Although nearly 3,000 e-cigarette-related hospitalizations have been reported in North America, the long-term outcomes in these patients have not been described. We followed an 18-year-old boy who survived acute critical illness and respiratory failure related to 5 months of e-cigarette use. Chronic irreversible airflow obstruction and markedly abnormal 129Xe MRI ventilation heterogeneity was observed and persisted 8 months after hospital discharge, despite improvement in quality-of-life and chest CT findings. Lung clearance index and oscillometry measures were also highly abnormal at 8 months postdischarge. Although 129Xe MRI ventilation abnormalities were dominant in the lung apices and central lung regions, the pattern of ventilation defects was dissimilar to ventilation heterogeneity observed in patients with obstructive lung disease, such as asthma and COPD. Our findings underscore the long-term functional impacts of e-cigarette-related lung injury in survivors of critical illness; longitudinal evaluations may shed light on the pathophysiologic mechanisms that drive e-cigarette-related lung disease.
Background Osteoporosis is prevalent in individuals with COPD. Updated evidence is required to complement the previous systematic review on this topic to provide best practice. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantitatively synthesize data from studies with respect to the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis among individuals with COPD. Methods EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases were searched for articles containing the key words “COPD,” “osteoporosis,” “prevalence,” and “risk factor.” Eligibility screening, data extraction, and quality assessment of the retrieved articles were conducted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were performed to determine osteoporosis prevalence and risk factors in individuals with COPD. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. Results The pooled global prevalence from 58 studies was 38% (95% CI, 34-43). The presence of COPD increased the likelihood of having osteoporosis (OR, 2.83). Other significant risk factors for osteoporosis in COPD patients were BMI Conclusions Osteoporosis is prevalent in individuals with COPD, and the prevalence seems to be high and similar in many countries. Patients with COPD should be screened for osteoporosis and contributing risk factors.
The prevalence of lung conditions, such as COPD and pulmonary fibrosis, and lung infections, such as pneumonia, increases sharply with age. The physiologic, cellular, and immunologic changes that occur during aging contribute to the development of lung disease. Studies of age-related changes in physiology and function are not only key to preventing or ameliorating disease, they are also essential for understanding healthy aging. Individuals with good lung function live longer, healthier lives, although the mechanisms by which this scenario occurs are not understood. The present article reviews changes in the aging lung that facilitate development of disease and the evidence supporting the idea that robust lung function reduces the risk of developing chronic inflammatory conditions that occur with age.