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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ivano Baronchelli; G. Rodighiero; Harry I. Teplitz; Claudia Scarlata; Alberto Franceschini; S. Berta; Laia Barrufet; Mattia Vaccari; Matteo Bonato; Laure Ciesla; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Italy, United States
    Project: EC | HELP (607254)

    For a sample of star forming galaxies in the redshift interval 0.15$<$z$<$0.3, we study how both the relative strength of the AGN infra-red emission, compared to that due to the star formation (SF), and the numerical fraction of AGNs, change as a function of the total stellar mass of the hosting galaxy group (M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$), between $10^{10.25}$ and $10^{11.9}$M$_{\odot}$. Using a multi-component SED fitting analysis, we separate the contribution of stars, AGN torus and star formation to the total emission at different wavelengths. This technique is applied to a new multi-wavelength data-set in the SIMES field (23 not redundant photometric bands), spanning the wavelength range from the UV (GALEX) to the far-IR (Herschel) and including crucial AKARI and WISE mid-IR observations (4.5 \mu m$<\lambda<$24 \mu m), where the BH thermal emission is stronger. This new photometric catalog, that includes our best photo-z estimates, is released through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). Groups are identified through a friends of friends algorithm ($\sim$62% purity, $\sim$51% completeness). We identified a total of 45 galaxies requiring an AGN emission component, 35 of which in groups and 10 in the field. We find BHAR$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.21\pm0.27}$ and (BHAR/SFR)$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.04\pm0.24}$ while, in the same range of M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$, we do not observe any sensible change in the numerical fraction of AGNs. Our results indicate that the nuclear activity (i.e. the BHAR and the BHAR/SFR ratio) is enhanced when galaxies are located in more massive and richer groups. Comment: 31 pages, 23 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Golan Miller; Avital Beery; Prashant Kumar Singh; Fengde Wang; Rotem Zelingher; Etel Motenko; Michal Lieberman-Lazarovich;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Country: France

    Abstract Climate change is causing temperature increment in crop production areas worldwide, generating conditions of heat stress that negatively affect crop productivity. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a major vegetable crop, is highly susceptible to conditions of heat stress. When tomato plants are exposed to ambient day/night temperatures that exceed 32 °C/20 °C, respectively, during the reproductive phase, fruit set and fruit weight are reduced, leading to a significant decrease in yield. Processing tomato cultivars are cultivated in open fields, where environmental conditions are not controlled; therefore, plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses, including heat stress. Nonetheless, information on stress response in processing tomatoes is very limited. Understanding the physiological response of modern processing tomato cultivars to heat stress may facilitate the development of thermotolerant cultivars. Here, we compared two tomato processing cultivars, H4107 and H9780, that we found to be constantly differing in yield performance. Using field and temperature-controlled greenhouse experiments, we show that the observed difference in yield is attributed to the occurrence of heat stress conditions. In addition, fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in the thermotolerant cultivar H4107, compared with H9780. Despite the general acceptance of pollen viability as a measure of thermotolerance, there was no difference in the percentage of viable pollen between H4107 and H9780 under either of the conditions tested. In addition to observations of similar pollen germination and bud abscission rates, our results suggest that processing tomato cultivars may present a particular case, in which pollen performance is not determining reproductive thermotolerance. Our results also demonstrate the value of combining controlled and uncontrolled experimental settings, in order to validate and identify heat stress-related responses, thus facilitating the development of thermotolerant processing tomato cultivars. Our paper deals with the response of tomato plants to high temperatures. Tomato is an important crop, and tomato plants are very sensitive to high temperatures. Therefore, the increase in temperatures due to climate change poses a threat to tomato production. We found that a specific tomato cultivar is heat stress-tolerant, with better productivity under high temperatures. Usually, such tolerance is linked with pollen grains viability. Interestingly, in our case, pollen characteristics were eliminated as a causal factor for heat stress tolerance, meaning that other factors are involved. Follow-up studies are performed towards the development of heat-tolerant tomato.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Igarashi, Ayumi; Izsak, Rani; Elkind, Edith;
    Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | ACCORD (639945)

    Cooperative games provide a framework to study cooperation among self-interested agents. They offer a number of solution concepts describing how the outcome of the cooperation should be shared among the players. Unfortunately, computational problems associated with many of these solution concepts tend to be intractable---NP-hard or worse. In this paper, we incorporate complexity measures recently proposed by Feige and Izsak (2013), called dependency degree and supermodular degree, into the complexity analysis of cooperative games. We show that many computational problems for cooperative games become tractable for games whose dependency degree or supermodular degree are bounded. In particular, we prove that simple games admit efficient algorithms for various solution concepts when the supermodular degree is small; further, we show that computing the Shapley value is always in FPT with respect to the dependency degree. Finally, we note that, while determining the dependency among players is computationally hard, there are efficient algorithms for special classes of games. 10 pages, full version of accepted AAAI-18 paper

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Omer Edhan; Ziv Hellman; Ilan Nehama;
    Publisher: The Royal Society
    Country: United Kingdom

    AbstractWe consider genotypic convergence of populations and show that under fixed fitness asexual and haploid sexual populations attain monomorphic convergence (even under genetic linkage between loci) to basins of attraction with locally exponential convergence rates; the same convergence obtains in single locus diploid sexual reproduction but to polymorphic populations. Furthermore, we show that there is a unified underlying theory underlying these convergences: all of them can be interpreted as instantiations of players in a potential game implementing a multiplicative weights updating algorithm to converge to equilibrium, making use of the Baum–Eagon Theorem. To analyse varying environments, we introduce the concept of ‘virtual convergence’, under which, even if fixation is not attained, the population nevertheless achieves the fitness growth rate it would have had under convergence to an optimal genotype. Virtual convergence is attained by asexual, haploid sexual, and multi-locus diploid reproducing populations, even if environments vary arbitrarily. We also study conditions for true monomorphic convergence in asexually reproducing populations in varying environments.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kyle Kawagoe; Greg Huber; Marc Pradas; Michael Wilkinson; Alain Pumir; Eli Ben-Naim;

    We investigate statistical properties of trails formed by a random process incorporating aggregation, fragmentation, and diffusion. In this stochastic process, which takes place in one spatial dimension, two neighboring trails may combine to form a larger one and also, one trail may split into two. In addition, trails move diffusively. The model is defined by two parameters which quantify the fragmentation rate and the fragment size. In the long-time limit, the system reaches a steady state, and our focus is the limiting distribution of trail weights. We find that the density of trail weight has power-law tail $P(w) \sim w^{-\gamma}$ for small weight $w$. We obtain the exponent $\gamma$ analytically, and find that it varies continuously with the two model parameters. The exponent $\gamma$ can be positive or negative, so that in one range of parameters small-weight tails are abundant, and in the complementary range, they are rare. Comment: 8 pages, 8 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rapaport, Ariel;
    Project: EC | FRACTALSANDMETRICNT (306494)

    We show there exists a constant $0

  • Publication . Preprint . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eliaz, Kfir; Rubinstein, Ariel;
    Project: EC | MODELING TYPOLOGIES (269143)
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gil Porat; Ady Arie;
    Publisher: The Optical Society

    A comprehensive physical model of adiabatic three-wave mixing is developed for the fully nonlinear regime, i.e., without making the undepleted pump approximation. The conditions for adiabatic evolution are rigorously derived, together with an estimate of the bandwidth of the process. Furthermore, these processes are shown to be robust and efficient. Finally, numerical simulations demonstrate adiabatic frequency conversion in a wide variety of physically attainable configurations.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dekel Tsur;

    Abstract In the Split to Block Vertex Deletion and Split to Threshold Vertex Deletion problems the input is a split graph G and an integer k, and the goal is to decide whether there is a set S of vertices of size at most k such that G − S is a block graph and G − S is a threshold graph, respectively. In this paper we give algorithms for these problems whose running times are O ⁎ ( 2.076 k ) and O ⁎ ( 1.619 k ) , respectively.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2014 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2014
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alexander Shnirman; Yuval Gefen; Arijit Saha; I. S. Burmistrov; Mikhail N. Kiselev; Alexander Altland;
    Publisher: arXiv

    The presence of geometric phases is known to affect the dynamics of the systems involved. Here we consider a quantum degree of freedom, moving in a dissipative environment, whose dynamics is described by a Langevin equation with quantum noise. We show that geometric phases enter the stochastic noise terms. Specifically, we consider small ferromagnetic particles (nano-magnets) or quantum dots close to Stoner instability, and investigate the dynamics of the total magnetization in the presence of tunneling coupling to the metallic leads. We generalize the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Sch\"on (AES) effective action and the corresponding semiclassical equations of motion from the U(1) case of the charge degree of freedom to the SU(2) case of the magnetization. The Langevin forces (torques) in these equations are strongly influenced by the geometric phase. As a first but nontrivial application we predict low temperature quantum diffusion of the magnetization on the Bloch sphere, which is governed by the geometric phase. We propose a protocol for experimental observation of this phenomenon. Comment: 8 pages including Supplemental Material

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
22,963 Research products, page 1 of 2,297
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ivano Baronchelli; G. Rodighiero; Harry I. Teplitz; Claudia Scarlata; Alberto Franceschini; S. Berta; Laia Barrufet; Mattia Vaccari; Matteo Bonato; Laure Ciesla; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Italy, United States
    Project: EC | HELP (607254)

    For a sample of star forming galaxies in the redshift interval 0.15$<$z$<$0.3, we study how both the relative strength of the AGN infra-red emission, compared to that due to the star formation (SF), and the numerical fraction of AGNs, change as a function of the total stellar mass of the hosting galaxy group (M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$), between $10^{10.25}$ and $10^{11.9}$M$_{\odot}$. Using a multi-component SED fitting analysis, we separate the contribution of stars, AGN torus and star formation to the total emission at different wavelengths. This technique is applied to a new multi-wavelength data-set in the SIMES field (23 not redundant photometric bands), spanning the wavelength range from the UV (GALEX) to the far-IR (Herschel) and including crucial AKARI and WISE mid-IR observations (4.5 \mu m$<\lambda<$24 \mu m), where the BH thermal emission is stronger. This new photometric catalog, that includes our best photo-z estimates, is released through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). Groups are identified through a friends of friends algorithm ($\sim$62% purity, $\sim$51% completeness). We identified a total of 45 galaxies requiring an AGN emission component, 35 of which in groups and 10 in the field. We find BHAR$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.21\pm0.27}$ and (BHAR/SFR)$\propto ($M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}})^{1.04\pm0.24}$ while, in the same range of M$^{*}_{\mathrm{group}}$, we do not observe any sensible change in the numerical fraction of AGNs. Our results indicate that the nuclear activity (i.e. the BHAR and the BHAR/SFR ratio) is enhanced when galaxies are located in more massive and richer groups. Comment: 31 pages, 23 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Golan Miller; Avital Beery; Prashant Kumar Singh; Fengde Wang; Rotem Zelingher; Etel Motenko; Michal Lieberman-Lazarovich;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press
    Country: France

    Abstract Climate change is causing temperature increment in crop production areas worldwide, generating conditions of heat stress that negatively affect crop productivity. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a major vegetable crop, is highly susceptible to conditions of heat stress. When tomato plants are exposed to ambient day/night temperatures that exceed 32 °C/20 °C, respectively, during the reproductive phase, fruit set and fruit weight are reduced, leading to a significant decrease in yield. Processing tomato cultivars are cultivated in open fields, where environmental conditions are not controlled; therefore, plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses, including heat stress. Nonetheless, information on stress response in processing tomatoes is very limited. Understanding the physiological response of modern processing tomato cultivars to heat stress may facilitate the development of thermotolerant cultivars. Here, we compared two tomato processing cultivars, H4107 and H9780, that we found to be constantly differing in yield performance. Using field and temperature-controlled greenhouse experiments, we show that the observed difference in yield is attributed to the occurrence of heat stress conditions. In addition, fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in the thermotolerant cultivar H4107, compared with H9780. Despite the general acceptance of pollen viability as a measure of thermotolerance, there was no difference in the percentage of viable pollen between H4107 and H9780 under either of the conditions tested. In addition to observations of similar pollen germination and bud abscission rates, our results suggest that processing tomato cultivars may present a particular case, in which pollen performance is not determining reproductive thermotolerance. Our results also demonstrate the value of combining controlled and uncontrolled experimental settings, in order to validate and identify heat stress-related responses, thus facilitating the development of thermotolerant processing tomato cultivars. Our paper deals with the response of tomato plants to high temperatures. Tomato is an important crop, and tomato plants are very sensitive to high temperatures. Therefore, the increase in temperatures due to climate change poses a threat to tomato production. We found that a specific tomato cultivar is heat stress-tolerant, with better productivity under high temperatures. Usually, such tolerance is linked with pollen grains viability. Interestingly, in our case, pollen characteristics were eliminated as a causal factor for heat stress tolerance, meaning that other factors are involved. Follow-up studies are performed towards the development of heat-tolerant tomato.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Igarashi, Ayumi; Izsak, Rani; Elkind, Edith;
    Publisher: Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI)
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | ACCORD (639945)

    Cooperative games provide a framework to study cooperation among self-interested agents. They offer a number of solution concepts describing how the outcome of the cooperation should be shared among the players. Unfortunately, computational problems associated with many of these solution concepts tend to be intractable---NP-hard or worse. In this paper, we incorporate complexity measures recently proposed by Feige and Izsak (2013), called dependency degree and supermodular degree, into the complexity analysis of cooperative games. We show that many computational problems for cooperative games become tractable for games whose dependency degree or supermodular degree are bounded. In particular, we prove that simple games admit efficient algorithms for various solution concepts when the supermodular degree is small; further, we show that computing the Shapley value is always in FPT with respect to the dependency degree. Finally, we note that, while determining the dependency among players is computationally hard, there are efficient algorithms for special classes of games. 10 pages, full version of accepted AAAI-18 paper

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Omer Edhan; Ziv Hellman; Ilan Nehama;
    Publisher: The Royal Society
    Country: United Kingdom

    AbstractWe consider genotypic convergence of populations and show that under fixed fitness asexual and haploid sexual populations attain monomorphic convergence (even under genetic linkage between loci) to basins of attraction with locally exponential convergence rates; the same convergence obtains in single locus diploid sexual reproduction but to polymorphic populations. Furthermore, we show that there is a unified underlying theory underlying these convergences: all of them can be interpreted as instantiations of players in a potential game implementing a multiplicative weights updating algorithm to converge to equilibrium, making use of the Baum–Eagon Theorem. To analyse varying environments, we introduce the concept of ‘virtual convergence’, under which, even if fixation is not attained, the population nevertheless achieves the fitness growth rate it would have had under convergence to an optimal genotype. Virtual convergence is attained by asexual, haploid sexual, and multi-locus diploid reproducing populations, even if environments vary arbitrarily. We also study conditions for true monomorphic convergence in asexually reproducing populations in varying environments.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kyle Kawagoe; Greg Huber; Marc Pradas; Michael Wilkinson; Alain Pumir; Eli Ben-Naim;

    We investigate statistical properties of trails formed by a random process incorporating aggregation, fragmentation, and diffusion. In this stochastic process, which takes place in one spatial dimension, two neighboring trails may combine to form a larger one and also, one trail may split into two. In addition, trails move diffusively. The model is defined by two parameters which quantify the fragmentation rate and the fragment size. In the long-time limit, the system reaches a steady state, and our focus is the limiting distribution of trail weights. We find that the density of trail weight has power-law tail $P(w) \sim w^{-\gamma}$ for small weight $w$. We obtain the exponent $\gamma$ analytically, and find that it varies continuously with the two model parameters. The exponent $\gamma$ can be positive or negative, so that in one range of parameters small-weight tails are abundant, and in the complementary range, they are rare. Comment: 8 pages, 8 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rapaport, Ariel;
    Project: EC | FRACTALSANDMETRICNT (306494)

    We show there exists a constant $0

  • Publication . Preprint . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eliaz, Kfir; Rubinstein, Ariel;
    Project: EC | MODELING TYPOLOGIES (269143)
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gil Porat; Ady Arie;
    Publisher: The Optical Society

    A comprehensive physical model of adiabatic three-wave mixing is developed for the fully nonlinear regime, i.e., without making the undepleted pump approximation. The conditions for adiabatic evolution are rigorously derived, together with an estimate of the bandwidth of the process. Furthermore, these processes are shown to be robust and efficient. Finally, numerical simulations demonstrate adiabatic frequency conversion in a wide variety of physically attainable configurations.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dekel Tsur;

    Abstract In the Split to Block Vertex Deletion and Split to Threshold Vertex Deletion problems the input is a split graph G and an integer k, and the goal is to decide whether there is a set S of vertices of size at most k such that G − S is a block graph and G − S is a threshold graph, respectively. In this paper we give algorithms for these problems whose running times are O ⁎ ( 2.076 k ) and O ⁎ ( 1.619 k ) , respectively.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2014 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2014
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alexander Shnirman; Yuval Gefen; Arijit Saha; I. S. Burmistrov; Mikhail N. Kiselev; Alexander Altland;
    Publisher: arXiv

    The presence of geometric phases is known to affect the dynamics of the systems involved. Here we consider a quantum degree of freedom, moving in a dissipative environment, whose dynamics is described by a Langevin equation with quantum noise. We show that geometric phases enter the stochastic noise terms. Specifically, we consider small ferromagnetic particles (nano-magnets) or quantum dots close to Stoner instability, and investigate the dynamics of the total magnetization in the presence of tunneling coupling to the metallic leads. We generalize the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Sch\"on (AES) effective action and the corresponding semiclassical equations of motion from the U(1) case of the charge degree of freedom to the SU(2) case of the magnetization. The Langevin forces (torques) in these equations are strongly influenced by the geometric phase. As a first but nontrivial application we predict low temperature quantum diffusion of the magnetization on the Bloch sphere, which is governed by the geometric phase. We propose a protocol for experimental observation of this phenomenon. Comment: 8 pages including Supplemental Material

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