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5 Research products, page 1 of 1

  • Publications
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  • 2018-2022
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
  • CHEST Journal

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  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Rachel L. Eddy; Hana Serajeddini; Danielle Knipping; Simon T. Landman; Karen J. Bosma; Constance A. Mackenzie; Inderdeep Dhaliwal; Grace Parraga;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: CIHR , NSERC

    Although nearly 3,000 e-cigarette-related hospitalizations have been reported in North America, the long-term outcomes in these patients have not been described. We followed an 18-year-old boy who survived acute critical illness and respiratory failure related to 5 months of e-cigarette use. Chronic irreversible airflow obstruction and markedly abnormal 129Xe MRI ventilation heterogeneity was observed and persisted 8 months after hospital discharge, despite improvement in quality-of-life and chest CT findings. Lung clearance index and oscillometry measures were also highly abnormal at 8 months postdischarge. Although 129Xe MRI ventilation abnormalities were dominant in the lung apices and central lung regions, the pattern of ventilation defects was dissimilar to ventilation heterogeneity observed in patients with obstructive lung disease, such as asthma and COPD. Our findings underscore the long-term functional impacts of e-cigarette-related lung injury in survivors of critical illness; longitudinal evaluations may shed light on the pathophysiologic mechanisms that drive e-cigarette-related lung disease.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Alexander Patrician; Tony G. Dawkins; Geoff B. Coombs; Benjamin S. Stacey; Christopher Gasho; Travis D. Gibbons; Connor A. Howe; Joshua C. Tremblay; Rachel Stone; Kaitlyn Tymko; +11 more
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Peru
    Project: NSERC

    Background: Increasing iron bioavailability attenuates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in both lowlanders and Sherpas at high altitude. In contrast, the pulmonary vasculature of Andean individuals with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is resistant to iron administration. Although pulmonary vascular remodeling and hypertension are characteristic features of CMS, the effect of iron administration in healthy Andean individuals, to our knowledge, has not been investigated. If the interplay between iron status and pulmonary vascular tone in healthy Andean individuals remains intact, this could provide valuable clinical insight into the role of iron regulation at high altitude. Research Question: Is the pulmonary vasculature in healthy Andean individuals responsive to iron infusion? Study Design and Methods: In a double-blinded, block-randomized design, 24 healthy high-altitude Andean individuals and 22 partially acclimatized lowlanders at 4,300 m (Cerro de Pasco, Peru) received an IV infusion of either 200 mg of iron (III)-hydroxide sucrose or saline. Markers of iron status were collected at baseline and 4 h after infusion. Echocardiography was performed in participants during room air breathing (partial pressure of inspired oxygen [PIO2] of approximately 96 mm Hg) and during exaggerated hypoxia (PIO2 of approximately 73 mm Hg) at baseline and at 2 and 4 h after the infusion. Results: Iron infusion reduced pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) by approximately 2.5 mm Hg in room air (main effect, P < .001) and by approximately 7 mm Hg during exaggerated hypoxia (main effect, P < .001) in both lowlanders and healthy Andean highlanders. There was no change in PASP after the infusion of saline. Iron metrics were comparable between groups, except for serum ferritin, which was 1.8-fold higher at baseline in the Andean individuals than in the lowlanders (95% CI, 74-121 ng/mL vs 37-70 ng/mL, respectively; P = .003). Interpretation: The pulmonary vasculature of healthy Andean individuals and lowlanders remains sensitive to iron infusion, and this response seems to differ from the pathologic characteristics of CMS.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Yi-Wen Chen; Andrew H. Ramsook; Harvey O. Coxson; Jessica Bon; W. Darlene Reid;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC

    Background Osteoporosis is prevalent in individuals with COPD. Updated evidence is required to complement the previous systematic review on this topic to provide best practice. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantitatively synthesize data from studies with respect to the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis among individuals with COPD. Methods EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases were searched for articles containing the key words “COPD,” “osteoporosis,” “prevalence,” and “risk factor.” Eligibility screening, data extraction, and quality assessment of the retrieved articles were conducted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were performed to determine osteoporosis prevalence and risk factors in individuals with COPD. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. Results The pooled global prevalence from 58 studies was 38% (95% CI, 34-43). The presence of COPD increased the likelihood of having osteoporosis (OR, 2.83). Other significant risk factors for osteoporosis in COPD patients were BMI Conclusions Osteoporosis is prevalent in individuals with COPD, and the prevalence seems to be high and similar in many countries. Patients with COPD should be screened for osteoporosis and contributing risk factors.

  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Dawn M. E. Bowdish;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC , CIHR

    The prevalence of lung conditions, such as COPD and pulmonary fibrosis, and lung infections, such as pneumonia, increases sharply with age. The physiologic, cellular, and immunologic changes that occur during aging contribute to the development of lung disease. Studies of age-related changes in physiology and function are not only key to preventing or ameliorating disease, they are also essential for understanding healthy aging. Individuals with good lung function live longer, healthier lives, although the mechanisms by which this scenario occurs are not understood. The present article reviews changes in the aging lung that facilitate development of disease and the evidence supporting the idea that robust lung function reduces the risk of developing chronic inflammatory conditions that occur with age.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mohit Bhutani; Paul Hernandez; Jean Bourbeau; Gail Dechman; Erika Penz; Raymond Aceron; Marla K. Beauchamp; Joshua Wald; Michael K. Stickland; Sharla-Rae Olsen; +1 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NSERC
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