly increased the grain yield (r = 0.960). The increasing yields were accompanied by decreasing contents of protein and wet gluten. However, due to S application the biological quality of proteins was increasing, because the contents of some essential amino acids were increasing. The significant positive (r = 0.938) effect of the S application on the Gluten index was revealed, which is a good predictor for the baking quality of wheat flour. In addition, some significant positive effects of the S application on the rheological properties of dough and quality indices of baked breads were demonstrated. Thus, the S addition by nitrogen fertilization in parallel with increasing yields improved several bread-making parameters of wheat flour.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kallis, Ain;
    Publisher: Maa Elu
    Country: Estonia
  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Airi Liimets; Külli Erimäe; Kadaka Kindergarten, Tallinn, Estonia;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The central question of our research project was: what is the position and significance of the phenomenon of singing to children in the domestic culture of education in today’s Estonia? Before answering this question, we have to a) define education as a cultural phenomenon, and b) define singing to children and children’s song as cultural phenomena. These are the two aims of our theoretical study. In our empirical research we have additionally sought to find out: a) what can be concluded from the comparison of our data and those of ethnomusicologist Anu Vissel from the 1990–2000, from the perspective of culture of education, and b) whether the results of our empirical research can enrich theoretical treatments of education as a cultural phenomenon. The article has two parts. The first, “Culture of education – a sign of a communicative educational reality”, provides a theoretical analysis of education as a cultural phenomenon. It concludes that the building blocks of culture of education are mediated educational reality, cultural symbols, and rituals. The second major section of the article, “Singing to children in the domestic culture of education”, has two sub-sections. The first, “Singing to children and children’s song within culture”, defines singing to children and children’s song as phenomena, building on the work of international scholars and Estonian folklorists. The second subsection, “Singing to children in Estonian domestic culture of education in 2016 in comparison to the results of Anu Vissel’s research from 1990–2000”, presents the findings of our empirical research. The data was collected with the help of a written questionnaire, compiled on the basis of the questions used by Anu Vissel in her research and international studies. Differently from previous research, we placed a stronger emphasis on the reasons for choosing a specific repertoire. Our respondents were 190 parents of pre-school children from five kindergartens. The questionnaire that included 28 questions (both closed and open-ended) was created using Google Forms. Answers to the closed questions were analysed with the SPSS and Microsoft Excel software. Our quantitative methods of data analysis included frequency and correlation analysis. Responses to the open-ended questions were analysed using summative qualitative content analysis. In the case of questions concerning song choice content categories were created using the inductive method. The comparison of our results and those of Anu Vissel allows us to conclude that singing to children is, without a doubt, a cultural symbol that testifies to the existence of a relatively stable domestic culture of education in Estonia. It can be viewed as a phenomenon of consciousness in people’s subjective reality (attitudes and meanings attributed to singing) and as a specific activity in the domestic reality. This is manifested owing to the communicativeness of reality or interaction between the participants in the culture of education. That is, our study showed that a child and a parent mostly sing together, instead of one taking the role of the singer and the other that of the listener. Parents also perceive singing to children as a dialogic joint activity, even when it is not that in reality. On the level of consciousness, communicativeness is expressed owing to the singer’s connections to cultural memory and meanings therein. Intersubjective communication also entails the interpretation and creation of meanings characteristic of culture, and it is both synchronic and diachronic as people operate within a space of historically developed meanings. The connection to cultural memory can, for example, be seen in the choice of songs sung to children. Parents’ song choices are overall conservative and the repertoire has been relatively unchanged across decades and is derived from the singer’s own childhood. Most of the repertoire has been acquired through life without special study. The comparison of our and Anu Vissel’s results shows that the most popular lullabies and play songs have been the same in families both in 2016 and in the 1990s and early 2000s. The choice of a specific song is not in the song itself (its notes or lyrics) but the cultural context and its significance for the parents as singers. Over decades lullabies have been the predominant type of song. Singing lullabies could also be called a ritual within local culture of education as it has most of the characteristics of a ritual. Lullabies have had a stable function within the culture of education (lulling to sleep, calming) and only these songs could be viewed as global phenomena of the culture of education. Otherwise cultural symbols are linked to local educational traditions and values. Further research is needed to determine which environmental factors and modes of communication within domestic culture of education actualise which different aspects of cultural memory, and whether the potential creativity of parents today is dependent on the scope and meaning cultural memory has for them or whether these links can be established.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kallis, Ain;
    Publisher: Eesti Loodus
    Country: Estonia
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